Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 1
Jun Surjanti, Universitas Negeri Surabaya
Adi Soejoto, Universitas Negeri Surabaya
Muafi, Universitas Islam Indonesia
This study focuses on the measurement of teacher's performance or often called as Continuous Professional Development (CPD) in Indonesia, which aims to improve teacher's competency. The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse the influence of ethical climate, distributive justice and procedural justice that affect teacher’s CPD mediated by Work-Related Stress. The study is done by collecting data through questionnaires to teacher respondents by purposive sampling technique. The statistical techniques using Partial Least Square. The analysis results concluded that ethical climate, distributive justice and procedural justice have a significant negative effect on work-related stress. Similarly, work-related stress has a significant negative effect on CPD. Work-related stress acts to mediate the ethical climate influence, distributive justice and procedural justice on CPD.
Ethical Climate, Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, Work-related Stress, Continuous Professional Development (CPD).
The research from Mokhele & Jita (2010) stated that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is being a priority in most countries around the world. Indonesia followed up this program as Sustainability Professional Development Program, to be the key for quality education system. CPD is a performance measurement for teachers. (Rowland & Hall, 2012); Muafi (2017) stated that performance management has a central role to ensure a competitive advantage.
In professional development, teacher needs to pass skills and competence improvement process according to educational needs for students (Laboratory, 2005). Besides that Laboratory, (2005) added that skills and competency improvements never occur without professional development. It is useful to deepen knowledge and pedagogical skills of teachers; provide opportunities for training, research and reflection and also update the knowledge for teachers Laboratory (2005). The study is reinforced by Laboratory (2005), they concluded that teacher coaching can improve the knowledge of teaching strategies for teachers in studying teams and peer support. Broad & Evans (2006) also stated that professional development consists of all natural learning experiences, conscious and planned activities which aimed at direct or indirect benefits to individuals, groups or schools that will impact to the quality of education in the class to be more qualified.
Improving teacher performance through CPD will face complex decisions. Villegas-reimers (2003) stated that it is important for each country to examine the professional development model in detail by considering factors when designing and implementing professional development models for teachers. Elci, Karabay & Akyuz (2015) assert that nowadays, the ethical climate is very important in maintaining the positive attitudes and behaviours of employees in performing their work. Ethical school leaders will affect teacher performance in CPD. The current condition of ethical climate leadership may affect teacher's stress in work, even with limited salary; teacher has the same obligation to fulfil the curriculum demand. Aydin & Karaman-Kepenekci (2008) argue that organizational justice practices in schools will contribute to the policy development in organization. If the practice of justice in the organization cannot be fulfilled, it would be able to cause work stress. Whereas work stress can mediate CPD.
In accordance with Yean & Yusof (2016) research, they stated that organizational justice not only affects organizational performance but also determine employee’s economic prosperity. Wang (2011) says that the sense of organizational justice has a positive predictive role on positive behaviour. Teacher as employee will behave positively toward their professional development if they feel good organizational justice. According to Yean & Yusof (2016); Badawi, Tjahjono & Muafi (2017), organizational justice consists of three dimensions, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Added by Elci, Karabay & Akyuz (2015) that the ethical climate plays an important role in regulating the relationship between distributive justice and depersonalization. Sert et al. (2014), Muafi (2016) stated that understanding the relationship of stress with other variables is important. The development of an ethical climate and organizational justice which perceived as positive will reduce employee work stress. This study wants to fill the research gap by focusing on the ethical climate, distributive justice and procedural justice that impact work-related stress and teacher’s CPD.
Continuous Professional Development
Ivanova & Skara-Minc?ne (2016) stated that the teacher sustainability process begins during teacher training. Guseva, Dombrovskis & Capulis (2014) say that professional identity can be observed through reflective self-evaluation during practice as a professional teacher. The result shows that the important role for teachers is teaching and reflective practice in the learning process. Teacher is an integral part of educational organizations in schools. Beside that Wals & Corcoran (2004) stated that investments into education are an indicator of sustainable development. To maintain its existence must strive to follow Continuous Professional Development (CPD). Broad & Evans (2006) assert that inherent factors can motivate professional learning to encourage CPD problem solving through research and support collaborative professional in professional development. Broad & Evans (2006) stated that lesson and action research are strategies that allow contextual, collaborative and individual investigation into interests areas and professional needs. Furthermore, Broad & Evans (2006); Muafi (2016) stated that the characteristics that affect the effectiveness of professional development are very complex. However, by approving the criteria for effectiveness and providing a clear description of important contextual elements, it can ensure steady progress in improving the quality of professional development efforts.
Guseva, Dombrovskis & Capulis (2014); Muafi (2016) add that sustainable development needs a person’s qualitative vital activity based on the use and resources conservation on the personality conservation in its potency and unique nature. In Indonesia, the development of sustainable professions for teachers includes self-development in scientific activities, scientific publications and innovative works. As in Organizational for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2009), professional development is defined as activities that develop the skills, knowledge, skills and individual characteristics of teachers that consist of: Courses/workshops, conferences or educational seminars, qualification programs, participation on teacher networks, individual or collaborative research, mentoring and/or peer and coaching, as part of a formal school setting. Petrescu et al. (2015) confirm that the innovative aspect required by the CPD program for science teachers from Dâmbovi?a, Buz?u and Teleorman County secondary schools is "PROFILES - Education through Sciences". This study refers to CPD in Indonesia, which consists of self-development in scientific activities, scientific publications and innovative works.
Ethical Climate (EC) and Work-related Stress (WRS)
The research from Arar et al. (2016) recommended the ethical aspect of education from the possibility of all points of view. The ethical role of educational leadership is the combination of being a moral person and becoming a moral manager. Being a moral person shows that the individual has integrity and can be trusted (http://homepages.se.edu/cvonbergen/files/2015/01/Ethical-Role-of-the-Manager.pdf, accessed January 13, 2018). Tziner, Felea & Vasiliu (2015) stated that the ethical climate reflects a shared perception of what is allowed and what is prohibited regarding moral issues in the organization. Gils et al. (2017), Muafi (2016) assert that organizational identification can improve moral decision-making if only the organizational climate is ethical. The ethical climate is crucial to understand moral decision-making in an organization. Organizational identification enhances moral decision-making if the organization's climate is ethical. Tziner, Felea & Vasiliu (2015) said that a selfish ethical climate and organizational justice have a negative significant relationship. If an organization has an ethical climate that is not conducive and selfish, it will reduce organizational justice. Affirmed by Elci, Karabay & Akyuz (2015), Muafi (2016), organizations that have a positive ethical climate will have an impact on the positive behaviour of their employees. While, Sert et al. (2014), Muafi (2016) state that the ethical climate also has a negative effect on work-related stress. When the climate is positive, it will reduce teacher stress and vice versa.
H1: The more positive teacher’s perceptions on ethical climate, the lower teacher’s work stress.
Procedural Justice (PJ) and Work-related Stress (WRS)
The notion of organizational justice according to Akram et al. (2016) becomes a priority role in the moral theory structure which is derived from society. Therefore, Surovtsev & Syrov (2015), Badawi, Tjahjono & Muafi (2017) stated that all forms of organizational justice must be considered. Wang (2011) asserts that organizational sense of justice has a positive predictive role in the identification of employee organizations. In addition, organizational identification positively encourages organizational citizenship behaviour and identification acts as mediating role in the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviour. Clipa & Boghean (2015), Muafi (2015) stated that increasing decent salaries in decent working conditions will be the most effective measurement of competent institutions to reduce stress. Sert et al. (2014) add that organizational justice the organization helps reduce employee’s stress. Sert et al. (2014), Muafi (2015) said that there is a significant negative correlation between distributive justice and procedural justice to employees’ job stress.
H2: The more positive teacher’s perception of procedural justice, the lower work-related stress.
Distributive Justice (DJ) and Work-related Stress (WRS)
Organizational justice in organizations reduces employee’s work stress (Sert et al., 2014; Muafi, 2015). Sert et al. (2014) said that there is a significant negative correlation between distributive justice and procedural justice to work stress. Greenberg (Marc, 2015; Badawi, Tjahjono & Muafi, 2017) adds that distributive justice refers to the individual perception about accepted justice in the allocation of organizational resources. In addition, internal distributive justice is the most important type. Marc (2015) asserts that the interaction between internal and external comparisons has a major impact on distributive justice. Aydin & Karaman-Kepenekci (2008) add that organizational justice practices in schools, contribute the development of school policies. Salaries and teacher professional allowances in Indonesia act as an important role in teacher's perception of distributive justice that they receive.
H3: The more positive the teacher’s perception of distributive justice, the lower work-related stress
Work-Related Stress (WRS) and CPD
Organizational stressors are a major contributor to physical stress, behavioural stress and work fatigue. Promoting the health and safety of personnel and improving the quality of private life are an important part of the workforce. The study recommendation may also be applied to other developing countries. Alhija (2015) examines the stressors categories for teachers, such as: Personal and work characteristics, gender, experience, school environment and organizational culture. Teacher hopes on the effectiveness of several repetition strategies. Hoboubi et al. (2017) explain that supervisor support can reduce job stress and improve job satisfaction and productivity. Yozgat, Yurtkoru & Bilgino?lu (2013) adds that there is a negative relationship between work stress and employee performance. When teacher’s stress is high, CPD will low and vice versa. Penetar & Friedl (2005) focus on the stress and physical/psychological resistance of teachers and their relationship with their health and performance. There is a close correlation between teacher’s work stress and physical/psychological resistance that affecting their health and performance. Fairbrother & Warn (2003) say that a general model of stress does not help in identifying stress predictors and work satisfaction in a particular work context. This study refers to (Sert et al., 2014) opinion which states it is important to understand the relationship of stress with other variables, including Ethical Climate (EC), Procedural Justice (PJ) and Distributive Justice (DJ).
H4: The higher the work-related stress of teacher, the lower CPD.
H5: Suspected Work-related stress (WRS) mediates the influence of Ethical Climate (EC), Procedure Justice (PJ) and Distributive Justice (DJ) on Continuous Professional Development (CPD).
This study uses a quantitative approach because the relationship between variables has a causality relationship. Researcher examines CPD as a measurement of teacher performance. Work-related stress is estimated to mediate between ethical climate, procedural justice and distributive justice. The study’s sample is 156 respondents of a secondary school teacher spread in Indonesia who have got teacher certification program. The measurements of this study adopted the measurements used by Sert et al. (2014) and developed on teacher's perceptions by the researcher. Then the data obtained, scored and interpreted with Likert scale range 1-5, which transcended Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. Statistical Technique uses Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Partial Least Square (PLS) method.
Respondent's Characteristics and Profile and Research Variables Description
The most respondents in consecutive are: 31-39 years old 84.0%; women 55.1%; PNS 42.9%; and has a monthly salary of Rp 2 million to Rp 3.4 million is 30.1%. The correlation coefficient calculation results show that almost all research variables have a high enough value and have a significance level below 0.05. So, it can be concluded that all variables have a positive and significant relationship.
Structural Equation Model
This study tested four hypotheses the inner model and all research’s hypothesis are accepted because each path was significant with α<0.05 (Table 1 and Figure 1). So the four proposed hypotheses are accepted.
|Table 1: Inner Model Test Results|
|Hypothesis||Path||Original Sample (O)||Standard Deviation (STDEV)||Standard Error (STERR)||T Statistics (|O/STERR|)||Sig.|
The role of work-related stress mediation (WRS) can be seen from the calculation in Table 2.
|Table 2: Indirect Impact On Inner Model Results|
Based on Table 2 it can be concluded that:
1. The indirect impact of Ethical Climate (EC) on Continuous Professional Development (CPD) through Work-related Stress (WRS) has a path coefficient of 0.094 with z arithmetic 2.401 (significance 0.016<0.05). It shows that work-related stress (WRS) mediates the influence of Ethical Climate (EC) on CPD.
2. The indirect impact of Procedure Justice (PJ) on Continuing Professional Development (CPD) through Work-related Stress (WRS) has a path coefficient of 0.094 with z arithmetic 2.615 (significance 0.009<0.05). It shows that work-related stress (WRS) mediates the influence of Procedural Justice (PJ) on CPD.
3. The indirect impact of Distributive Justice (DJ) on Continuing Professional Development (CPD) through work-related stress (WRS) has a path coefficient of 0.143 with z arithmetic 2873 (significance 0.004<0.05). It shows that work-related stress (WRS) mediates the influence of Distributive Justice (DJ) on Continuous Professional Development (CPD).
In summary, it can be concluded that all relationships show significant influence. Thus, the fourth hypothesis is accepted.
The ethical climate role positively conditioned by the principal greatly affects teacher performance. The ethical climate of principal behaviour also greatly affects the teacher’s behaviour. This is in accordance with the study of Tziner, Felea & Vasiliu (2015) which states that self-centred principal factors affect the teacher’s convenience in work. The more the principal is not able to cultivate a good climate, the more the teacher is stress. Otherwise, the role if the principal is not able to cultivate good ethical climate, it will not generate teacher’s motivation. Teacher does not feel burdened with self-development aspects. This situation is also possible not to spur teachers to perform well. The research results in the field explained that all teachers that being studied have a positive perception of the EC so it is expected the more positive teacher’s perceptions to ethical climate, the lower teacher’s work stress.
The ethical climate (EC) role of the principal affects teacher’s Work-related Stress (WRS) in the certification program. Emotional control of the principal should be maintained to support a conducive climate in the school environment, especially for the teachers. That is because the ethical climate of the principal can affect teacher behaviour, especially on the teacher’s work stress control from the certification program. The study results recommend Elci, Karabay & Akyuz (2015), Sert et al. (2014) stating that the ethical climate will greatly affect teacher behaviour. This study also proved by the study of Sert et al. (2014), Muafi (2016). This study also reinforces with Hoboubi et al. (2017), Muafi (2015), Muafi (2016) which states that supervisor support to the principal can reduce work stress and ultimately increase job satisfaction and work productivity.
Furthermore, the justice form for the teacher’s performance should be considered by the education management institutions and principals. Financial factors become effective measures to reduce stress Clipa & Boghean (2015), including how the payment procedure is. The teacher certification allowance plays role in the procedural and distributive justice they received. When procedural Justice (PJ) and distributive guaranteed payment, the teacher's work stress will decrease. The study results are in line with the research of Wang (2011) which states that procedural Justice (PJ) can reduce work stress for teachers. Similarly, this study results in line with Sert et al. (2014) results stating that there is a significant negative relationship between distributional justice and procedural to work stress. Therefore, it is important that there are regulation policy concerns for all teachers in Indonesia which can be able to ensure teacher's welfare so that teacher stress decreases and teachers can perform well in CPDs (Surovtsev & Syrov, 2015). A fair resource, i.e., a fair payroll will reduce the work stress for teachers. When the government gives a fair salary with clear rights and obligations in the certification program, it will reduce the teacher's work stress; otherwise, if there is no fair resource, the teacher's work stress will increase. Therefore, in educational institutions should have study rules that are standardized with the regulated government to ensure the teacher’s welfare, so they are not stress to perform their duties. Teachers will focus on central tasks and responsibilities on performance that is beneficial to improve the human resources quality in Indonesia. Aydin & Karaman-Kepenekci (2008) recommend that all educational institutions refer to organizational justice in schools based on contributing to policy development by the current Ministry of National Education.
It should be noted that inherent factors to foster motivation to perform, as revealed by Broad & Evans (2006), Muafi (2017). In addition, to make the teachers do not stress, need collaborative professional research and support for teachers, in line with Broad & Evans (2006) research say that in order to maintain the future professional teachers quality, it is necessary for continuous professional development (self-development in scientific activities, scientific publications and innovative works) in courses/workshops, educational conferences or seminars, qualification program, participation in teacher networks, individual or collaborative research, mentoring and/or peer mentoring and coaching, as part of formal school arrangements. This is in accordance with the opinion from Petrescu et al. (2015) on the importance of innovative aspects for secondary teachers. Therefore, the importance of stress management for teachers in order to increase CPD or PKB component (Sustainable Development Performance) into educational programs in Indonesia now is in improving the self-development components in scientific activities, scientific publications and innovative work through stress control from EJ, PJ and DJ. In addition, further research is needed on other internal factors that influence work-related stress of other teachers in influencing teacher performance.