Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 28 Issue: 2S

The Impact of Sustainable Human Resource Practices on Employee Behaviour: The Case of Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

Naser Khdour, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Eyad A. Shaban, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Zeyad Alkhazali, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Atef T. Al Raoush, Philadelphia University

Citation Information: Khdour, N., Shaban, E.A., Alkhazali, Z., & Al Raoush, A.T. (2022). The impact of sustainable human resource practices on employee behaviour: the case of pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 28(S2), 1-15.


Sustainable Human Resource Practices, Human Resource Management, Corporate Social Responsibility, Employee Behaviour, Pharmaceutical Sector, Jordan


 This study aims to examine the impact of sustainable human resource practices in terms of working conditions, health and work safety, professional development, employee right, and internal communication on employee behaviour in the pharmaceutical sector of Jordan. A cross- sectional research design was applied following a quantitative approach to collect data from 300 employees using a self-administrated questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. Working conditions, health and work safety, professional development, employee rights, and internal communication significantly influenced on employees’ behaviour. This study finds out that sustainable human resource practices helped in inducing engagement among the employee, and consequently promoted employees’ work performance. Furthermore, the Jordanian and the international practices can be combined to help promote responsible and effective practices of the company among the various stakeholders. This study is the first study that examines the impact of specific sustainable human resource practices on pharmaceutical companies in Jordan. The paper implies that sustainable human resource practices must be incorporated into the performance management strategic framework, and programs for leadership and organizational development to enhance a sustainable working environment


At present, global competition has progressively altered the work practices, particularly in the manufacturing sector. In this regard, various studies directed their attention to the sustainable performance leading to sustainable competitive advantage in the global business environment (Noe et al., Wright, 2017; Bin Bilal et al., 2019). The emphasis towards the adaptation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has driven firms to integrate environmental, social, ethical, and human rights into their business strategy, along with collaboration with its stakeholders (Li, Sun & Li, 2019). Obrad & Gherhe? (2018) enlightened two dimensions of CSR activities; external and internal CSR. External CSR ensures the collaboration with the customers, business partners, and suppliers, and the main focus is on the factors which affect society as a whole. On the other hand, the internal dimension refers to the collaboration with employees and the responsibility towards them.

Several studies have confirmed that employees are the prime stakeholders of the company, given their involvement in the firm’s activity (Noe et al., 2017; Obrad & Gherhes, 2018; Bam, De Stobbeleir & Vlok, 2019). Noe, et al., (2017) demonstrated that the employee behaviour affects the performance of a firm, which necessitates ensuring a healthy work environment. The same study highlighted that human resource management practices were stimulant for generating a motivating or demotivating employee behaviour, which helps the company to achieve sustainable development and competitive advantage (Noe et al., 2017). According to Cohen, Taylor & Muller-Camen (2012), sustainable human resource management is defined as “the use of Human Resource Management (HRM) tool to assist in embedding a sustainable firm strategy and creating a human resource management system for improving the firm’s performance”.

The impact of CSR on employee behaviour is complicated and unconvincing because it is still questionable at many points. Performance of company from CSR’s perspective has become a greater concern for companies across the world. There is increase in interest to determine the extent to which CSR practices affect employee behaviour and performance (Al-Zawahreh et al., 2018). Previously, studies have focused on the impact of CSR on performance of different industries, but failed to link within the pharmaceutical industry. Considering CSR and employee behaviour, it is important to focus on performance through many areas, particularly to ensure the success of a business, make company stronger, perform better in the market, and increase its profits. The impact of CSR, HRM, and employee behaviour is still not fully covered by previous studies due to difficulty in measuring the impact of CSR on employee behaviour.

One of the study by Sharabati (2018) was conducted on the pharmaceutical sector, though it has been limited to analysis of business performance and draws little to no attention on the effect it has on employee behaviour. Earlier researchers have focused on the corporate performance, though, the results remain different (Dzhavdatovna, Rishadovna & Alexandrovna, 2014; Sharabati, 2018). To bridge the gap, the study aims to assess the effects of sustainable human resource practices on employee behaviour among the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector. The selection for the pharmaceutical sector is based on its recognition as the hub of the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in the Middle-Eastern Northern-Region (MENA) region (ICIEC, 2016). Additionally, the study has examined the relationship between job characteristics, HRM practices, and work environment to employee behaviour in the context of pharmaceutical sector. This study assists in understanding the role of HRM practices on the employee behaviour from the perspectives of policymakers.

Theoretical Background

Evidence from the literature suggests a link between the CSR and HRM (Cohen et al., 2012; Jamali et al., 2015; Li et al., 2019). Obrad & Gherhe? (2018) highlighted that sustainable HR activities in CSR enhance the recruitment practices, employee’s motivation, and commitment. Voegtlin & Greenwood (2016) added that responsibility of the companies towards their internal stakeholders has also increased due to the pressure of the NGOs, mass media, and consumers who demand companies to adapt their socially responsible behaviour. This promotes companies to improve their relationship with their workforce (Li et al., 2019; Stein and Min, 2019; Voegtlin & Greenwood, 2016). Similarly, Saeed, et al., (2019) depicted that sustainable human resource practices enhance employee motivation, morale, commitment, and loyalty. Other sustainable practices highlighted include the provision of training, safe and clean work environment, healthy culture, fair wages as well as health and education benefits, and flexible work hours aimed at improving the work motivation, morale, productivity while simultaneously mitigating the absenteeism and staff turnover (Obrad & Gherhe?, 2018).

Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

Well-being, human motivation and personality development are the factors included in Self-determination theory. Self-determined behaviour, social and cultural conditions are also emphasized within self-determination theory. In this theory, the universal set psychological and basic needs include relatedness, autonomy and competence, and human function instead of culture or stage of development (Ryan, 2009). Human behaviour comprises of both individual sinks included internal and external was claimed by means of Self- determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Behaviour was one of the most important motivated factors which were regulated by means of external stimuli maintained and introduced by contingencies external to person. Autonomous motivation against controlled motivation was the degree in which extrinsic motivation can differently impact an individual’s behaviour. According to the postulate of self- determination theory the controlled and autonomous motivation were different in the controlling process and their experience as well.

Literature Review

Pharmaceutical industries are now increasingly developing and implementing unique human resource practices. A significant amount of interest has been provided to the idea, where different types of CSR practices are studied that may affect employee behaviour. Kumar (2017) has investigated important CSR practices that are implemented in the Incepta Pharmaceutical Company. The analyses regarding various CSR strategies have been undertaken. The study has indicated that the major focus of the company is dedicated to creating effective corporate citizenship, promotion of ethical practices, and the obedience of company policies. The following practices, however, were effective in increasing the profitability of the pharmaceutical company. It was further provided that the practices were significant in developing good employee behaviour.

Working Conditions

Thang & Fassin (2017) provided significant value to work conditions, work-life balance and training, and development in improving the employee behaviour, as findings indicated a positive correlation between employees’ satisfaction, work-life balance, working conditions, and training and development. Al-Zawahreh, Mahmoud & Alkhawaldeh (2018) conducted analysed the effect of CSR practices in stimulating the high-level performance of Jordanian pharmaceutical companies. Similarly, various studies have shown that organizational effective work conditions were integral for promoting positive employee behaviour and work consequences (Woocheol & Park, 2017; Dougla, Jabbour, Muller-Camen, Redman & Wilkinson, 2016; Zucheng, Nanfeng & Li-Ping Tang, 2018). Earlier work of various authors emphasized that work conditions pose a direct positive impact on the ethical work climate reducing the formation of the egoistic environment (Leszczynska & Agnieszka, 2016).

The use of effective work environment enables the organization to overcome and effectively respond to the environmental challenges, which helps contributing to the environmental sustainability in the long-run (Opatha & Arulrajah, 2014). Most studies have emphasized that sustainable HRM practices require instigating positive work environment through different policies and procedures for instilling employee engagement, motivation, and improved work performance (Dumont, Shen & Deng, 2017; Rabia & Al-Ansi, 2019; Zaid, Bon & Jaaron, 2018).

Healthy and Safety Practices

Alnidawi & Omran (2016) have studied the idea through another perspective, where organizational learning environment, supportive leadership, and social activities within the environment were of greater value in developing employee learning attitude. The idea is crucial as it results in increasing employee knowledge leading towards employee creativity that can be implemented in the everyday working environment. The study further added that organizations integrating maximum learning environment were often productive and enjoy minimum intellectual capital risks. Since organizations that were not supportive in employee learning tend to experience maximum risks of intellectual capital.

Al-Qudah, Khawaldeh & Bashayreh (2018), on the other hand, examined the effectiveness of HRM practices in the health sector of Jordan. Factors such as job analysis, employee training, strategic planning, compensation, and rewards, training, and development were studied. The findings of the study indicated that the following practices were usually implemented insufficiently, leading towards minimum employee growth and job satisfaction. The study has also indicated that compensation and rewards were only provided on employees’ request, representing the ineffective HRM practices.

Employee Professional Development

Cavazotte & Chang (2016) have studied the idea through similar perspectives. The study has indicated that skill development, employee empowerment, employment stability, work-life balance, and working environment were effective in increasing the performance of the company. Also, a direct relationship was found between CSR and employee satisfaction. Alnidawi & Omran (2016) have demonstrated a positive relationship between CSR practices and the performance of pharmaceutical companies. Various studies have further indicated that variables such as; customer responsibility, supplier and employee development were significant in influencing the financial performance of the pharmaceutical companies (Alnidawi & Omran, 2016; Shibeika, 2016; Al-Zawahreh et al., 2018).

CSR practices were controlled and practiced through different dimensions, including; employees’, suppliers’, and customer satisfaction. Wang (2019) has further added that CSR practices were linked with to enrich customers’ responsibilities. The study has also emphasized the idea of building a firm relationship with consumers since they serve as an essential source of providing increasing profit to the company. Therefore, the study has argued that CSR plays an important role in providing satisfaction to customers, as they are the key players in providing maximum profit to the pharmaceutical industry. Mory, Wirtz & Göttel (2016) have proposed results that were similar to those provided by Thang & Fassin (2017). According to the findings, work-life balance, training and development, working conditions, and empowerment stability were effective in empowering employees for job satisfaction.

Employee Rights

Baik, Song & Hong (2018) have highlighted that sustainable HR practices must ensure effective and positive employee behaviour by ensuring employee interest and right. It is because employees were the valuable resource of an organization which ensures reach to the determined mission and goals (Brenninkmeijer & Hekkert-Koning, 2015). Even though employees were likely to fulfil their task, ensuring employee rights to help promote more effective working, enriched jobs as well as the satisfaction of the employee (Baik et al., 2018). Deci & Ryan (2000) theory of self-determination shows that better crafting of jobs and protection of employee rights help to enhance employee engagement towards a job, promoting positive and sustainable change in employee behaviour.

Another research by Wang (2019) showed that when employees get what they desire in a job, they were likely to outperform. According to Judge, Locke, Durham & Kluger (1998), one’s disposition to job satisfaction is based on four factors; namely, general self-efficacy, self- esteem, locus of control, and neuroticism. Tabiu & Pangil (2016) have showed that ensuring the protection of employee rights and its compliance helps in forming positive culture and cooperation in the organization workforce.

Internal Communication

According to Obeidat, Altheeb & Masa’deh (2018), CSR; when practiced in an effective manner, is of greater significance in improving the job satisfaction of employees. The major characteristics of the effective CSR include; employee empowerment, work-life balance, along with working conditions provided to the employees. Other factors, including the development of skills and employment stability, were found as ineffective factors in developing employee behaviour. The study further indicated that Jordanian pharmaceutical companies, due to the outlined characteristics, were effective in improving employee behaviour resulting in increased output.

Obrad & Gherhe? (2018) have also showed the effectiveness of communication in promoting positive employee behaviour. Punjaisri & Alan (2017) have also shown that internal communication was essential for internal branding of the firm, which improves the employee value for the organization. Ybema, Vuuren & Dam (2017) link employee behaviour and internal communication, stating it was necessary for implementing the HR policies effectively. Various studies have also shown that internal communication was necessary, given its positive outcomes such as motivation, productivity, engagement and interaction in an organization, all linked to the positive and incremental production outcomes (Albrecht, Bakker, Gruman, Macey & Saks, 2015; Stankeviciute & Savaneviciene, 2018; Tiwari & Saxena, 2012).


For analysing the relationship between sustainable human resource practices on employee behaviour, the researcher has developed following hypotheses.

Working Conditions and Employee Behaviour

Durable changes in working environment overcome the problem of increasing production and making the work environment more conducive (Zaid and Al- Manasra, 2013). Physical environment is one of the most important tenants of working conditions and employee behaviour. The impact of noise, atmospheric conditions, temperature, and illumination was also considered important, when talking about employee behaviour (Wang, 2019). On the contrary, the psycho-social environment leads to the organizational psychology and also accepts the notion of quality of work life. The importance of working conditions has been identified with respect to physical work environment.

H01: Working conditions positively and significantly affects employee behaviour in pharmaceutical industry.

Health and Work Safety and Employee Behaviour

Firms integrating maximum learning environment enjoy minimum intellectual capital risks and are usually productive. Organizations are not conducive in employee health and work safety as they experience maximum hazards of intellectual capital (Hammer et al., 2016). The ineffectiveness of HRM practices was observed when rewards and compensation were given based on the request of employees. The aspects of the HRM cycle-selection, rewards and training, and appraisal were directly associated with the health and safety function (Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015). The selection of employees with personality traits in the selection process can allow the management to maintain a healthy and safe workplace to reduce the possibility of accidents (Bronkhorst, 2015). A reward system can encourage safe work behaviour that associates bonus payments for the safety record of a work section or a group. H02: Health and work safety positively and significantly affects employee behaviour in pharmaceutical industry.

Professional Development and Employee Behaviour

Professional development explains the motivation and stimulation of an employee through his career life in the employment period. It is also used as the succession of job experiences that enables an individual for achieving progressive job ranks (Mackay, 2017). Organizational requirements were most likely to be encountered by employee development. A fundamental career development system includes four steps such as goal setting, action planning, self-assessment, and reality check (Evers, Heijden & Kreijns, 2016). At each phase, both the employee and the organization have different tasks. The system will be beneficial if it was related to the organizational objectives and necessities with individual’s contribution and managerial reinforcement.

H03: Professional development positively and significantly affects employee behaviour in pharmaceutical industry.

Employee Right and Employee Behaviour

Overlooking the association between employee rights to enhanced employee behaviour is curious. The fact is there is a positive association between employment conditions, employee rights, and employee behaviour (Jacobs, Yu and Chavez, 2016). Offering employee rights help the employers to promote effective working, enrich jobs, and the satisfaction of the employee (Yeomans & FitzPatrick, 2017). This also supports intrinsic motivation among the employees who were more motivated for attempting additional efforts into their assigned task, leading to enhanced performance of the prescribed task.

H04: Employee rights positively and significantly affects employee behaviour in pharmaceutical industry.

Internal Communication and Employee Behaviour

Internal communication was found to be an important driver for employee engagement and employee behaviour. It was also observed that an increase in staff satisfaction leads to an increase in employee behaviour (Constantin & Baias, 2015). Increased behaviour then drives value for the organizations. Employee behaviour adds values to the organization by driving customer satisfaction, which consequently improves customer loyalty and escalates profitability and development of an organization (Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017).

H05: Internal communication positively and significantly affects employee behaviour in pharmaceutical industry.

The study variables are illustrated in Figure 1. The independent variables in the study were SHRPs, while the dependent variable was employee behaviour.

Figure 1: The Independent Variables and Dependent Variable


Study Design and Setting

A cross-sectional study design was used following a quantitative approach. The study population comprised of all employees working in Jordanian pharmaceutical companies.

Study Population and Sample

According to the Jordanian Association Pharmaceutical Manufacturers (2019), a total of 5479 employees were working in 13 pharmaceutical companies registered in the Jordanian Association of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers (JAPM). A non-probabilistic sampling design was used to select employees from the population. In 13 studied pharmaceutical companies, there were approximately 5550 working employees. The sample of the study based on four managerial levels of employees that include managers, assistant managers, head of sections, and supervisors. A sample size of 10% was chosen randomly from each pharmaceutical company that resulted in distribution of 550; while, only 300 completed questionnaires were used for statistical analysis.

Study Tool

The questionnaire comprised two parts, where first part collected baseline characteristics of the participants such as gender, age, and work experience, whereas, second part collected details concerning the impact of sustainable human resource practices on the behaviour of an employee. All the items of the questionnaire were measured using a five-point Likert scale ranged as follows: Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Neutral=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1. A review was made for the questionnaire by academics from different Jordanian universities and from managers working in pharmaceutical companies to test the validity of the questionnaire and to assure clarity and for removing ambiguity. All the modifications were considered in the final version of the questionnaire.

Study Procedure

Initially, ethical clearance was obtained, and visits were made to obtain permission from the companies for conducting the study. Additionally, the study participants were communicated the study nature and objective, where participants’ participation was ensured to be confidential and voluntary. The questionnaire was filled in the presence of the researcher to ensure that each participant understands the questions and contacts the researcher in case of any ambiguity.

Data Analysis

IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20.0 was used to analyse the data. Descriptive statistics were used for evaluating the categorical variable, while multiple regression analysis was used for continuous variables (significance value was determined at p<0.05). The study also performed Harman’s one-factor test for testing common method biases as this was a self-reported surveys. The value for all the variables was <0.50, which implies no such issue for this research.


Prior to the distribution of the questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. The alpha value achieved was 0.089, which denotes the high reliability of the questionnaire (Table 1).

Table 1
Reliability Statistics
Variables Cronbach’s Alpha No of Items
Working Condition 0.841 3
Health and Work Safety 0.749 3
Professional Development 0.856 3
Employee Right 0.821 5
Internal Communication 0.799 4

Majority of the respondents were male (70.7%), and 29.3% were females (Table 2). Most of the respondents (34.3%) were aged above 40 years, while (25%) of employees were above 25 years. A total of 38.3% of respondents had experience of above 15 years and only 12.7% of them were have an experience of less than 5 years.

Table 2
Descriptive Statistics
Demographics Frequency Percentage
  Male 212 70.7%
  Female 88 29.3
  Above 25 years 75 25%
  Between 25-35 years 54 18%
  Between 35-40 years 68 22.7%
  Above 40 years 103 34.3%
Experience Level      
  Less than 5 years 38 12.7%
  Between 5-10 years 94 31.3%
  Between 10-15 years 53 17.7%
  Above 15 years 115 38.3%

Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses and examine the impact of SHRP on employee behaviour (Table 3). In addition, working conditions (p=0.030), health and work safety working (p=0.000), professional development (p=0.000), employees’ right (p =0.027), and internal communication (p=0.041) significantly impacted on employee behaviour, respectively, and thus accepts H01-H05. The value of R2 in this study is 0.768, which indicates better fit for the model. These findings have indicated a significant and overall impact of SHRP on employee behaviour.

Table 3
Multiple Regression Analysis
Model   R R2 Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate B t Sig.
1 Constant 0.876a 0.768 0.764 0.378 0.301 3.522 0.000
  Working Condition         0.653 5.102 0.030
  Health and Work Safety         0.789 8.277 0.000
  Professional Development         0.443 4.213 0.000
  Employee Right         0.331 2.217 0.041
  Internal Communication         0.397 2.693 0.037


Sustainable practice poses a great impact on employee behaviour in the pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. The results of the study highlighted that sustainable practices in HRM help improve organization sustainability, which eventually enhances the firm performance in the long run. These findings were consistent with the study of Noe, et al., (2017), which supported that appropriate work conditions help the employee to give his utmost performance, which eventually improves the company productivity. Accordingly, the study of Guerci, et al., (2015) has endorsed the present study results, depicting that the appropriate work environment promotes the employee to make ethical decisions and promotes his ethical behaviour.

Similarly, the study results demonstrated that employee behaviour was substantially impacted by the healthy and safe practices of the company. Li, et al., (2019) also found a significant impact of HRM practices and showed that safety across different task strengthens the employee feeling towards the task and the organization. In light of healthy working practices, the employer tries to retain an employee by providing him a sense of job security. Demonstration of attitude or behaviour oriented instead of results-oriented has found to improve the employee’s performance in an organization. This also promotes an employee to take charge of the task to ensure healthy work practices. Various other researchers have also shown an increased association of the safety climate with employee engagement and retention (Biddison, Paine, Murakami, Herzke & Weaver, 2016; Huang et al., 2016; Idris, Dollard & Tuckey, 2015).

The pharmaceutical sector employees’ behaviour was impacted by the development opportunities provided. The significant impact of developmental activities and positive employee behaviour have also been demonstrated by Manzoor, et al., (2019) which endorsed that training helps in boosting employee’ morale and work motivation.

The results of the study further showed that there is a substantial impact on employee right and employee behaviour. These results are corroborated by Zacher, Robinson & Rosing (2016), who stated that understanding of the employee rights and its implementation in the company, is positively related to their improved work performance. Various other researchers are also found to be consistent with the present study results, which showed that sustainable HRM practices and CSR activities help in promoting employee rights (Shen & Benson, 2016; Xing et al., 2016). This, in turn, assists in improving the work commitment, welfare of the employees, and their strategic involvement in the organization functions (Latorre et al., 2016; Papasolomou, Kountouros & Melanthiou, 2018; Shen & Benson, 2016). Ensuring that the organizational practices are in-line with the employee rights and interest has also found to help in gaining a competitive edge in the market, and improving organizational financial development. Accordingly, the findings of the present study provide evidence that sustainable HRM practices ensure the effective and profitable performance of the organization.

Internal communication is also found to be impacted due to sustainable practices, as indicated in the present study. Celma, Martinez-Garciab & Rayaa (2018) study results are found to corroborate the findings and state the effective communication improves the team collaboration while simultaneously enhances the satisfaction of the employees. Another study by Arulrajah, Opatha & Navaratne (2015) ensures that communicating the employee rights and delegating role help to enhance employee trust improving his work productivity. Similarly, the research of Alshuaibia & Shamsudinb (2016) show the internal branding is enabled due to effective internal communication and feedback. Another study of Obrad & Gherhe? (2018) also support the present study findings and state that internal communication helps to foster effective work culture, improved employee engagement, and better financial gains. These results reject the formulated null hypothesis and establish a significant impact of internal communication on employee behaviour.

The current research found a relationship between internal communication and employee behaviour. The results of the pharmaceutical sector are in line with other researchers conducted in the pharmaceutical sector (Al-Sukkar, Abu Hussein & Abu Jalil, 2013; Zaid & Al- Manasra, 2013). Similarly, the findings are also corroborated by the researches on the different pharmaceutical sector across the world (Masri and Jaaron, 2017; Mehralian et al., 2016).


This study has investigated the impact of SHR practices on employee behaviour and concluded that SHR practices have a positively significant effect on employee behaviour. Employees need career development as much as they need salaries; increase in development improves the employees’ perception to a greater level. Performance appraisal has a positively significant effect on organizational justice. Performance appraisal can be moulded in different perspectives to organizational justice and can achieve higher organizational justice; it is a significant component of improved organizational development (Glavas, 2016). The need for a new resource should be biased; recruitment and selection criteria need to be in accordance with the job role and sometimes it may be appropriate to give chance to an already working recourse. It is believed that new recruitment and selection processes are playing a positive role in improving employee behaviour as the results concluded the same (Kundu & Gahlawat, 2015). Remuneration and compensation have a positively insignificant effect on employee behaviour. Similarly, training and development has a positively insignificant effect on employee behaviour, since these both effects are insignificant therefore it does not affect the hypothesis.

The significance of strategic alignment is well-appreciated by the top management to maintain growth considering the individual strategies of employees, which implicates massive changes in human resource efforts. This study is important for HR personnel, HR practitioners, researchers, and occupational psychologists regarding the organizational behaviour and development that contribute to improve employee performance efficiency. This study makes efforts for compiling noteworthy contributions in the realms of effective organizational reduction and interventions, and employee work attitude. Another significant effort of this study is to indicate potential gaps in the studies conducted that can endow possible opportunities in this realm along with providing explicit indication for the existing human resource practitioners. Thereby, the current study is anticipated to contribute to the literature generally and particularly in the context of Jordan. This study results are likely to provide the managers a significant insight in growing Jordanian pharmaceutical sector in order to structure HRM practices for effectively achieving positive consequences for their organization and their employees.

This study has shown the significance and importance to understand perceptions of fairness of employees through interpersonal working relationships as well as improved understanding regarding SHRP factors associated with work-related consequences. The practical implications have been presented specifically for the organizational management specifically to generalize the management of other organizations. It is important that role of supervisor should be emphasized in order to mitigate the increasing gap between the preference for young researchers and their accessible supply and to maintain the accessible talent. The results have emphasized that commitment and turnover intention of employees is highly affected through the quality of LMX. A plausible implication that can be beneficial is to train supervisors and to improvise individual working relationships with the management. Therefore, specific attention should be given to the employees in order to allow them to interact with their counterparts. This approach allows them to affect their preference to stay or leave the organization and consequently impact the success in integrating into new international markets.

Limitations and Future Research

The study results are considered to be limited because they are restricted to consideration of CSR perceptions. However, there is need to examine the model presented in this study further through the incorporation of firms-level boundary conditions to explain this micro-level relationship such as CEO traits and characteristics. Moreover, this study was conducted in Jordan alone, so the future studies should uncover cultural and religious factors across different countries by collecting data from multiple countries for a better understanding of CSR perceptions and employee behaviours.

Future studies can assess the sustainable practicing in the context of motivation theories such as expectancy theory, need theory, equity theory as well as a job design model, and its impact on employee behaviour. These studies can also incorporate stakeholder theory for assessing the impact different stakeholder has on the CSR activities of the firm. Also, more longitudinal researches can be held by replicating the study findings on different population and region for generating new insights on the employee behaviour. Different and more analytical testing tools can be deployed for testing the study variables using different variables, particularly the local variables which impact the employee behaviour. Besides, future studies might also consider other sectors such as health and education, manufacturing, and more.

Similarly, future researches can devise a framework that assists in the promotion of sustainable practices to prevent waste production, execution of the green culture in the firm, which helps reflect future sustainable practices. Also, firms can develop a link between HR policies as well as green practices for clarifying and enhancing the firm’s sustainability performance. The managers’ role can also be enhanced for reinforcing collective behaviour and commitment towards sustainable performance. Similarly, educational interventions in HRM teaching must be improved, and ethical awareness, as well as an understanding of employer- employee relationships, must be ensured. The managers must also be trained in different aspects that relate to organizational performance, which assists in forming effective building and development strategies.

Even though this research has tested various hypotheses and provided new empirical evidence concerning the impact of internal communication on the employee behaviour related to sustainability, more generalizable findings are required. These findings are likely to assists in the application of different theoretical premises and forming different research models. Implementation of the following suggestions is likely to assists in enhancing the study scope and will provide results that are representative of different industries and sectors.


The study concluded that sustainable HRM practices impact the financial practices of the company given its link with employee behaviour, work motivation, and engagement. These results showed that the increase in sustainable activities is necessary to be implemented due to the increased awareness of the people which necessitated the organization to execute sustainable practices. This not only helps in the enhancement of the firm’s financial performance but also assists in the promotion of the company positive image and reputation within and outside the firm. This important finding of this research is for HR managers and the directors who must invest in constructing responsible HR policies, which enhances the opportunity for organizational growth. The sustainable HRM practices are integral for the development of a sustainable corporate strategy integral for business success. Secondly, it helps in promoting value integrated working and practices, which help embed sustainable values, engage stakeholder, review HR policies, and track as well as provide performance feedback. Considering the pandemic situation at present, it is hoped that the scientific knowledge regarding death reminders at work prove to be useful in the workplace. Future research need to consider the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic calls for understanding how occupational health interventions and practices are useful in protecting the well-being of employees confronted with death reminders at work and contribute towards effective pandemic preparedness.


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Received: 15-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. AEJ-21-9204; Editor assigned: 17-Dec-2021, PreQC No. AEJ-21-9204(PQ); Reviewed: 29-Dec-2021, QC No. AEJ-21-9204; Revised: 07-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-21-9204(R); Published: 15-Jan-2022

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