Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences (Print ISSN: 1524-7252; Online ISSN: 1532-5806)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

The Impact of Strategic Planning on Crisis Management from the Perspective of the Employees in the Public Jordanian Hospitals

Farah Niaz Abdessalam Dalain, Zarqa University

Abstract

 This study aimed at identifying the impact of strategic planning on crisis management from the perspective of the doctors working in the public Jordanian hospitals by identifying the extent and clarity of the scientific concept of strategic planning in crisis management among the doctors working in the public Jordanian hospitals as well as the extent of practice and application of this concept. The study sample consisted of (700) doctors working in public Jordanian hospitals). The study used the analytical descriptive approach and the questionnaire was used as the study instrument for data collection. The results revealed that there is an impact for strategic planning with its various dimensions in crisis management in public hospitals. The study recommended the necessity of sharing all the doctors in hospitals in the process of strategic planning due to its role in providing sufficient information about all the dimensions and circumstances of work environment at hospitals.

 

Keywords:

Strategic Planning, Crisis Management, Public Hospitals

Introduction

Strategic planning is considered as one of the most concepts that gained ore interest during the latest years. Strategic planning is mainly viewed as a preparation to face the changes that may take place in the future; it is a collective activity to achieve the determined objectives carefully and includes preparing the suitable conditions to cope with change and manage it in favor of the targeted objectives which, in turn, leads to positive outcomes. Strategic planning is a way that enables management to guide the organization starting from the daily managerial processes and facing crises towards a different vision for the internal and external dynamic factors that have the potential of improving the change in the surrounding environment.

The high-risk level in decision making, the high cost of mistaken decisions and the increased competition and the considerable technological advancement resulted in a growth in public and private organizations with all their types, domains and size in order to adopt the approach of thinking about strategic planning.

Crises have become a basic characteristic for the contemporary organizations and countries in the third millennium within a dynamic environment, in that all organizations are exposed to the effect of crises. Therefore, there has been an increasing interest in strategic planning as a method of facing crises and adapting with the sudden and unexpected changes, since the strategic planning in facing crises means using a certain approach in to uncover the future opportunities as well as avoiding risks and crises at the level of the organization or the country.

The crisis is a situation or a state guided by the decision maker in a certain administrative entity where events are consequential and interrelated with causes in terms of degrees of impact and occurrence; however, due to the inability to face crises and manage them in the right way, they exacerbate and devastate organizations, departments and those working in them.

During corona pandemic, the Jordanian health sector experienced an administrative period mainly dominated by crisis, especially during the second wave in the beginning of the year 2021; this urged the Jordanian government and the ministry of health to live the crisis period day by day.

Based on the above mentioned, we noticed that the health sector in Jordan requires a strategic planning that deals with crises using the distinctive methods of strategic planning. Therefore, the current study aimed at identifying the impact of a strategic planning in crisis management in the Jordanian health sector. The study problem was outlined in the following question: "what is the role of strategic planning in crisis management from the perspective of the doctors working in the public Jordanian hospitals?"

The Study Objectives

The current study aimed at achieving the following objectives:

1. Identifying the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of weakness and strengths in crisis management.

2. Identifying the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of work dimensions analysis in crisis management.

3. Identifying the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of work domains analysis in crisis management .

4. Identifying the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of using situations and emergency in crisis management.

The Study Importance

The study importance lies in:

1. The novelty and positivity of the topic of strategic planning in facing crises by identifying the concepts of strategic planning and preparing effective strategic plans that support the processes of crisis resistance, pay attention to the speed of managing the crisis and eliminate the negative effects of crises.

2. The study contributes to identifying the positive effects of strategic planning in the municipality of Dora to face the crises and reduce their disadvantages, in addition to its role in solving and facing the future crises by determining the internal potentials, including weaknesses and strengths as well as threats and the methods of dealing with them.

The Previous Studies

Lusia (2013) conducted a study which aimed at investigating the way through which organizations deal with crisis management and face them based on the nature of the crisisas well as developing a general model for crisis management to recognize what organizations should take into consideration to manage crises. The study revealed that crises are divided into two main types: natural crises and human-made crises. In order to manage crises effectively, members of organizations should understand the steps of crisis management and develop the appropriate managerial models for that and the organizations should evaluate the existing strategies before setting new ones.

Dominic & Ets (2011) conducted a study which aimed at defining crisis, its nature and characteristics and identifying whether it is better to define crisis management as a process or an ability to communicate during crises. The study showed that crisis management is better defined as the organization's ability to respond effectively in case a crisis occurred as well as the organization's flexibility in applying the pre-determined strategies at the suitable time when information is distracted and the organization's situation is at risk.

Roger & Bennet (2005) conducted a study which aimed at identifying the extent of advancement in systems and plans of crisis management in business companies exporting to the third world countries. The study showed that the amount of risk faced by those companies is attributed to their bad planning in facing the crisis of exporting. The results revealed that about (20%) of those companies have systems and plans to manage exporting crises, while (33%) of them do not have any systems or plans for that. The study also revealed that companies are more inclined towards using their own judgment extensively in the processes of planning for crisis management.

Orifici & Michael (2000) conducted a study which aimed at identifying the impact of strategic planning on reducing the crises faced by employees in public institutions, identifying the importance of strategic planning, its dimensions and the components of effective strategic planning as well as identifying the factors that should taken into consideration by the management in order to reduce the effects of crises and alleviate risks and crises that face public organizations in the West Bank. The study used the analytical descriptive approach and the questionnaire was used as the study instrument for data collection; it was distributed to all the study population individuals which consisted of the employees of the public sector in Jerusalem suburbs, with a total of (850) employees.

Commenting the Previous Studies

After reviewing the previous studies, the researcher concluded that the topic of strategic planning, which has a vital role in achieving the objectives of the organization and planning for crises gained the interest of researchers. Several studies addressed the role of strategic planning in crisis management. The researcher made advantage of those studies in identifying the study domains and variables and utilized the statistical methods to analyze the study results, construct its items and domains and also made advantage of the results and recommendations of those studies.

Methods and Procedures

The Study Methodology

The study used the analytical descriptive approach due to its compatibility to the study nature.

The study population: based on the statistics of the Ministry of Health, there are about (36) public hospitals in Jordan, distributed in three regions (South, middle, North) with a total number of (3436) doctors working in them (ministry of health– Jordan, 2020). Since it is difficult to perform a survey of all the public hospitals, (6) hospitals were carefully chosen based on the geographical distribution and the percentage of doctors in each hospital. Accordingly, three hospitals were selected in the middle, two in the North and one in the south, as follows: (Al-Basheer hospital, prince Hamza hospital, Zarqa hospital, prince Basma hospital, Ramtha hospital, Al-Karak hospital); therefore, the total population of this study was (1931) doctors.

The study sample: the suitable sample size recommended by (Sekaran and Bougie, (2013) for the current study was (346) individuals, which means that (364) doctors will be included as a representative sample. In order to reduce the probability of error in sample size and consider nonresponse by some of its respondents. Accordingly, it was suggested that the sample size should be multiplied by (2) (Hair (2014); (364*2=692), which is approximately (700). Therefore, (700) questionnaires were distributed to the targeted sample individuals since the large sample size allows for more probability to generalize the results.

The study instrument: the researcher developed a questionnaire to measure the reality of strategic planning and its role in crisis management based on a review of the previous studies. The questionnaire consisted of two parts:

1. The first part: consists of items relating to strategic planning.

2. The second part: consists of items relating to crisis management.

The Study Instrument Validity

The validity of the study instrument refers to the extent to which the instrument is valid to measure what it has been designed to measure. The researcher introduced the questionnaire to a number of specialists who are faculty members in a number of the Jordanian Universities. The final version of the questionnaire was reformulated and consisted of (30) items.

The reliability of the study instrument: in order to verify the study instrument's reliability, internal consistency was investigated for the questionnaire's items using Cronbach alpha coefficient. The results are shown in Table (1).

Table 1
The Matrix of Cronbach Alpha Coefficient for the Reliability of the Study Instrument
The scale Number of cases Number of items Alpha value
Total degree 59 30 0.924

The results of Table (1) showed that the reliability of the study instrument at the total degree was (0.924), which indicates the reliability of the study instrument.

The statistical processing: after collecting the data, the researcher reviewed them and inserted them into the computer for statistical processing; each level was given a certain agreement degree as follows: strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), and strongly agree (5). The researcher used (SPSS) for statistical processing, where statistical processing of data was performed by calculating numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations, simple regression and Cronbach alpha formula.

Discussing and Interpreting the Study Questions and the Recommendations

Answering the First Question

What is the role of strategic planning in crisis management from the perspective of the doctors working in the public Jordanian hospitals?

In order to answer this question, means and standard deviations were calculated. Table (2) shows the results.

Table 2
Means and Standard Deviations for the Role of Strategic Planning in Crisis Management
The scale Mean SD
Weaknesses and strengths dimensions 4.80 0.780
Work domains analysis 4.91 0.880
Using situations and emergency 4.87 0.830
Crisis management 4.79 0.710

Table (2) revealed that there is a very important role for strategic planning in crisis management from the perspective of the doctors working in the public Jordanian hospitals, where the mean was (4.84), with a standard deviation of (0.80).

Testing the Hypotheses

The First Hypothesis

There is no statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (weaknesses and strengths) in crisis management from the perspective of those working in the public Jordanian hospitals.

In order to verify the hypothesis, simple regression analysis was used to verify the possible effect of strategic planning according to the variable of weaknesses and strengths in crisis management in the public Jordanian hospitals. Table (3) shows the results.

Table 3
Multi Regression Analysis For The Impact of Strategic Planning According to the Variable of Weaknesses and Strengths in Crisis Management
Variable Correlation coefficient (R) Determination coefficient R2 F Sig.level
Weaknesses and strengths dimensions 0.721 0.520 52.463 0.000

Table (3) shows the possible effect of strategic planning according to the variable of weaknesses and strengths in crisis management, where the results of the statistical analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant impact for strategic planning according to the variable of (weaknesses and strengths) in crisis management based on a calculated F-value (9..020) and a significance level (α=0.000) which is significant at (α≤0.05). the statistical results in the previous table showed that the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of (weaknesses and strengths) in crisis management accounted for (0.521) of variance in the dependent variable (crisis management), which is considered as relatively high interpretation power. Accordingly, the hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, which states that "there is a statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (weaknesses and strengths) in crisis management".

The Second Hypothesis

There is no statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (work domains analysis) in crisis management from the perspective of those working in the public Jordanian hospitals as shows in Table 4.

Table 4
Multi Regression Analysis for the Impact of Strategic Planning According to the Variable of Work Domains Analysis in Crisis Management
Variable Correlation coefficient (R) Determination coefficient R2 F Sig. level
work domains analysis 0.562 0.571 64.830 0.000

Table (4) shows the possible effect of strategic planning according to the variable of work domains analysis in crisis management, where the results of the statistical analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant impact for strategic planning according to the variable of (work domains analysis) in crisis management based on a calculated F-value (20..04) and a significance level (α=0.000) which is significant at (α≤0.05). The statistical results in the previous table showed that the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of (work domains analysis) in crisis management accounted for (0.571) of variance in the dependent variable (crisis management), which is considered as relatively high interpretation power. Accordingly, the hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, which states that "there is a statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (work domains analysis) in crisis management".

The Third Hypothesis

There is no statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (Using situations and emergency) in crisis management from the perspective of those working in the public Jordanian hospitals.

Table 5
Multi Regression Analysis for the Impact of Strategic Planning According to the Variable of Using Situations and Emergency in Crisis Management
Variable Correlation coefficient (R) Determination coefficient R2 F Sig. leve
Using situations and emergency 0.541 0.551 61.711 0.000

Table (5) shows the possible effect of strategic planning according to the variable of using situations and emergency in crisis management, where the results of the statistical analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant impact for strategic planning according to the variable of (using situations and emergency) in crisis management based on a calculated F-value (21.711) and a significance level (α=0.000) which is significant at (α≤0.05). The statistical results in the previous table showed that the impact of strategic planning according to the variable of (using situations and emergency) in crisis management accounted for (0.591) of variance in the dependent variable (crisis management), which is considered as relatively high interpretation power. Accordingly, the hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, which states that "there is a statistically significant impact at (α≤0.05) for strategic planning according to the variable of (using situations and emergency) in crisis management".

Results

After analyzing the results, the study concluded the following:

• There is a very high role for strategic planning in crisis management in the Jordanian hospitals.

• The most important variables were as follows (work domains analysis, with a mean of (4.91), using situations and emergency, with a mean of (4.87), and finally weaknesses and strengths dimensions with a mean of (4.80).

• Crisis management in the Jordanian hospitals gained a very high degree with a mean of (4.79).

• There is a statistically significant impact at (0.05) for strategic planning according to the variables of (work domains analysis, using situations and emergency, weaknesses and strengths dimensions) in crisis management in the Jordanian hospitals from the perspective of doctors.

Recommendations

In the light of the results, the study recommended the following:

1. The necessity of sharing all the doctors working in hospitals in the process of strategic planning due to its impact on providing more information about all the dimensions and circumstances of the work environment in hospitals.

2. The necessity of holding specialized training courses concerning the managerial skills in general as well as strategic planning and the way of dealing with crises in particular.

3. Establishing units for crisis management in the ministry of health and the hospitals belonging to it and recruiting a specified staff in this domain.

4. Conducting further studies and researches to identify the role of strategic planning in hospitals in dealing with crisis, especially after the experience with corona pandemic.

References

Orifici, J.M. (2000). "Developing an effective crisis management plan: The role of a project manager". School Business Affairs, 66(9).

Roger, B. (2005). "An empirical study". Journal of Europe Marketing, 14(3).

Olsen, E. (2007). "Strategic planning for dummies, wily publishing". inc.indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Lusia, N.H. (2013). Crisis management: Determining specific strategies and leadership style for effectives, university of malang, Indonesia. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 2(2).

Dominic, C., & Caudia, H. (2011). Crisis management-What is it and how is it delivered? UK.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2013). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. United Kingdom: John Willey & Sons Ltd.

Hair, J.F., Hult, M.T.G., Ringle, M.G., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A premier on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.

shapivc, J. (2003). "Strategic planning toolk it, civicus: World alliance for citizen participation". Retrieved from :http:// www.civicus.org.

Bryson, J.M. (2011). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement. John Wiley & Sons, 1.

Okuma, P. (2003). "Strategic planning and management". UNASO, organizational development program, kanipala, Uganda. retrieved in January 15, 2010 from :http://www.unaso.org.ug.

Kraus, S., Moog, P., Schlepphorst, S., & Raich, M. (2013). Crisis and turnaround management in SMEs: A qualitative-empirical investigation of 30 companies. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 5(4), 406-430.

Jullian, O. (2013). Relationship between strategic planning and orgnisation‘s performance in NGOS: A case of actionad, kenya. (doctoral dissertation, school of business, university of nairobi).

Get the App