Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S
Tamara Al-Qaryouti, Al-Ahliyya Amman University
Hani Jazaa’ Irtima, University of Islamic Sciences
Human Resources Development Strategies Re-Framing, Competitive Intelligence, Visionary Leadership, Al - Hourani Group, Jordan.
This research intended to explain the idea of the human resources development strategies re-framing and its measurements represented in the preparation strategy, strengthening strategy, information strategy, and a millennium employment generation strategy (Y) and its effect on the competitive intelligence at Al-Hourani Group. This is finished with the presence of the visionary leadership as an interceding variable according to the perspective of directors in senior and center administration levels. The example of this examination contained (130) directors in the senior and center administration levels. This examination embraced the enlightening analytical technique to accomplish its desired goals and utilized a questionnaire planned by the researcher as an instrument to gather the essential information. The examination also relied on the comprehensive study technique for all directors at the upper and center administration levels in the organizations partnered with Al - Hourani Group. One hundred and eighteen (118) valid questionnaires were retrieved for analysis, which comprises (90.8%) of the total conveyed questionnaires. After analyzing information and testing the hypotheses by utilizing the (AMOS) program, the results showed a statistically huge effect for the human resources development strategies re-framing represented in its measurements (preparing strategy, strengthening strategy, information strategy, and the millennial generation (Y) employment strategy) with the presence of the visionary leadership as an intervening variable
Markets are characterized by a high degree of complexity and change considering uncertainties, as many challenges cast their shadows on organizations (Obeidat et al., 2018). Perhaps the most prominent of these severe competitive challenges between organizations is the difficulty of adapting to the changes witnessed in the global and local business environments. As a result, it is imperative for organizations to recognize and analyze the competitive dimensions in the markets in which they operate after its continuation and survival became dependent on its administrative capabilities to employ and exploit its available resources, whether material or human, in the most efficient and effective possible way (Hussain, Ajmal, Khan & Saber, 2015). When considering the reality and aspirations of organizations to improve their competitive position in an environment marked by changes and complexities, then they have to adopt methods and tools that enable them to collect detailed and accurate information through a group of sources that allow this information to be used for the purpose of effective analysis and then formulate their appropriate competitive strategies to address the moves made by competitors in markets (Donate & de Pablo, 2015). From this point, competitive intelligence is one of the most important methods and tools based on a scientific approach that helps to be familiarized with data and information disseminated by competitors or to obtain data from other sources to analyze and process them to become useful information that can be saved and referred to at the lowest costs and the fastest possible speed to generate knowledge through it (Meihami & Meihami, 2014).
Information and knowledge enable organizations to use them in making appropriate decisions, as competitive intelligence is a system that contributes to the integration of knowledge through every human element in the organization. Its importance also extends to include wide areas in business fields. Since competitive intelligence includes several sub-systems as an academic field that scholar’s study consistently, it comprises business intelligence which is related to markets and technological intelligence that specializes in processes and techniques of producing and service providing (Ismail, 2017).
The human element is one of the most important assets in the organization. Modern organizations invest in it as a resource and an asset due to its important role it plays in organizations, especially those who enjoy unique and rare qualifications. Investing in the human element usually takes place through framing strategies pertaining to the development of this resource and the improvement of its proficiency through framing several strategies. The most important of these strategies is the training strategy that seeks to provide it with the necessary skills and experiences that motivate his/her creativity, innovation and develop its intellectual capabilities. Then framing the empowerment strategy that aims to raise the level of individuals, distribute leadership roles among them and strengthen self-governance systems in organizations along with identifying authorities. Finally, and because of the foregoing, the organizations frame their own knowledge strategies which call for benefiting from the accumulated experiences of employees, discovering their knowledge, and implementing and sharing it (Lunn, 2016). These strategies face many variables that can affect and be affected by the leadership and vision of organization. Accordingly, the organizations now focus on the visionary leadership which endows organizations with anticipation and prediction for the future. Organizations also concentrate on framing preparatory and motivational strategies in a way that contributes to enhancing their competitive advantage and renewing them. This renewal lies in the human resources development strategies re-framing to keep pace with the prevailing conditions and widespread technologies, considering the modern millennial generation, in order to achieve the desired goals successfully (Serfontein, 2010). The employment of the millennium generation (Y) which is one of the most prominent generations that organizations seek to select within their development strategies due to the technological skills they master and unique and varied qualities that they have which enhance the organizations’ ability to generate added value. This generation is also considered as a strategic opportunity for organizations with a proactive face (Kicheva, 2017).
The intense competitiveness in the business sector and the changing and dynamic environment have made it necessity for organizations to constantly seek improving their strategic activities and focusing on competitive advantage by adopting the concept of competitive intelligence and the many benefits it provides. Given the economic conditions that the Middle East countries are going through in general and the Jordanian business environment in particular, the likelihood of Al- Hourani Group becomes exposed to threats has increased which may lead to a decline in profits level and an increase in investment losses as the Group has investments inside and outside Jordan. The problem of the current study lies in competitive intelligence and the extent of the impact of the human resources development strategies re-framing on it and the extent of the visionary leadership ability to explain the impact of the human resources development strategies re-drafting on competitive intelligence in Al - Hourani Group.
Based on the above, it became necessary for Al-Hourani Group to frame preparatory strategies for its human resources that specifically enabling them to deal with a dynamic environment full of competition and uncertainties. This raises the Group’s ability to deal rapidly and proactively with these changing markets to avoid any loss of its resources and capabilities that may stem from these rapid changes.
Human Resources Development Strategies Re-Framing
Excellence in organizations is considered one of their most prominent strategic goals that they aspire to. Excellence depends primarily on the working teams and their human resources, which must be a measure of their participation in implementing the future vision i.e., to provide an environment that ensures direct ties between employees and to put the vision of the organization and its strategies into effect (Alderson, 1993; Shrouf et al., 2020). Accordingly, the successful strategy must include a range of areas and basic qualities for those who carry them out, including openness, perseverance, communication skills and a unified vision. If these qualities are available; they lead organizations to the desired strategic success (Mann, 1990). Then, the strategies of organizations represented in human resources strategies, development strategies, competitive strategies and others are now needed to evaluate the challenges they may encounter and rededicate them to achieve their set goals. Specifying investment in strategy makes a big difference in the near future for any organization within the changing environment where it operates. This requires the organization to shed light on developing its resources which are necessary to achieve its ambitious goals and to strengthen some of its capabilities to ensure continuity of its implementation and to achieve success (Glotzbach, 2010). As a result of the status quo, there is an urgent need for organizations to respond quickly and effectively to the radical changes brought about by the complex and highly competitive business environment. Pressures, challenges, and changes facing many organizations have pushed them to reinforce the view that the strategic and administrative role and the performance of managers is now crucial in framing and carrying out the response of organizations to re-framing their strategies (Yang, 2012; Al-Qudah et al., 2020).
The re-framing strategy comes as a result of the organizations review of the compatibility extent of attitudes, behaviors, knowledge and capabilities of their current human resources and management with their requirements in terms of business goals and strategies to maintain and improve organizational effectiveness (Bailey & Clarke, 2008). Thus, a new agenda for organizational demands and expectations arises, which can be implemented through proactive programs that have tangible strategic implications for human resources and middle departments, which require them to change their attitudes towards the strategy and require them also to acquire new skills and knowledge (Luoma, 2006). Some consider the human resources development strategy re-framing as a reflexive process through which alternative strategic models and the viewpoints of leaders are developed as values and policies that contribute to highlighting some strategic aspects and marginalizing others. This process provides alternative descriptions, explanations, and terms that can be taken into consideration to open successful paths for employees through experimentation and implementation (Janssens & Steyaert, 2009). The strategy re-framing is also considered as a component of strategic engineering in the twenty-first century. This indicates the ability of the organization to completely override competition by fully redefining its role in the competitive environment which allows it to reconsider its crucial success factors represented in all its resources in general and its human resources in particular. This is represented by adopting the concept of atypical lateral thinking, which is generalized by the leader to come up with appropriate solutions to the challenges or changes facing the implementation of the strategy (Kiernan, 1993). The strategy re-framing allows leaders of organizations and strategists to bypass the existing competition by re-evaluating some of the sub-strategies emanating from the main strategies drawn in advance. This obliges leaders and strategists to frame a completely new and uniquely equipped strategy for utilizing resources for control and organizational success in an ideal way. The competitive participation is redefined strongly and intelligently by the vision and the situational management that a strategic leader enjoys achieving the desired excellence (Serfontein, 2010). Therefore, the strategy re-framing process is likely to become one of the most prominent and important management issues in the coming decades. This comes because of the increase of global competition pace considering globalization, which made the world a fertile environment for continuous improvement and due to the technology advancement and the rapid technology transformation to become one of the important resources through which organizations seek to achieve their various strategic goals. This will induce strategic leaders to look increasingly beyond traditional standards and to use the strategy re-framing as a means of focusing on lateral thinking to generate new business ideas capable of solving the problems that organizations may have faced in the past while carrying out their work and finding entirely new opportunities as new economic solutions based on their human resources (Dostal, Cloete & Jaros, 2004; Rogo, Cricelli & Grimaldi, 2014).
The strategy re-framing is defined as a process by which special new frameworks are set in organizations for posed questions and their approved solutions, which are related to the implementation of the current strategy. The task of raising these questions is leaders' responsibility, which must include several points that benefit in finding some of available opportunities. The researcher believes that the strategy re-framing is an available opportunity for organizations to increase their strategic focus on all their practices in general and their practices towards their human resources in particular. This process contributes to reviewing the adoption of new practices as activities that must be applied and implemented in high performance organizations (Bolman & Deal, 2017). This strategy can be defined as an innovative planning framework that allows the allocation of human resources in any organization by defining the key responsibilities and roles of individuals in addition to basic competencies as processes that assist managers to achieve the purposeful development of the manpower workforce (Nguyen, Guevara, Barnett & Thorpe, 2017). Others define the strategy re-framing as a development of a multi-level building which is considered as a system that consists of some general elements represented in the principles of human resources and manpower, and which provide general guidance for managing human capital in addition to some other elements represented in human resources policies and programs (Lengnick-Hall, Beck & Lengnick-Hall, 2011). Many researchers point out that the human resources development strategy often consists of several main dimensions and elements, most notably training, development and empowerment as sub-strategies related to the performance of organizations (Guest, 1997).
Others believe that the dimensions of the human resource development strategy are represented in each of the following sub-strategies (Garavan & McGuire, 2010):
The training strategy is defined as all activities that aim to design practices and policies related to training human resources and carrying them out in harmony with achieving the strategic goals of organizations to obtain distinct and superior human capital that contributes to developing the reality of organizations (Daoud Ali, 2017). This strategy can also be defined as a group of methods, principles and rules that are related to human resources training and emanate from the main strategic plan in the organization (Al-Awawdeh, 2011). Furthermore, the training strategy can be defined as a process that looks forward to the future through taking long-term strategic decisions that affect the development of human resources performance in organizations and increase their productivity and abilities to achieve future goals through best practices (Huynh, 2016). Training is one of the main issues in organizations of all kinds, where its importance is manifested by being influenced by the reflections of changing performance standards in these organizations. Therefore, the concept of training has gained the attention of researchers and specialists in the field of contemporary management. The main goal of training is to convey information to the recipients (trainees) and strive to build their skills through specific means and methods that are identified in the special training strategy of organization (Al-Qarala, 2018). The human resources training strategy is considered to increase the proficiency of employees carried out by organizations according to the dynamic developments in all areas of work (Richard, Devinney, Yip & Johnson, 2009).
This strategy contributes to linking the human resource’s function which the strategic goals of organizations to raise their productivity despite the existence of other challenges that stand in the way of implementing training, which cannot be measured in some cases. However, the training strategy is evaluated by considering the reactions of trainees, their impact on a workplace, the operational and financial results as well as its ability to make changes (Cheng & Lunn, 2016). Therefore, a successful training strategy motivates employees to remain loyal to the organization and generates a cohesive workforce. It can be said that training and development are of great significance to employee retention strategies as this strategy contributes to creating training options that are compatible in their content with the responsibilities of the functions and the tasks of employees. It is also an opportunity to expand the employees’ roles and to boost their feeling as they are part of the organization which in turn will lead them to build positive working relations with their leaders and enable them to participate in decision-making (Heathfield, 2008).
Empowerment is one of the modern concepts in human resources management, which implies cooperative and participatory practices within organizations, as it is considered an instrument of stereotyping the past and anticipating the future (Armstrong, 2006). Empowerment can be considered as a management philosophy that believes in enriching employees' work and granting them the freedom to exercise control and be responsible for the results of their exerted efforts towards their work. The concept of empowerment which became an increasingly popular term in the past few years has led to its acceptance as a practice and strategy for human resources, where it first appeared in the era of the nineties of the last century. Empowerment is currently considered as one of the most effective administrative roles which are significantly used within the organizational structures of organizations (Kanani & Shafiei, 2016). Empowerment is also considered one of the important elements of human resources management and development, where empowering human resources as a new approach, contributes to increasing the internal motivations of employees. That is, unleashing the employees’ internal potential powers and creating opportunities for their talents, abilities and competencies in a way that serves the organization and its goals (Honold, 1997; Abualoush et al., 2018). According to the modern perspective of human resources management, which considers human elements as the most important and valuable resource in the organization, empowerment comes as a basic option that is taken by leaders to recruit employees in the most leading and competitive organizations in the world (Gortani, 2009). The enabled workforce creates organizations with high capacities, as the organization that enjoys the authority is an environment that enables employees in different work teams to carry out their activities while working together through distributing the administration and its powers to them (Sheikhesmaeili & Hasani, 2016). Empowerment is also one of the factors that aim to achieve the effectiveness of human capital in organizations, in addition to being an effective tool used by the administration in its organizational performance and its internal governance. This is due to its great role in creating conditions that help employees in conducting their tasks with their personal motivation, so that they can successfully reach the goals and provide innovative and quality products (Maktabi, Hanifi & Feizabadi, 2014). Empowerment also contributes as a motivational method used by organizations for the purpose of expanding and enriching jobs through job rotation (Gumbe & Chaneta, 2013). Job empowerment as a strategy that organizations can pursue, contributes to enhancing internal communication and establishing internal governance mechanisms through meaningful interaction that aims to generate motivation for intangible resources that increase loyalty and commitment on the part of employees. All the above is considered an important basis for the renewed competitive advantage of organizations due to what stems from their behavioral and social interactions that occur in their relations and increase confidence, which enhances the existence of a strategic environment for human resources (Mazzei, 2014). Hence, the researcher believes that systematically adopting the empowerment strategy helps organizations in enhancing their proactive and competitive capabilities through the interaction of employees with the vision and overall goals of the organization which seeks to achieve them.
The current dynamic, turbulent, and complex business environment casts its shadow on organizations that are looking for accurate information and detailed knowledge about internal and external environments to make strategic, operational, and tactical decisions. This came because of organizations transformation from the industrial era to the knowledge economy. Transforming is a hallmark of the twenty-first century, which is called the century of knowledge or the knowledge era (Shujahat, Hussain, Javed, Malik, Thurasamy & Ali, 2017). Knowledge strategy is also considered as a construct of a new significance that reflects integration between knowledge management and strategic management as it aims to create new value by considering knowledge as a strategic resource in making decisions to achieve a renewable competitive advantage (Olisani & Bratianu, 2017; Obeidat, 2019). Knowledge contributes to developing organizations capacity and improving their work and performance in an increasingly turbulent and dynamic environment that is dominated by uncertainties (Edvinsson, 2002). Hence, the knowledge strategy must be viewed implicitly as reflecting the organizations’ need for models of new business and new organizations (Lopolito, Prosperi, Sisto & De Meo, 2015). Accordingly, the relation between strategy and knowledge emerged as interrelated concepts in the last decades as many studies confirmed the idea that knowledge must be clearly viewed as an important and vital strategic resource for proactive competitive capabilities (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1996); (Bolisani & Bratianu, 2017). Thus, knowledge strategy became one of the comprehensive strategy components of organizations that operate in an increasingly turbulent environment with the prevalence of uncertainty about future events that they may go through (Chen, Fabozzi & Huang, 2013; Lopolito, Prosperi, Sisto & De Meo, 2015; Saffar & Obeidat, 2020). Then, an urgent desire of organizations was generated to manage their knowledge through a special strategy that constitutes a major resource in them and falls within their need for new concepts. This strategy helps in understanding the surrounding environment and the organizations’ need for new innovative business models to become a modern organization capable of facing various environmental challenges and dynamics (Edvinsson, 2002); (Bolisani & Handzic, 2015). Necessity is also manifested for a knowledge strategy, which is considered a strategic means to achieve success in framimg long-term plans which aims to fully develop and exploit the knowledge assets of organizations possible (Dayan, Heisig & Matos, 2017). The knowledge strategy should extend to cover a range beyond its typical objectives of exploiting physical and financial assets, internal and external operations, and targeting markets and individuals (Choo & Bontis, 2002).
Millennium Generation Employment Strategy (Y)
With the entry of the new millennium and the emergence of its generation, also known as the millennium generation (Y), which is considered to be born in 1980-2000 AD, organizations are facing an enormous demographic shift. The millennium generation which constitutes 50% of the workforce in the world is considered one of the most desirable generations in organizations due to the great technological intelligence, high flexibility, work ethics, dynamism that this generation members enjoy along with their ability to work as teams which enable organizations to communicate with the young customers and consumers who became targeted by them (Sujansky & Ferri-Reed, 2009). Therefore, this generation will inevitably become part of the work forces in organizations of all kinds and fields. It is imperative for these organizations to understand the requirements and needs of this generation and to integrate it effectively with the currently working human resources in order to gain experience, more skills and knowledge in addition to benefiting greatly from experiences accumulated by old colleagues (Myers & Sadaghiani, 2010). This generation also enjoys acceptance of others, whether differences in race, color, religion, or language, which is due to the digital technology that they practiced previously during the past years (Kicheva, 2017). Therefore, it can be expected that this generation can adapt to organizations and their organizational culture ideally in addition to its acceptance of any changes that occur to these organizations due to the external and internal environment in a dynamic and turbulent era (Gravett & Throckmorton, 2007). Also, this generation will be able to serve its peers from the masses and those with similar thinking.
Millennials are defined linguistically according to the (Oxford, 2005) dictionary as all those born in a specific period and collectively live during a specific period. Millennials are also defined as a group of individuals who were born during the years 1980-2000 and who are called the newly born generation or the Internet generation. This generation constitutes a large group compared to previous generations based on its good education, interest in technology and greater self-confidence. They are the next generation of the first generation, born in 1964-1980 AD (Helyer & Lee, 2007). Millennium Generation (Y) has many characteristics that distinguish it from previous generations in terms of its independence, ability to deal with technology and flexibility (Hoole & Bonnema, 2015). It is the generation that was able to access mobile phones, tablets, and computers from a young age, in addition to its skills in using the Internet, which allowed it to visit practically everything that exists in the world (Tolbize, 2008). Millennium Generation is viewed as a strategic resource for organizations because of its loyalty, sincerity, realism at work, optimism, and great self-confidence (Tubey, Kurgat & Rotich, 2015). The recruitment of human capital from the millennium generation in organizations contributes to implementing their future vision, which in turn helps to find new positions and special jobs in their organizational structures. It is necessary to draw attention to the fact that this generation can be multi-tasks due to the characteristics of its members, in addition to the fact that empowering this generation and granting it the powers contributes to improving work relations with colleagues and managers alike (Bartley, Ladd & Morris, 2007).
Some challenges arise among organizations in implementing the strategy of employing millennium generation within their cadres, as members of this generation are considered to have a fast movement towards the better and tend to constantly change their work if they feel bored and if they stay in their job titles for long periods of time. This generation is characterized by creativity, belonging and loyalty to the surrounding environment, not to managers and employers, unlike previous generations who are addicted to work and loyal to its managers or owners (Kicheva, 2017). Working hours are one of the main challenges facing organizations to implement the strategy of millennium generation employment, as previous generations used to work for a period ranging between 50-70 hours per week to accomplish their tasks. Contrary to the viewpoint of previous generations, this generation has a different point of view as its members constantly strive to balance work and personal life which will force organizations to rethink their expectations and perceptions when employing this generation among their cadres. For Generation Y, the balance between their personal lives and work is far more important than salary (Sujansky & Ferri-Reed, 2009). According to each of the researchers (Dorsey, Gomez, Thiele & Nelson, 2010), the millennium generation (Y) is looking for some special priorities for its work in organizations, most notably the lifestyle, personality, and nature of work in addition to its interest in the culture of the organization and its interactions with society and the relations with direct and potential supervisors.
There are many definitions and opinions about the concept of competitive intelligence from a strategic perspective in the literature that I have dealt with previously, where most definitions tended to describe it as a process. Competitive intelligence is defined as a process that aims to collect process and publish information to achieve special goals that seek to reduce uncertainties in strategic decision-making in organizations (Zeng, Xu, Shi, Wang & Wu, 2006). Competitive intelligence is also defined as an organized process carried out by organizations for the purpose of gathering information about competitors and the competitive environment. It refers also to the intelligence that organizations carry out in planning and decision-making processes with the aim of improving their performance (Brody, 2008). However, (Johnson, 2005) defined competitive intelligence as a process by which competitors are monitored in specific markets and work environments or anywhere else. Meanwhile, the Association of Strategic & Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP) viewed it as an organized and ethical process characterized by a sequence that seeks to collect, analyze, and manage information from outside the organization that may affect its plans, decisions, and activities (Nikolaos & Evangelia, 2012). Competitive intelligence is also considered as obtaining prior knowledge of what other competitors are planning and working on framing a special business strategy to confront them. This can be achieved by adopting different methods that depend on collecting tactical information, analyzing, and distributing it in addition to relying on this information and taking it into consideration in making strategic decisions and business models (Rothberg & Erickson, 2005).
This concept can be viewed as a formal program for collecting information about competitors and taking caution about what they may do through appropriate competitive strategies (Wheelen & Hunger, 2011). As for others, they refer to competitive intelligence as an activity of strategic management in organizations which aims to enable decision-makers to proactively approach markets and predict the movements of competitors while identifying and evaluating opportunities and threats in the competitive business environment. This is in addition to the essential role that this activity plays in reducing the offensive or defensive actions of competitors in a more appropriate way to the organization strategies drawn in advance (Franco, Magrinho & Ramos Silva, 2011). The importance of competitive intelligence stems from viewing it as a concept that assists organizations through conveying important information to their senior management, which in turn supports them in making strategic decisions and by focusing on their capabilities of understanding and measuring their external competitive environment (Stefanikova & Masarova, 2014). Therefore, the importance of competitive intelligence is reflected by considering it as an effective instrument that contributes to generating the competitive advantage of organizations and providing guidance that helps to set predictions for decision-makers which contributes to strategies re-framing through an accurate understanding of the organization and its activities and industry along with its great role in exploiting the weaknesses of competitors. Competitive intelligence is also considered a solid foundation that can be relied upon in analyzing the strategic business of organizations in addition to its remarkable role in the process of identifying risks and creating opportunities for strategic exploitation. Moreover, the importance of competitive intelligence can be demonstrated by considering it as a scientific method and approach that supports continuous improvement in high-performing organizations that seek to generate a proactive and sustainable competitive advantage (Tej, Adidam, Banerjee & Shukla, 2012). Competitive intelligence also contributes to enhancing and improving strategic planning processes in an integrated manner. Furthermore, its importance is manifested in developing sound strategic plans that achieve the organizational success and excellence in a way that is more in line with the competitive conditions surrounding the organization. It also increases the high endurance capabilities for enduring external pressure (Nasri, 2012). Meanwhile, Bose (2008) determines the importance of competitive intelligence based on the assistance it provides to organizations in the selection processes and the extent of the validity of assumptions about the competitive environment in which organizations operate in addition to its great ability to bridge the gaps between the unsuccessful processes that the organization carried out. Thus, bridging the gabs brings the organization’s success later. From a strategic point of view, the importance of competitive intelligence is also referred to as the firm basis on which strategic decisions in organizations are based and taken by strategic managers and leaders, as it focuses on maximizing the value of the special capabilities of organizations that distinguish them from their competitors (Nenzhelele & Pellissier, 2013). Meanwhile, Magesa (2014) stresses that the importance of strategic competitive intelligence falls in that it is an important part of strategic management in organizations due to its great role in generating and possessing the competitive advantage and enhancing it to outperform competitors in the environment or sector in which the organization operates.
As for the benefits of applying competitive intelligence in organizations, they are represented in achieving the goals of organizations by reducing the severity of risks and managing them, ensuring profitability and proactivity from the available knowledge gained through its applications and models (Priporas, 2005). Furthermore, competitive intelligence can reduce redundant information that is of no value to organizations as much as possible and focuses only on important information. Moreover, it ensures information security and privacy and the proper use of information strategically (Bartes, 2015). Meanwhile, Sewlal (2004) believes that competitive intelligence provides organizations with valuable benefits represented in providing assistance to executives in the process of evaluating competitors, the surrounding environment, markets, suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders; thus, contributing to translating their capabilities which reduces the competitive surprises. Competitive intelligence is also considered a good tool for executives and strategists to predict changes in business relations and to contribute to identifying strong opportunities that organizations can exploit. Meanwhile, Muller (2007) also illustrates the benefits of competitive intelligence as being a reliable tool in organizational education, which in turn enables the organization to achieve success and to avoid failure by considering what competitors have done and to benefit from it. Also, competitive intelligence improves the proactive readiness of organizations that can be relied upon in making decisions and enhances their capabilities to respond appropriately in an early, proactive, and effective way to any emergency events or available opportunities that can be used in a changing and dynamic environment. As for Taib, Yatin, Ahmad & Mansor (2008), they assert that competitive intelligence improves the information quality and increases its effectiveness in addition to improving the information dissemination process which results from the processes of analyzing the collected data. In addition to the above, Murphy (2016) points out that the great benefit of competitive intelligence is that it improves the understanding of the special indications, which are viewed as an early and proactive warning to organizations about what other competitors are doing. It also helps organizations in framing process of various strategies by improving a better understanding of both competitors and the environment where the organization operates, and to indicate the weaknesses of these competitors.
Visionary leadership comprises of two fundamental segments, in particular comprehension and feeling. The intellectual segment centers around considering and focusing on the results and the system of accomplishing them. Its effect lies in directing the data and utilizing it, which thus reflects on the interaction of coordinated learning. Concerning the emotional part, it is directly related to personal values and conviction frameworks prevailing in human resources. Therefore, the emotional segment is considered the reason for the system of organizational responsibility and application in associations (Kikpatrick, 2004). Visionary leadership can be referred to as a leadership style that can embed and pass on a valid, genuine, and eager vision for the future of the association, as it accentuates the need to zero in on future development and making consistent upgrades to the current conditions (Dhammika, 2016). This vision, whenever sought after and applied appropriately, will prompt the renewal of the resources of associations. It also establishes a remarkable jump toward the future and makes an interpretation of the vision into reality through honing and propelling fortitude, strengthening capacities and capabilities, and giving the viable prospects to accomplish the desired results. Appropriately, the visionary leadership is firmly related to the standpoint, which commensurates with the circumstance and conditions that lead to organizational greatness where the association chiefs and representatives should be completely persuaded of its feasibility (Al-Attiyah & Obeidat, 2020; Al-Thani, 2003). Conger (1991) calls attention to that visionary leadership is depicted metaphorically as a treatment for some illnesses that influence associations, especially in the changing and dynamic business climate these days, however tragically, visionary pioneers' reasoning is not effortlessly received in associations. It is hard to do it except if they are upheld and embraced by the leaders of the associations' proprietors or their sheets of directors. Authoritative pioneers are referred to as the pioneers who infer their power over representatives through their situations in associations, which enable them to lead the association in senior administration. Visionary pioneers infer their situations through their experience and astuteness in changing the bend of associations to dominate if their positions are in the senior administration. As needs be, visionary leadership may not be suitable altogether associations as its reality is hazardous and it requires the capacity to impact the thoughts and activities of individuals, which means granting power and limiting it to one person. These risks are represented in how to balance power and special capabilities to achieve immediate and rapid results in addition to the fact that the presence of visionary leaders further undermines the development of administrative leaders who are constantly concerned about the relative turmoil that visionary leaders tend to have (Serfontein, 2010). Visionary leadership is also defined as the leadership that takes into consideration a view beyond the reality and the present in the organization and seeks to chart a new, ambitious, and future vision through which ideas for a bright future can be generated (Daft & Noi, 2001). As for Manning (2012), he defines it as focusing on goals or the vision clearly to reach a better future.
Visionary leadership can be referred to by viewing the vision as an integral part of the leader’s terms. Therefore, the vision represents a goal and an image of a realistic and reliable future better than the present by looking at the past of the organization and the energies it consumes, which in turn impede the achievement of the desired results. Visionary leadership can be described as a positive outlook or hope for the future of organizations (Conger, 1991). Meanwhile, Nwokedi (2015) believes that visionary leadership is a mental method for a desired future state of a person, group, or an organization. Therefore, a visionary leader must have a cognitive image of the future which is positive enough for the members of his/her organization. So that it can be inspiring, motivating, and detailed enough to provide guidance for planning and defining the future goals of his/her organization.
The visionary leadership is based on several principles that motivate employees to adopt them to achieve tangible results of the future vision on the ground. This requires that the vision of leaders in organizations to be clear and implementable and urges employees to work and commit seriously and persistently to make this vision a reality (Taylor, Cornelius & Colvin, 2014). Therefore, according to Taylor, Cornelius & Colvin (2014); Kowalski (2010); Guskey (2003); Nikezic, Mikovik & Prodanovic (2014), visionary leadership is based on five main principles which are: challenging the existing processes, showing enthusiasm, helping in bringing about fundamental changes, a leader is a role model for the employees and maximizing achievements.
The vision of the organization provides a great focus on its central and main objective in a way that fully aligns with its human resources and potential energies rather than being fragmented. From here, the visionary leader seeks to increase focus and attention to human resources from an emotional aspect and to consider their values, which generate their commitment rather than compliance (Serfontein, 2010). Hitt & Irland (2001) also points out that visionary leaders should derive guidance for organization members from the past (trends, history, experiences), the present represented in confronting the real issues of the organization and the future represented in the environmental trends that affect the organization. It is also necessary that the visionary leader be guided by individuals in the organization and clients outside it and all multiple visions in addition to be able to distinguish important information. Therefore, the leader may choose, synthesize, and clarify the skills that must be framed in an appropriate vision by combining reason and intuition and expressing the desires of all stakeholders, including the personal and individual visions of employees.
Literature Review and Research Hypotheses
The relation between human resources development strategies re-framing, competitive intelligence and visionary leadership is clear in the essential job of human resources as human capital in making progress and greatness for associations inside the vision of their chiefs and their essential intends to reach the competitive intelligence and to produce the renewable competitive benefit. The requirement for settling on proactive choices in a changing climate and in instances of environmental vulnerability incited associations to utilize competitive intelligence models represented in early notice frameworks and environmental detecting, whether commercial or technological, and its most conspicuous applications. In like manner, associations should increase their insight viewpoints in reframing their human resources strategies and the organizational creativity also (Al-Awlaki, 2018). Al-Taan (2013) affirms that legitimate vital making arrangements for human resources adds to making organizational progress and greatness in associations. This is affirmed by the investigation of (Jawad & Fouta, 2004), which zeroed in on the reality of human resources arranging and its relation to key arranging in associations, which showed great similarity among them. In the interim, the investigation of (Abu Dawlah & Obaidat, 2007) zeroed in on showing the reality of the general strategy of the association and strategies of human resources in making its future progress. Associations should consider their human resources as a resource through framing special strategies represented in preparing, strengthening, information and the thousand years generation employment to have the option to adapt to the requirements of achievement and its critical variables in their business climate. The investigation of (Rodriguez, 2017) inferred that giving suitable preparing and development adds to assisting associations with accomplishing their goals. In view of the above mentioned, the investigation of (Milhem, Abushamsieh & Arostegui, 2014) zeroed in on showing the theories and sorts of preparing strategies and the preparation techniques, which increase their selection as a competitive benefit.
The empowerment strategy and its re-framing rank an important position in the work of organizations. The studies of (Hanaysha, 2015; Jadi & Obeida, 2013 & Bedir & Faris, 2015) confirmed that empowerment contributes to achieving competitive proactiveness and increases creativity behaviors among employees and has positive effects on their productivity which indicates achieving the desired organizational excellence and the optimal utilization of resources. The study of (Meihami & Meiham Luu, 2013) confirms that knowledge is an important way for obtaining the competitive advantage in organizations due to the enhancing innovation of their knowledge processes. Similarly, this was also confirmed in the (Luu, 2013) study whose results indicated that knowledge sharing has a significant impact on enhancing competitive intelligence in organizations in a way that guarantees them an important position in the markets where they operate. Meanwhile, the study of (Irtaimeh, et al., 2013; Herschel & Jones, 2005) concluded that knowledge management and its strategies contribute to influencing the nature of business intelligence and integrating with it. One of the modern developmental strategies of human resources is the strategy of the millennium generation employment(Y), which Gorman, Nelson & Glass man (2004) referred to it as a great opportunity for organizations that can contribute to their superiority due to the variety of skills that this generation enjoys. This is what was also confirmed by the study of Jerom, Scales, Whithem & Quain (2014) which emphasized that this generation has high capacities of responding to various management and leadership styles. Furthermore, visionary leadership is the main driver of human resources towards competitive intelligence and increases their capabilities to interact with its applications. The study of Nwokedi (2015) confirms that visionary leadership in organizations is one of the challenges that today's environment has led us to. As for (Zahavi, Carmeli & Arazy, 2015), they consider visionary leadership an instrument linked to the innovative future of organizations and leading them to sustainable competitive advantage.
Hence, each one of the human resources strategies and their re-framing keep pace with the precisely remarkable developments in the dynamic and changing business environment, which necessitates that organizations seek having a proactive approach through the applications of competitive intelligence to achieve their vision and generate their own competitive advantage.
Based on the above, we hypothesize the following:
H1 The visionary leadership mediates the relation between human resources development strategies re-framing represented in its dimensions (training strategy, empowerment strategy, knowledge strategy, millennium generation employment (Y)) and competitive intelligence.
The researcher used the descriptive analytical approach to describe the phenomenon in question, represented in the human resources development strategies re-framing and its impact on competitive intelligence, with the existence of visionary leadership as a mediating variable in Al- Hourani Group. A questionnaire was designed to measure the independent variables represented by the dimensions of human resources development strategies re-framing and the dependent variable represented by the dimensions of the competitive intelligence and the mediating variable represented by the visionary leadership to find the relation between the study variables and their analysis and interpretation. This is done with the aim of achieving meaningful generalizations that increase and enrich the balance of knowledge about the topic and build interpretations of data and information to obtain the desired results. This research uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on (AMOS 20.0) program to study causal relations and test hypotheses. The data collection and analysis are based on a field study in which participants answered all items on the five-point Likert scale, which ranges from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). These items provided a valuable source for data collection and measurement as their reliability and validity were verified through previous research. The dimensions of the independent variable of human resources development strategies re-framing (training strategy, empowerment strategy, knowledge strategy, millennium generation employment (Y) strategy) were quoted from the following studies: (Lengnick-Hall, Beck & Lengnick-Hall, 2011; Wright & McMahan, 2011; Buller & McEvoy, 2012; McManus & Mosca, 2015; Garavan & McGuire, 2010). The studies of (Reinmoelle & Ansari, 2016; Du Toit, 2015) were also relied upon to determine the dependent variable, the competitive intelligence. As for determining the mediating variable, the visionary leadership, it was based on the following studies: (Rees, 2017; Dhammika, 2016; Nwokedi, 2015; Chen & Chen, 2013).
Population and Sample of the Study
The number of inhabitants in the investigation is represented by Al-Hourani Group. Concerning the analysis unit, it incorporated all directors of the senior and center administration in the Group who fall under the accompanying position titles: President of the College the Director General, the VP/the Delegate Director General, Dignitary of the Workforce, Director of the Division, the Appointee Dignitary/Agent Director of the Office, Top of the Scholastic Office/Top of the Managerial Office. The analysis unit comprised of (130) directors who were chosen dependent on the human resources the board restrictions in the Group. They were picked in a manner suitable to the kind and nature of the investigation. They were in positions to settle on choice and acquainted with the data required for the investigation. The investigation relied on the comprehensive study technique which chooses the examination test through disseminating the questionnaire to all individuals from the investigation populace. Accordingly, the examination test is equal to the investigation populace for example (130) individuals having a place with the senior and center administration in Al-Hourani Group. The researcher disseminated (130) questionnaires to the example of the examination and retrieved (123), (5) of which were non-analyzable questionnaires. Consequently, the quantity of recovered and statistically analyzed questionnaires is (118), for example a rate (90.8%) of the total circulated questionnaires, which is a statistically worthy proportion. The examination revealed that the level of males is (63%) and that most of them range between 30-40 years of age. The investigation also showed that the four-year certification comprised the most elevated rate (57%), and that a large portion of them were heads of offices, notwithstanding the way that the greater part had under 20 years of involvement.
Demographic Data Of Responses
|Age||Less than 30 years||9||7.6%|
|Less than 30-40 years||39||33.1%|
|Less than 40-50 years||48||40.7%|
|50 years and more||22||18.6%|
|Scientific qualification||Diploma or less||21||17.8%|
|Job title||President of the University
|Vice President/Deputy Director
|Faculty Dean/Director of the
|Deputy Dean/ Deputy Director||13||11%|
|Head of the Academic
Department/ Head of
|Years of Experience||Less than 15 years||48||40.7%|
|Less than 15-20 years||33||28%|
|Less than 20-25 years||22||18.6%|
|25 years and over||15||12.7%|
This part reviews the description of the study variables and the arithmetic means, and standard deviations of the items were calculated for the purpose of judging the degree of approval and determining the relative significance of each item. The general average for the human resources development strategies re-framing in terms of the relative significance was high and the general average was (4.094). The empowerment strategy dimension ranked first, with an arithmetic mean (4.110) and with a high relative significance. The dimension of millennium generation employment (Y) strategy ranked second with an arithmetic mean (4.105). The knowledge strategy dimension ranked third with an arithmetic mean (4.100) and with a high relative significance. Finally, the training strategy dimension, ranked fourth with an arithmetic mean (4.061) and a high relative significance. The general average of competitive intelligence in terms of relative significance was high as it was (4,143). The general arithmetic mean of the visionary leadership items in terms of the relative significance was high, as the arithmetic mean was (4.202).
The Arithmetic Means Of The Study Variables
|No.||Variable||Arithmetic mean||Relative importance|
|4||Millennial Generation Employment (Y) Strategy||4.105||High|
|Human resource development strategies re-drafting||4.094||High|
Way analysis upheld by (AMOS) program was utilized to test the validity of the hypothesis that visionary leadership intercedes the relation between human resources development strategies re-framing with its measurements (preparing strategy, strengthening strategy, information strategy and thousand years generation employment strategy(Y)) and competitive intelligence related to direct and indirect effect. It merits referencing that (AMOS) is a program upheld by the Statistical Bundle for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. This program was embraced in this examination to check the presence of the direct and indirect effect of the investigation factors. This hypothesis expected to characterize the interceding part of visionary leadership in the relation between the elements of human resources development strategies re-framing and competitive intelligence.
The Results were as Follows:
Results of the path analysis test to verify the direct and indirect impact of human resources development strategies re-framing on competitive intelligence with the existence of visionary leadership as a mediating variable. GFI: goodness of fit mus proximity*, CFI: comparative fit index
|Statement||Calculated Chi²||Degree of freedom DF.||Goodness of Fit GFI||Comparative Fit Index CFI||Root mean square of approximation
|Significance level Sig|
RAMSEA: Root Mean Square Error of Approximation
Results of the statistical analysis in Table (3) showed that the value of (Chi²=16.338) is of significance, as the level of significance was (Sig=0.000), which is less than 0.05. It also showed that the value of Chi² after dividing it by the degree of freedom is equal to (4.085), which is less than (5), which indicates the acceptance of the model. Also, the quality appropriateness index (GFI=0.945) is close to the integer (1) as the more the number approaches the integer (1) indicates good quality appropriateness. Likewise, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI=0.973) which also approaches the integer (1) and the Root Mean Squares error of approximation (RAMSEA=0.069) approaches significantly to (0), which supports the good fit of the model.
Direct And Indirect Impact Coefficients For The Fourth Main Hypothesis
|values of direct impact coefficients||Critical ratio C.R.||Significance level Sig.||Value of indirect impact coefficients||Significance level|
|Training strategy-Visionary leadership||0.212||2.751||0.006||0.161||0.039|
|Empowerment strategy-Visionary leadership||0.167||1.616||0.106||0.127||0.219|
|The Millennium generation(Y) employment strategy- Visionary leadership||0.105||1.406||0.160||0.080||0.267|
|Visionary leadership- Competitive intelligence||0.761||15.282||0.000|
Table (4) showed the following results: the direct impact of the training strategy on visionary leadership was (0.212), which is a significant impact; the direct, insignificant, impact of the empowerment strategy on visionary leadership was (0.167); the direct significant impact of the knowledge strategy on the visionary leadership was (0.347) and the direct, insignificant impact of the millennium generation employment (Y) strategy on visionary leadership was (0.105). On the other hand, the direct impact of visionary leadership on competitive intelligence was (0.761), which is a significant impact. This indicates that visionary leadership has a positive impact on competitive intelligence.
The results also showed the following: The indirect impact of the training strategy on competitive intelligence was (0.161), which is a significant impact; the indirect impact of the empowerment strategy on competitive intelligence was (0.127), which is an insignificant impact; the indirect impact of knowledge strategy on competitive intelligence was (0.264), which is a significant impact and the indirect impact of millennium generation employment (Y) strategy on competitive intelligence is (0.080), which is an insignificant impact. Because the direct and indirect impact of each dimension (training strategy and knowledge strategy) which is a significant impact, visionary leadership is considered a partial mediator. This confirms the existence of a positive role for visionary leadership as a mediating variable in the impact of human resources development strategies re-framing on competitive intelligence when studying the dimensions of human resources development strategies re-framing collectively. Accordingly, it can be said that there is an indirect effect of the combined human resources development strategies re-framing on competitive intelligence with the existence of visionary leadership as a mediating variable for Al- Hourani Group, as shown in (Figure 1):
Figure 1 Train: Training Strategy, Emp: Empowerment Strategy, Know: Knowledge Strategy MG (y): Millennial Generation Employment (y), Vl: Visionary Leadership Comping: Competitive Intelligence.
Results of analyzing the study instrument showed the high relative significance of human resources development strategies re-framing in Al- Hourani Group. The empowerment strategy dimension ranked first with high relative significance then the dimension of millennium generation employment (Y) strategy achieved the second place with high relative significance. As for the dimension of knowledge strategy, it ranked third with high relative significance. Finally, the dimension of training strategy ranked fourth with high relative significance as well. This indicates that Al-Hourani Group adopts strategies that ensure a rapid response to meet the dynamic changes in the business environment in a new proactive way to achieve effective management of human resources and to optimally utilize them to enhance their competitive capabilities and generate new competitive advantages. The results indicated that the Group adopted strategies that aim to benefit from the creativity and intellectual energies inherent in its human resources; to generate their motivation to exploit their talents and energies to serve the Group and its goals. This can be achieved by empowering human resources administratively and by recruiting those who enjoy the highest levels of technological intelligence, high flexibility, and the ability to adapt to the variables of work and to work in the spirit of one team. This enables the Group to communicate and interact with all segments of customers, competitors, and consumers and to discover, preserve and disseminate more latent and available knowledge in its human resources and take advantage of them in decision-making and problem-solving. Furthermore, the Group will pay attention to human resources development, improve their efficiency and skills, provide them with new knowledge and motivate their creativity and innovation and develop their intellectual and mental capabilities through holding programs and training courses and encouraging their participation in them. These results are consistent with the results of the (Bedir, Fares & Afana, 2015), which concluded that the level of empowerment in the researched institutions was high by 81%. It also agreed with the results of the (Al-Qatawneh & Mobaideen, 2017), which concluded that the level of implementing the human resources strategies in Arab Cement Qatraneh is high, including the empowerment strategy. The analysis results of the study instrument also showed the high relative significance of competitive intelligence, and that the dimension of technological intelligence ranked first with a high relative significance in addition to the commercial intelligence dimension which ranked second with a high relative significance as well. This indicates the interest of Al- Hourani Group in enhancing its competitiveness and generating competitive advantages by identifying its needs for data and information and for collecting, recording, and analyzing it by using information technology and its various applications. Furthermore, the Group can extract abundant, accurate and correct information that reflects market situation, customers, the current and potential competitors, competition movements and products, and conveying them to authority and decision-makers to use them and benefit from them in a way that contributes to achieving the Group's goals and objectives. These results were consistent with the (Al-Wesha, 2015), which concluded that the researched Jordanian banks always seek to develop and upgrade marketing intelligence systems based on information technology in them to achieve competitive advantages based on the customer relation approach. The results of the study also agreed with the results of the (Reinmoeller & Ansari, 2014), which concluded that there is a continuous spread of the competitive intelligence use despite the risks of using it. However, the results of the study differed with the results of the (Jeong &Yoon, 2017), which concluded that there is still a deficiency in some infrastructure for competitive intelligence based on technology and augmented reality in organizations. As for visionary leadership, the analysis results of the study instrument showed its high relative significance. This indicates that Al-Hourani Group has administrative leaderships capable of foreseeing and sustaining the future, the ability to long-term strategic planning, defining the future goals of the group, clarifying the group’s future vision and delivering it to employees in a realistic way. These leaderships have also the ability to exploit opportunities in innovative and developmental activities and processes for products and services through effective investment in human resources and drawing up of preparatory strategies for this important resource. These results are consistent with the results of the (Caridi-Zahavi et al., 2015), which concluded that visionary leadership has a positive impact on cognitive integration which resulted in enhancing innovation, increasing the quality of new products, and speeding up development and innovation of products. They also agreed with the results of the (Nwokedi, 2015) where the visionary leadership has a positive impact on dealing with challenges in a timely manner. These results are also in agreement with the results of the (Kearney et al., 2019), which indicated that visionary leaders could generate more positive effects on the performance of employees which provides them with opportunities for innovation and which in turn contributes to increasing empowerment and supporting innovation. However, they contradicted the results of the (Rajasekar, Al-Abri & Tabouk, 2013), which showed a lack of good understanding of visionary leadership in Arab organizations and a deficiency in its application.
The testing results of the study’s hypothesis also showed a statistically significant impact at the level of significance (P=0.05) for human resources development strategies re-framing represented in its dimensions (training strategy, empowerment strategy, knowledge strategy and the millennial generation employment (Y) strategy) on competitive intelligence with the existence of visionary leadership. It was evident through the results that the direct and indirect impact of both the training strategy and the knowledge strategy dimension has a significant impact, while the direct and indirect effect of both the empowerment strategy and the millennium generation employment (Y) strategy has an insignificant impact. The researcher believes that the mediating effect of visionary leadership when studying the relation between human resources development strategies re-framing and competitive intelligence indicates the role of visionary leadership in activating the dimensions of human resources development strategies re-framing in competitive intelligence. In other words, activating these dimensions in competitive intelligence requires leadership capable of achieving the optimum utilization of human resources and providing them with knowledge, competencies, skills, and utilizing their energies and abilities to achieve competitive intelligence of the Group.
Results of this examination meant to increase the associations center around keeping away from potential threats however much as could be expected and convert them into promising circumstances by increasing the utilization of key arranging instruments (SWOT Analysis), considering more the crisis changes happening in their internal climate when fabricating their strategies by embracing situations for this reason. This can be accomplished by offering sufficient help for sharing thoughts and welcoming workers to present any value-added ideas or enhancements for examining them and evaluating the practicality of their carrying out. This can also be accomplished by improving the managerial strengthening for the Group representatives and disseminating the forces to them such that promises them greatness and such that promises them differentiation and greatness at work and makes them future pioneers as well as zeroing in on refining their abilities. Therefore, Al-Hourani Group should rely on clearer models for appointing powers and giving adequate adaptability to workers to improve the values of their self-responsibility through strengthening the decentralization instruments as well as preparing plans of the most significant level of viability that ensure that they profit by the intellectual and creative energies inherent in their human resources. Moreover, the Group needs to follow numerous and shifted techniques equipped for creating information, whether express or certain, by recruiting individuals with imaginative conduct, just as holding internal conferences and meetings to generate new ideas in a manner that adds to giving a huge store of information in the group and reviewing more about the information acquired by its representatives to create it ceaselessly
Abu Dawlah, J. & Obaidat, S. (2007). The reality of the strategy of human resource management functions in the Jordanian banking sector. Arab Journal of Management, 27 (2), 1-27.
Abualoush, S.H., Obeidat, A.M., Tarhini, A., & Al-Badi, A. (2018). The role of employees’ empowerment as an intermediary variable between knowledge management and information systems on employees’ performance. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 48(2), 217-237.
Al-Awawdeh, W. (2011). The effect of using the training strategy on the performance of employees of the administrative departments at Al al-Bayt University. Al-Manara Research Journal, 17(5), 13-45.
Al-Awlaki, A. (2018). The impact of human resources management strategies on the development of organizational creativity through knowledge processes as a medium variable field study in yemeni commercial banks. Journal of Al-Jazirah University, 1(1), 125-161.
Alderson, S. (1993). Reframing management competence: Focusing on the top management team. Personnel Review, 22(6), 53-62.
Al-Qarala, A. (2018). The impact of applying a training strategy on human resources performance: an applied study in the jordan meteorological department, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Research Journal, 4(1), 197-201.
Al-Qatawneh, A.S.Z., & Mobaideen, W. (2017). The impact of human resources strategies in the administrative empowerment: a case study in Arabian quatrain cement. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 347-359.
Al-Qudah, S., Obeidat, A.M., & Shrouf, H. (2020). The impact of strategic human resources planning on the organizational performance of public shareholding companies in Jordan. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(1), 219-225.
Al-Taan, H. (2013). The impact of human resources management strategies in achieving strategic success: a field study in the ministry of transport, Dinanir Journal, 3(1), 195-246.
Al-Taani, H. (2002). Training, concept, and effectiveness: Building and evaluating training programs. Dar Al Shorouk for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan.
Al-Weshah, G.A. (2017). Marketing intelligence and customer relationships: empirical evidence from Jordanian banks. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 5(3-4), 141-152.
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook Of human resource Management practice (10th edition). Cambridge University Press. UK.
Bailey, C., & Clarke, M. (2008). Aligning business leadership development with business needs: The value of discrimination. Journal of Management Development, 27( ), 12-934 .
Bartes, F. (2015). Defining a basis for the new concept of competitive intelligence. ACTA Universitatis Agriculturae ET Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 62(6), 1233 -1242.
Bartley, S.J., Ladd, P.G., & Morris, M.L. (2007). Managing the multigenerational workplace: Answers for managers and trainers. Cupa-HR Journal, 58(1), 28- 34.
Bedir, R., Fares, M., & Afana, H. (2015). Administrative empowerment and its relationship to the effectiveness of work teams in international ngos operating in the gaza strip. Journal of the Islamic University for Economic and Management Studies, 23(1), 305-336.
Blackburn, S. (2005). The Oxford dictionary of philosophy. OUP Oxford.
Bolisani, E. & Handzic, E. (Eds) (2015). Advances in knowledge management: Celebrating twenty years of research and practice, Springer, Heidelberg.
Bolisani, E., & Bratianu, C. (2017). Knowledge strategy planning: An integrated approach to manage uncertainty, turbulence, and dynamics. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(2), 233-253.
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2017). Reframing organizations: artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons, London, UK.
Bose, R. (2008). Competitive intelligence process and tools for intelligence analysis. Industrial management & data systems, 108( ), 10- 28.
Brody, R. (2008). Issues in defining competitive intelligence: an exploration. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 3(36), 3-12.
Buller, P.F., & McEvoy, G.M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review, 22(1), 43-56.
Caridi‐Zahavi, O., Carmeli, A., & Arazy, O. (2016). The influence of CEOs' visionary innovation leadership on the performance of high‐technology ventures: The mediating roles of connectivity and knowledge integration. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33( ), 356-376.
Chen, A.H., Fabozzi, F.J., & Huang, D. (2013). Optimal corporate strategy under uncertainty. Applied Economics, 45(20), 2877-2882.
Cheng, S.M., & Lunn, S. (2016). Training and qualification: Employee training at galaxy entertainment group. Handbook of Human Resources Management, 1(1), 263-275.
Choo, C.W., & Bontis, N. (Eds.). (2002). The strategic management of intellectual capital and organizational knowledge. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Conger, J. A. (1991). Inspiring others: The language of leadership. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(1), 1- 45.
Daft, R., & Noe, R., (2001),"Organization Behavior", Harcourt college publishers, Inc., New York, U.S.A.
Daoud, F., & Ali, A. (2017). The role of training strategy in achieving entrepreneurial performance: an exploratory study in the general company for electrical industries-motors laboratory-Baghdad. Anbar University Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 9(19), 379-408.
Dayan, R., Heisig, P., & Matos, F. (2017). Knowledge management as a factor for the formulation and implementation of organization strategy. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(2), 308-329.
Dhammika, K.A.S. (2016). Visionary leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating effect of leader member exchange (LMX). Wayamba Journal of Management, 4(1), 1-10.
Donate, M.J., & de Pablo, J.D.S. (2015). The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management practices and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 68(2), 360-370.
Dorsey, E., Gómez, M., Thiele, B., & Nelson, P. (2010). Falling short of our goals: transforming the millennium development goals into millennium development rights. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 28(4), 516 -522.
Dostal, E., Cloete, A., & Járos, G. (2004). Biomatrix: A systems approach to organisational and societal change. Biomatrix web.
Du Toit, A.S. (2015). Competitive intelligence research: An investigation of trends in the literature. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business, 5(2), 1-10.
Edvinsson, L. (2002), Corporate Longitude: what you need to know to navigate the knowledge economy. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, London.
Franco, M., Magrinho, A., & Ramos Silva, J. (2011). Competitive intelligence: A research model tested on Portuguese firms. Business Process Management Journal, 17(2),332-356.
Garavan, T.N., & McGuire, D. (2010). Human resource development and society: human resource development’s role in embedding corporate social responsibility, sustainability, and ethics in organizations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(5), 487-50 .
Glotzbach, P. A. (2010). Strategic renewal: Reframing our priorities at the midpoint of the strategic plan. etrieved une, 8 .
Gortani, A.M. (2009). “Study of some effective factors on empowerment of the experts in educational institutions”. Procedia social and behavioural sciences, 29(2), 1960-1964.
Gravett, L., & Throckmorton, R. (2007). Bridging the generation gap: how to get radio babies, boomers, gen xers, and gen yers to work together and achieve more. New Jersey, The Career Press.
Guest, D.E. (1997). Human resource management and performance: A review and research agenda. International journal of human resource management, 8(3),263-276.
Gumbe, S.M., & Chaneta, I. (2013). Empowering employees for enhanced firm performance in zimbabwe's manufacturing sector: the case for bulawayo based manufacturers. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 3(9), 34-42.
Guskey, T.R. (2003). Analyzing lists of the characteristics of effective professional development to promote visionary leadership. NASSP bulletin, 87(673), -20.
Hanaysha, J., & Tahir, P.R. (2016). Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on job satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219 (1), 272-282.
Hasani, K., & Sheikhesmaeili, S. (2016). Knowledge management and employee empowerment: A study of higher education institutions. Kybernetes, 45(2), 337-355.
Heathfield, S.M. (2008). Training and development for employee motivation and retention. The Lama Review, 20(2), 20-34.
Helyer, R., & Lee, D. (2012). The twenty-first century multiple generation workforce: Overlaps and differences but also challenges and benefits. Education+Training, 54(7), 565-578.
Herschel, R.T., & Jones, N.E. (2005). Knowledge management and business intelligence: The importance of integration. Journal of knowledge management, 9(4),45-55.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., Camp, S.M., & Sexton, D.L. (2001). Strategic entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial strategies for wealth creation. Strategic management journal, 22(7),479-491.
Honold, L. (1997), “A review of the literature on employee empowerment”. Empowerment in Organizations, 5(4), 202-212.
Hoole, C., & Bonnema, J. (2015). Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 1-11.
Hussain, M., Ajmal, M.M., Khan, M., & Saber, H. (2015). Competitive priorities and knowledge management: An empirical investigation of manufacturing companies in UAE. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 26(6), 791-806.
Huynh, Q.M. (2016). Developing skilled labour: An analysis of the major factors which enable and hinder employee training in construction companies in Vietnam. Doctor of Business Administration, Western Sydney University, Australia.
Irtaimeh, H.J., Obaidat, A., & Khaddam, A. (2016). Strategic role of dashboard application in enhancing crisis management capabilities in organizations field study on Jordanian cellular companies. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, 5(10), 50-59.
Ismail, M., & Jameerl, B., (2016). Strategic risk's variation as a function of competitive intelligence investment: An applied research on some Iraqi's manufacturing companies. Journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences, 22(89). 164-194.
Jadi, S., & Obeida, H. (2013), Administrative empowerment as a modern strategy used to increase the satisfaction of the employees in the service institutions. Arabian Journal of Management, 33(1), 35-63.
Janssens, M., & Steyaert, C. (2009). HRM and performance: A plea for reflexivity in HRM studies. Journal of Management Studies, 46(1), 143-155.
Jawad, S., & Fouta, S. (2009). The reality of human resource planning and strategic planning in public joint-stock companies in Jordan and its impact on their performance: A field study from the point of view of managers, Journal of Management and Economics, 1(78), 25-52.
Jeong, B., & Yoon, J. (2017). Competitive intelligence analysis of augmented reality technology using patent information. Sustainability, 9(4), 497-509.
Jerome, A., Scales, M., Whithem, C., & Quain, B. (2014). Millennials in the workforce: Gen Y workplace strategies for the next century. E-Journal of Social & Behavioural Research in Business, 5(1), 1-10.
Johnson, A.R. (2005). What is competitive intelligence. Aurora WDC Inc.
Kanani, N., & Shafiei, B. (2016). Employees empowerment in organization. Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(8), 1-10.
Kearney, E., Shemla, M., Knippenberg, D., & Scholz, F.A. (2019). A paradox perspective on the interactive effects of visionary and empowering leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
Kicheva, T. (2017). Management of employees from different generations-challenge for Bulgarian managers and HR Professionals. Journal Economic Alternatives, 1(1), 103-121.
Kiernan, M.J. (1993). The new strategic architecture: learning to compete in the 21st century. The Academy of Management executive, 7(1), 7-23.
Kirkpatrick, S.A. (2004). Visionary leadership theory. Encyclopedia of leadership, 1(1), 1615-1619.
Kowalski, T. (2010). Visionary leadership and competent management. The school principal (1st Edition), Routledge.
Kunle, A.L.P., Akanbi, A.M., & Ismail, T.A. (2017). The influence of marketing intelligence on business competitive advantage (a study of diamond bank Plc). Journal of Competitiveness, 8(1), 51-71.
Lengnick-Hall, C.A., Beck, T.E., & Lengnick-Hall, M.L. (2011). Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 21(3), 243-255.
Lopolito, A., Prosperi, M., Sisto, R. & De Meo, E. (2015). “Translating local stakeholders’ perception in rural development strategies under uncertainty conditions: an application to the case of the bio-based economy in the area of Foggia (South Italy)”, Journal of Rural Studies, 37(1), 61-74.
Luoma, M. (2006). A play of four arenas: How complexity can serve management development. Management Learning, 37(1), 101-123.
Luu, T. (2013). Knowledge sharing and competitive intelligence. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 3(32), 269- 292.
Magesa, L. (2014). The moral traditions of abundant life. African religion, Orbis Books.
Maktabi, S.H., Hanifi, F., & Feizabadi, M. (2014), “The effect of knowledge management on empowerment of high schools managers in Tehran”, International Journal of Current Life Sciences, 4(2), 191-197.
Mann, R. W. (1990). A building-blocks approach to strategic change. Training & Development Journal, 44(8), 23- 26.
Manning, G. (2012). The art of leadership. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Mazzei, A. (2014). Internal communication for employee enablement: Strategies in American and Italian companies. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(1), 82-95.
McManus, J., & Mosca, J. (2015). Strategies to build trust and improve employee engagement. International Journal of Management & Information Systems, 19(1), 37-46
Meihami, B., & Meihami, H. (2014). Knowledge Management a way to gain a competitive advantage in firms (evidence of manufacturing companies). International letters of social and humanistic sciences, 3(1), 80- 91.
Milhem, W., Abushamsieh, K., & Pérez Aróstegui, M.N. (2014). Training strategies, theories and types. Journal of Accounting, Business & Management, 21(1), 1-10.
Muller, M.L. (2007). Competitive intelligence in business: Latin America. South African Journal of Information Management, 9(2), 15-38.
Murphy, C. (2016). Gathering, analysing and putting it to work. Competitive intelligence, Routledge.
Myers, K. & Sadaghiani, K. (2010) 'Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials? Organizational Relationships and Performance', Journal Of Business & Psychology, 25(2), 225-238.
Nasri, W. (2012). Conceptual model of strategic benefits of competitive intelligence process. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 1(6), 25-35.
Nenzhelele, T.E., & Pellissier, R. (2013). Towards a universal definition of competitive intelligence. South African Journal of Information Management, 15(2), 1-7.
Nguyen, J., Guevara, N., Barnett, R., & Thorpe, B. (2017). Strategic Employee Development in The Government Sector, National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA.
Nikezic, S., Mikovic, R., & Prodanovic, D. (2014). Visionary thinker: Leadership and management in works of mary p. follett--long-term perspective in the companies of the republic of Serbia. International Journal For Quality Research, 8(2), 1-10.
Nikolaos, T., & Evangelia, F. (2012). Competitive intelligence: Concept, context and a case of its application. Science Journal of Business Management, 2012.
Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1996). The knowledge-creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Long range planning, 4(29), 592-606.
Nwokedi, R.C. (2015). The challenges of visionary leadership. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 289(2533), 1-7.
Obeidat, B.Y., Al-Dmour, R.H., & Tarhini, A. (2015). Knowledge management strategies as intermediary variables between itbusiness strategic alignment and firm performance. European Scientific Journal, 11(7), 344-368.
Omoush, M.M. (2019). Impact of intangible assets (intellectual capital, knowledge management) on innovation: A study on tourist agencies in Jordan (tourist agencies in Irbid). International Journal of Business and Management, 14(6), 1-10.
Priporas, C.V. (2005, October). Is it difficult to market a city as a convention destination? The case of Thessaloniki. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 7(2), 87-99.
Rajasekar, J., Al Abri, S., & Tabouk, Y.S. (2013). Visionary leadership in the arab world: Its nature and outcomes in the omani workplace. In Culture and Gender in Leadership, 37-47, Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Rees, T. (2017). An investigation on how different leadership styles affect the management of millennials. Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University.
Reinmoeller, P., & Ansari, S. (2016). The persistence of a stigmatized practice: A study of competitive intelligence. British Journal of Management, 27(1), 116-142.
Richard, P.J., Devinney, T.M., Yip, G.S., & Johnson, G. (2009). Measuring organizational performance: Towards methodological best practice. Journal of management, 35(3), 718-804.
Rodriguez, J., & Walters, K. (2017). The importance of training and development in employee performance and evaluation. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(10), 206-212
Rogo, F., Cricelli, L., & Grimaldi, M. (2014). Assessing the performance of open innovation practices: A case study of a community of innovation. Technology in Society, 38(1), 60-80.
Rothberg, H. N., & Erickson, G.S. (2005). Creating competitive advantage in the next economy. From knowledge to intelligence, Routledge.
Saffar, N., & Obeidat, A. (2020). The effect of total quality management practices on employee performance: The moderating role of knowledge sharing. Management Science Letters, 10(1), 77-90.
Serfontein, J.J. (2010). The impact of strategic leadership on the operational strategy and performance of business organizations in South Africa, Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch.
Sewlal, R. (2004). Effectiveness of the web as a competitive intelligence tool. South African Journal of Information Management, 6(1), 1-10.
Shujahat, M., Hussain, S., Javed, S., Malik, M.I., Thurasamy, R., & Ali, J. (2017). Strategic management model with lens of knowledge management and competitive intelligence: A review approach. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 47(1), 55-93.
Stefanikova, L., Rypakova, M., & Moravcikova, K. (2015). The impact of competitive intelligence on sustainable growth of the enterprises. Procedia Economics and Finance, 26(1), 209-214.
Sujansky, J. & Ferri-Reed, J. (2009). Why companies are losing billions in turnover to this generation-and what to do about it. Keeping the millennials, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons,
Taib, K.M., Yatin, S.F.M., Ahmad, A.R., & Mansor, A.N. (2008). Knowledge management and competitive intelligence: A synergy for organizational competitiveness in the K-Economy. Communications of the IBIMA, 6(1), 25-34.
Taylor, C.J., Cornelius, C., & Colvin, K. (2014). Visionary leadership and its relationship to organizational effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 35(6), 566-583.
Tej Adidam, P., Banerjee, M., & Shukla, P. (2012). Competitive intelligence and firm's performance in emerging markets: an exploratory study in India. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 27(3), 242-254.
Tolbize, A. (2008). Generational differences in the workplace. Research and training center on community living, 5(2), 1-21.
Tubey, R., Kurgat, A., & Rotich, J.K. (2015). Employment expectations among generation y employees in Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 1(1), 13-18.
Wheelen, T.L., & Hunger, J.D. (2011). Concepts in strategic management and business policy. Pearson Education India.
Wright, P.M., & McMahan, G.C. (2011). Exploring human capital: putting ‘human’back into strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(2), 93-104.
Yang, J.T. (2012). Effects of ownership change on organizational settings and strategies in a Taiwanese hotel chain.International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 428-441.
Zeng, L., Xu, L., Shi, Z., Wang, M., & Wu, W. (2006). Techniques, process, and enterprise solutions of business intelligence. In 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 6(1), 4722-4726.