Research Article: 2022 Vol: 28 Issue: 5S
Andreas Ari Sukoco, Duta Wacana Christian University
Pisi Bethania Titalessy, Duta Wacana Christian University
Citation Information: Sukoco, A.A., & Titalessy, P.B. (2022). The impact of merdeka belajar kampus merdeka (mbkm) as a curriculum policy, motivation and creativity on student entrepreneurial interests. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 28(S5), 1-11.
The entrepreneurship program is a form of Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) learning activity which is a program of the Indonesian Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology to provide wider opportunities for university students to develop their potential in the field of entrepreneurship. This study aims to look at the factors that influence the formation of entrepreneurial interest in students, one of which is to see the impact of the implementation of MBKM on student entrepreneurial interests. The aspects examined in this study include aspects of the implementation of the MBKM entrepreneurship program, aspects of motivation, aspects of creativity on student entrepreneurial interest. The research was conducted at one of the Yogyakarta Private Universities, namely by taking a sample of students from the management study program at Duta Wacana Christian University (UDKW) Indonesia. Data was collected by distributing questionnaires first, then testing the validity and reliability. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistical models with multiple-regression methods using SPSS program tools. The results of this study indicate that the aspects of the MBKM program, aspects of motivation and creativity have a significant influence on students' interest in entrepreneurship. Viewed from the respondent's profile, it was found that students with an income/expenditure level of IDR 2,000,000 and below dominated the high interest in entrepreneurship.
MBKM Program, Motivation, Creativity, Entrepreneurship.
The success of higher education institutions cannot be separated from aspects of the curriculum, student involvement and success in building networks. This also happens in the management study program. Curriculum renewal that can keep up with market developments and demands is a pillar of success. These various reforms create a new atmosphere in learning to encourage students to be more creative and adaptive to face the challenges of the times.
Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) Policy by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia in 2020 is a breakthrough in adjusting curriculum and academic regulations in accordance with the demands of the times. This program allows students to learn directly to apply their knowledge, providing opportunities for students to gain wider learning experiences and new competencies through several learning activities including student exchanges, internships/work practices, research, independent projects, Entrepreneurial activities, projects humanitarian work, teaching in schools, and projects in villages/college thematic real work.
One program that is very closely related to management science is the entrepreneurship program which directly requires networking with partners. Collaboration with related partners in the management education process is an important aspect for students because management is a multidisciplinary field of applied science. Implementation of management learning activities in the field will be a driving force for the development of new knowledge and skills for students to further enrich the competence of graduates as professionals and social entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurship of MBKM Program is offered to provide opportunities for students to creatively start independent businesses in various fields of interest by utilizing technological advances that can support these business activities. Through this program, students learn about product/service selection, marketing, finance, production, human resources, investment, business planning, and other necessary business management skills.
According to Dun & John (1993) entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages, and dares to take risks to create new businesses and business opportunities. Essentially, the notion of entrepreneurship is a mental attitude, view, insight and mindset and pattern of action of a person towards the tasks that are his responsibility.
The implementation of entrepreneurship education in the Higher Education environment has indeed been carried out. This is reflected through discussions, seminars, workshops, even by including entrepreneurship courses as part of the curriculum. In its development, entrepreneurship finally gained a place in the higher education curriculum and gave a new color to reduce the gap between the realm of theory and the realm of practice in the world of work.
As one of the private universities in the city of Education, the Management Department Program of the Faculty of Business, Duta Wacana Christian University (UKDW) Yogyakarta is increasingly developing its curriculum to be able to adapt to various rapid changes in society. In particular, the Management Study Program has updated the curriculum that refers to the National Higher Education Standards and is oriented towards the Indonesian National Qualifications Framework in 2020. By having two graduate profiles, namely professionals in the field of management with specialization in finance, marketing, human resources, and social entrepreneurs who master digital literacy in their respective fields, the Management department implements the MBKM program, one of which is the Entrepreneurial Learning Activity.
MBKM is a form of learning in higher education that is autonomous and flexible to create a learning culture that is innovative, unfettered, and in accordance with the needs of students. 1 Departing from the existing developments, the presence of the government through the independent campus program, this research raises the following issues: The impact of implementing an MBKM program as a new curriculum for universities in Indonesia, motivation, and creativity on student entrepreneurial interest in the UKDW Management Department.
Cantillon in Hardi (2019) stated that entrepreneurship is the equivalent of entrepreneurship in English, unternehmer in German, ondernemen in Dutch. The word entrepreneurship itself actually comes from the French language, namely "entreprende" which means adventurer, creator, and business manager
Entrepreneurship has long been an important concern in developing a country's socio- economic growth (Mahanani, 2018). Entrepreneurship can help provide many job opportunities, various consumer needs, services, and increase the welfare and level of competition of a country. In addition, along with the development of globalization, entrepreneurship is also increasingly becoming an important concern in facing the challenges of globalization, namely global economic competition in terms of creativity and innovation.
Entrepreneurship education is “the process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the insight, self-esteem, knowledge and skills to act on them” (Jones & English, 2004). Other authors still uphold the term “Entrepreneurial Education” and propose its aim to prepare students for entrepreneurial practice and develop their knowledge, skills and attitudes (Garavan & Barra, 1994; Wasalwiba, 2010).
Neck et al. (2014) argue that entrepreneurship education is a method versus a process. Their assumptions include that it is applicable to both beginners and experts, that the method is inclusive which means that it is applicable to various levels of analysis that the method requires continuous practice, and that the method is to a changing and unpredictable environment (Neck & Greene, 2011).
Li & Wu (2019) suggest that entrepreneurship education should be aligned with team collaboration and interaction based on the real business context in an organization. In addition, a core consideration when designing an entrepreneurial unit is the promotion of self-efficacy and self-confidence (Nowi?ski et al., 2019). In the context of a contemporary higher education perspective, it is important to bring together students from different backgrounds and engage them with a cross-cultural entrepreneurship module (Stefanic et al., 2020).
Interest is a sense of liking, attraction, and attention to activities or objects consistently. Interest in entrepreneurship is an interest in carrying out business activities by taking advantage of existing opportunities that are based on the spirit of independence (Buchari, 2016). Interest in entrepreneurship refers to the concentration of attention, desire, interest, and individual willingness to work hard or a strong will in the field of entrepreneurship to fulfill their own needs without fear of risks that will occur, as well as the willingness to learn from failure (Wulandari, 2013). Santoso (2007) suggests that interest in entrepreneurship is a psychological symptom that can be focused on and do something to entrepreneurs with pleasant feelings, because it can provide benefits for themselves and others. According to Fuadi & Aswita (2021) interest in entrepreneurship among students is also triggered by the implementation of an independent campus-based curriculum Venesaar et al. (2006).
Some studies divide the factors that affect entrepreneurial interest into thrust and pull factors. For example, Brownhilder (2014) showed that in Cameroon, driving factors such as unemployment, poverty and job security are the main determinants of student participation in various forms of entrepreneurship. In a related study, Malebana (2014) showed that students are more pulled rather than pushed into entrepreneurship. In other words, students are interested in entrepreneurship mainly because they could take advantage of positive factors such as creative talent, independence, and the prospect of obtaining higher income, rather than negative factors such as high unemployment. Research further shows that the consideration of entrepreneurship has not been realized as an ideal career choice, mainly due to lack of funds, business skills, the presence of many competitors, and the fear of failure.
In the world of entrepreneurship, if someone does not have an interest in deciding to become an entrepreneur, then becoming a good entrepreneur will be difficult to achieve. By having the intention of deciding to enter the world of entrepreneurship, someone has the motivation to become a good entrepreneur in the future. According to Buchari (2016), motivation is the desire to do something. Entrepreneurial motivation is a process that arises in a person to take action or achieve goals in the field of entrepreneurship. There are similarities with Hasibuan (2018) which states that motivation is the desire contained in an individual that stimulates him to take certain actions (Wulandari, 2021).
Susanto (2000) proposed that some motivations that can encourage a person to become an entrepreneur are the desire to work freely, to achieve self-efficacy and risk tolerance. The point here is that freedom at work is a mode of work, in which the workload is small, but the result is good (Zimmerer, 2002). When you go to work, you are not bound by rules or official working hours, or you rarely do business, but once you make a profit, let alone lucky to enjoy months or enough weeks in the future. Achieved self-achievement is the realization of expected work goals, including job satisfaction, comfortable work and tolerance for risks, and the ability and creativity of a person to resolve risks in order to obtain expected income (Lautenschläger & Haase, 2011).
Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) Program is a new curriculum policy that grants autonomy rights to Higher Education. In principle, change the educational paradigm to become more autonomous with an innovative learning culture. The implementation of the Independent Learning Campus policy encourages the learning process in higher education to be more autonomous and flexible (Carland et al., 1984).
The MBKM policy provides opportunities for students to gain wider learning experiences and new competencies through several learning activities including student exchanges, internships/work practices, research, independent projects, entrepreneurial activities, humanitarian projects, teaching in schools, and projects in villages/ thematic real work lectures. In addition, students are also given the freedom to participate in learning activities outside their study program in the same university with a certain credit weight. All these activities can be carried out by students under the guidance of lecturers and a cooperation agreement is required if carried out with parties outside the study program Prihartanta (2015).
Education is instructional or experiential to develop a person's behavior patterns in the field of knowledge, skills, or attitudes to achieve the expected standards (Sudirman, 2001). It is not a coincidence that students in the learning process have an interest in the business world if stimulated through the learning process mechanism which increases student interest in entrepreneurship Mwasalwiba (2010).
According to Suryana (2003) creativity is "thinking something new", the ability to develop new ideas and to find new ways to solve problems in the face of opportunities. Creative people are people who always think about novelty. Entrepreneurs are required to have the ability to create into a new form or bring existence into something new. This ability doesn't seem to be inherited or naturally present in a person, but it is something that needs to be learned.
Creativity is a continuous process that requires parties to work hard and continuously improve ideas and solutions. Creative people will work hard by making gradual changes and improvements to their work. Creativity in entrepreneurship also implies an organizational environment such as team climate, teamwork, and others. Creativity in entrepreneurship includes management within the organization that will make a business successful.
There is a long tradition of describing entrepreneurship and innovative business behavior as creative behavior Amabile (1996); Ward (2004) and the two are often used as synonyms. This connection can be found in the idea that the key part of entrepreneurship is a novelty that can influence the market process. Entrepreneurs must come up with ideas for new goods or services that can be brought to the market, and after identifying these ideas, they must figure out how to perform this process effectively. Because novelty and effectiveness are the hall marks of creativity (Amabile, 1996).
H1: The implementation of MBKM Program has a significant influence on student interest in entrepreneurship
H2: Motivation has a significant influence on student interest in entrepreneurship
The method used in this study is a quantitative method using a descriptive study approach and regression. The research instrument is used as a tool in collecting research data carried out by researchers. The research instrument used in this study is a questionnaire using a measurement scale, namely the Likert scale with five alternative answers where respondents only choose one of the five alternatives provided and each alternative answer is given a score, while in this study using 5 alternative answers which are; Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree.
Data was collected by using a questionnaire instrument that has been tested for its reliability on a number of respondents. Data collection was also carried out using a survey method by asking the relationship between entrepreneurship aspects and the learning process. The selection of respondents was carried out by random sampling on students who had participated in the entrepreneurship program conducted by the campus. The number of respondents who were studied was 128 respondents on students who had felt the impact of implementing the entrepreneurship curriculum. The variables used in this research are the Entrepreneurial Interest variable, Entrepreneurship MBKM Program variable, Motivation Variable, and Creativity Variable.
? Entrepreneurial Interest Variable (Y): Interest in taking advantage of opportunities and working independently. (Budiati, 2012).
? Entrepreneurship MBKM Program variable (X1): Educational programs implemented in higher education by providing opportunities for students to study outside campus (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2020).
? Motivation Variable (X2): The desire contained in an individual that stimulates person to take action (Hasibuan, 2018).
? Creativity Variable (X3): Ability to develop new ideas and to find new ways of solving problems. (Suryana, 2003).
Data analysis techniques in this study include descriptive statistical analysis and equation model analysis using multiple regression. The analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, multiple regression, with all tests of hypotheses and their significance. The sample in this study were students who know the implementation of the entrepreneur MBKM curriculum. From this sample, the answers to questions related to entrepreneurial interests were collected. Descriptive statistics to provide an overview of the respondents. The researcher uses the frequency distribution to show the average value in describing the respondent's profile (Neneh, 2014).
This study uses a quantitative method in which the data is in the form of numbers or numeric and the calculation uses statistical methods. The research uses data analysis techniques in the form of multiple regression analysis which aims to test and determine the effect of several independent variables on the dependent variable (Tinggi, 2020). Test the hypothesis with SPSS software using the significance level of the regression model. This is done by looking at the significance value, where if the sig. <0.05 then the regression model is said to have a significant influence between the independent variables on the dependent variable (Dun & John, 1993).
This section contains a description of the respondent's profile, assessment of research instruments related to validity, reliability, and research results regarding the variables studied (Peter, 1993). Respondents in this study were students of the management study program of private universities in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, namely Management Study Program, Faculty of Business, Duta Wacana Christian University.
Based on Table 1, it can be seen that the student respondents amounted to 128 people with details of 42% or 54 people were men and 58% or 74 people were women. The data is taken based on those who are active in the management class so that in general the female student group is more dominant in paying attention to the entrepreneurial activity program.
|Table 1 Profile By Gender (N=128)|
Profile Based On Respondent's Expenditure (N=128)
Respondents' expenditures based on their expenses for a month can be seen in the following Table 2.
|Table 2 Respondent's Expenditure|
Based on Table 2 above can be described that as many as 65% of student respondents are at the level of expenditure <Rp 2,000,000. Thirty (30%) are in expenditures >Rp 2,000,000– 5,000,000, and 5% are at expenditure levels>5,000,000-10,000,000. This shows that the profile of students who think about entrepreneurship is more dominated by those who have expenses < IDR 2,000,000 per month.
The research instrument test was conducted to ensure that the questionnaire made by the researcher was valid and reliable. The test results on 128 questionnaires show that the results for the calculated r correlation are in the range between 0.266 – 0.498.
Validity test is carried out to see whether the measuring instrument used can measure what is to be measured. From the results of the validity test, it was found that each variable indicator (interest in entrepreneurship, MBKM programs, motivation, and creativity) had an r value above the r table (0.1946). This shows that the indicators used to measure are feasible (valid) and can be used as measuring tools.
Reliability tests the consistency of a measuring instrument in measuring an object. The measuring instrument is reliable if the measurement results are consistent even under different conditions. The reliability test in this study uses the Cronbach Alpha technique, where an instrument is declared reliable if the alpha value is greater (>) than 0.60 (Ghozali, 2016). The reliability test results show that each indicator variable has a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.879 (above 0.60.) This indicates that each indicator variable has decent reliability.
In this study, the tool used to determine the effect of the independent campus program implementation, motivation and creativity on student entrepreneurial interest is multiple linear regression. The results of processing the SPSS program obtained the following results:
a. Dependent Variable: Y R2: 0.571
Y=1.211 + 0.288 X1 + 0.271 X2 +0.438 X3 + e
Y: Student Entrepreneurial Interest
X1: Implementation of MBKM Entrepreneurship
Paying attention to the regression coefficient for X1 (The implementation of MBKM program) of + 0.288 with a significance value of 0.031 (less than 0.05: significant) indicates that the implementation of the independent campus program has a positive effect on student entrepreneurial interest. In other words, the more successful the implementation of the MBKM program will affect the increasing student interest in entrepreneurship shows in Table 3.
|Table 3 Results of Processing the SPSS Program|
This condition is also supported by survey results which show that most of the respondents stated that the independent campus program provided benefits for understanding entrepreneurship.
The magnitude of the regression coefficient for X2, (students' motivation) is +0.271 with a significance value of 0.049 (less than 0.05 means significant) this indicates that student motivation has a positive effect on student entrepreneurial interest. In other words, the higher the student's motivation for (independence, actualization, and the courage to take risks) will affect the increasing interest in entrepreneurship of students.
This finding strengthens the opinion of Josia & Hani (2017) which states that motivation affects interest in entrepreneurship. Economic motivation to improve living standards and motivation not to depend on parents are driving factors in entrepreneurship. The regression coefficient for X3 (students' creativity) is +0.438 with a significance value of 0.004 (less than 0.05: significant) this indicates that student creativity has a positive effect on student entrepreneurial interest. In other words, the higher the creativity (the desire to be creative, the desire to solve problems, the ability to achieve things in a different way) will affect the increasing interest in entrepreneurship in students.
The F test is used to test the effect of the independent variable simultaneously on the dependent variable. From the calculation, the significance value for the simultaneous effect is 0.000b (this value is smaller than 0.05) so that it shows a significant effect of the MBKM, motivation, creativity variables on the interest in entrepreneurship. In other words, the MBKM program, motivation and creativity together have a significant influence on students' interest in entrepreneurship shows in Table 4.
|Table 4 Anovaa|
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
The coefficient of determination aims to measure the extent of the model's capacity when explaining the variation of the dependent variable. A small value of the coefficient of determination or close to zero, meaning that the capacity of the independent variable when providing an explanation of each dependent variable is very limited. The higher the coefficient of determination, the higher the independent variable can explain the dependent variable (Gozhali, 2016).
In this model, the coefficient of determination obtained a number of (R-squared of 0.571) this shows that this model is able to explain the dependent variable of 57.1%. The regression model with independent variables (MBKM program, motivation and creativity) was able to explain the variable of student interest in entrepreneurship by 57.1%.
The entrepreneurship program of MBKM as a new curriculum for the university student is a breakthrough that can change student learning methods to achieve capability in real life after graduates. It can prepare students to increase their hard skills and soft skills on how to create business and get mentoring directly from the experts. This study finds that the entrepreneurship program, motivation, and creativity have an influence on the interest in entrepreneurship among students. This condition is also influenced by the implementation of the MBKM program which is running well in 2021. The implementation of the MBKM program, provides understanding and skills training to students regarding entrepreneurship. Viewed from the side of the profile, economic conditions also have an influence on the emergence of interest in entrepreneurship among students.
The MBKM Entrepreneurship Program is offered to provide opportunities for UKDW Management Study Program students to creatively start independent businesses in various fields of interest by utilizing technological advances that can support these business activities. Entrepreneurial motivation also has a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial intentions. This shows that the higher the motivation for entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial intention will also increase. Thus, it can be said that a curriculum changes in management science that allows students to learn directly to become entrepreneurs, it can encourage their motivation to create their own business.
Our findings on the role of creativity for entrepreneurial interest also have implications for entrepreneurship education. To the extent that educational programs seek to mix different groups of students, it is important to know how students differ in their creative potential and how one can combine them to aid shared learning and prevent potential barriers to learning on campus.
The findings in this study indicate that the implementation of teaching programs in higher education has an influence on entrepreneurial behavior/interest. This supports the research which describes the effect of entrepreneurship courses on students' interest in entrepreneurship.
The present article would not be possible without the support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, the Republic of Indonesia, through the Supporting Research Grant for the Policy of MBKM and Research-based Community Engagement for the Private Universities, 2021.
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Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-22-10728; Editor assigned: 06-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AEJ-22-10728(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jan-2022, QC No. AEJ-22-10728; Revised: 22-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-22-10728(R); Published: 01-Mar-2022