Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 26 Issue: 2

The Importance of Entrepreneurial Initiative for Industry Development Tasks 4.0

Iurii V. Zabaikin, Russian State Geological Prospecting University

Mikhail F. Kharlamov, Russian State Geological Prospecting University


Aim of the study: The global dynamics of transformation of socio-economic systems has a multiplicative effect on the Russian economy, but with some time lag due to the development of the leading countries in the framework of the natural evolutionary path of development: during the formation of economic relations of innovation and entrepreneurship in Russia in the framework of the reform-evolutionary path is the formation of the market. Methodology: Against the background of the increasing pace of adaptation of the socioeconomic system to the market structure, there is the emergence of inefficient institutions and market players, which determines the need for the state to assume the role of initiator of new industrial development. Conclusion: Consequently, the development of the mechanism of the new industrialization in the conditions of state support is one of the main objectives in the development of the theory of the new industrialization and programme for its implementation, which is dictated by the expected goals, which consist in the formation of high-tech and knowledge-intensive economy in the conditions of automation of production processes on the basis of innovative development, resource-saving and waste-free; designation of intellectual capital as a factor of production and assigning them a leading role in the development of entrepreneurship, industry and economy; achieving self-sufficiency of the country in goods and services that meet the needs of the population, which have grown in qualitative terms.


Entrepreneurship, Innovation System, Risk Management, Stock, Component, Formation.The change in the export-oriented nature of the economy and the model of economic growth based on the transformation of super-revenues into domestic demand, based on the policy of new industrialization, is necessary not only as a condition of overcoming the current crisis and the formation of a viable and competitive structure of the economy, but also as a condition of ensuring a balanced budget for expenditures and revenues in the conditions of saturation of the world market with energy resources and negative elasticity of demand for them by Western countries (Abramov, 2016).


The change in the export-oriented nature of the economy and the model of economic growth based on the transformation of super-revenues into domestic demand, based on the policy of new industrialization, is necessary not only as a condition of overcoming the current crisis and the formation of a viable and competitive structure of the economy, but also as a condition of ensuring a balanced budget for expenditures and revenues in the conditions of saturation of the world market with energy resources and negative elasticity of demand for them by Western countries (Abramov, 2016).

Economic science at this stage of development does not distinguish structuralism as a separate school, however, it is possible to identify individual authors who share the ideas of structuralism, but adhere to the ideology of another economic school and to identify the features of structural transformations of the socio-economic system, which will be the basis for making recommendations for the new industrialization (Bayramukova, 2016).

The economic exercises present multivariate approaches to structural analysis of the economy. One of the leading today is the concept of the evolution of society within the level approach to technological development, developed by D. Bell. The concept is based on the gradual transition of society from pre-industrial, which is based on traditional production to industrial, where the basis of development is manufacturing and transport, and to post-industrial the basis of which are three sectors: tertiary (transport, communication services), quaternary (trade, Finance, insurance, real estate operations) and five (medical, educational services, scientific activities) (Hasanov, 2012).


According to the main goal of the implementation of the plan of priority measures to ensure sustainable economic development and social stability and import substitution programs in key sectors implemented in the Russian economy since 2015, some data were noted. According to Rosstat, in the period January-August of 2015 compared to the same period last year it is possible to specify some positions, which gave an increase of domestic production of medicines and 11.8%, machinery and 10.4%, meat and meat products-by 4.9%, processing of fish and seafood by 4.2%, the fabric was 4.2%, woodworking-by 3.7%, dairy products by 2.7%. According to the data of 2016, 2017, the most successful industry implementing import substitution is the agricultural sector, where according to the Ministry of agriculture of the Russian Federation, the share of imports in pork consumption decreased from 26% in 2013 to 8% in 2016, poultry meat from 12% in 2013 to 5% in 2016, agricultural exports grew 3.5 times from 4.8 billion dollars in 2006 to 17.1 billion dollars in 2016. There are also industries that are large consumers of innovative products, but the import substitution program requires more resources and time, for example, according to the Ministry of industry and trade of Russia, dependence on imported products in the machine tool industry from 2014 to 2017 decreased from 87% to 70%, and the production of oil-producing equipment from 57% to 52%.

These principles of transformation in the context of the new industrialization of the economy reflect the development of economic relations in the structure of the national economy and the changing role of human capital and the state in the functioning of the modern Russian economy (Dolzhenko, 2014).

Results and Discussion

The shift of focus in determining the role of human capital in conditions where the points of growth are innovations and innovations, from the factor of production to the goal-means will allow to introduce tools for the formation of a decisive factor of comparative advantage in the framework of modern permanent technological renewal, which is expressed in the knowledge, abilities and competencies of people involved in the scientific and technological sector of the economy (Leksin, 2017). This is true in conditions when at the present stage a person as "The main economic entity becomes the center of the reproductive process, its purpose and means, not only a critical factor in the production of necessary goods, but also a critical factor in the maintenance and development of the living conditions on earth." This process is implemented in the formation of conditions of human development, as a carrier of innovative components and environment to obtain the effect of their capitalization. The reproduction of highly educated human capital and its involvement in the process of new industrial development is also a key mechanism for the accumulation of national wealth and forms an indicator of competitiveness and the ability of the economy to develop effectively as a goal of the transition to a new stage of technological development.

Changing the role of the state in the system of new industrial transformations should be considered primarily within the framework of institutional changes, which include the formation of institutions of interaction between the state and business, which are the starting point of transformation (Aharonovich, 2019). To date, an example of such institutions can be called the Institute of project financing, which will allow implementing promising projects for the economy on the basis of acceptable long-term rates of Bank credit.

In addition to the above conditions for the implementation of the principles of new industrial reforms, it should be noted that the diversification of domestic production should occur in the direction of increasing the share of intellectual capital and increasing the share of convergent technologies. The development of convergent technologies and the introduction of new developments into the production process possible and on the basis of the application of the foreign economic strategy of openness, where foreign investments are attracted to "Segments, where the local firms do not have the experience", but in parallel with this process the national government needs to support the technological development of key sectors of the national economy (Gubanov, 2013).

The content of convergence of technologies is the interpenetration and combination of various technological innovations. Today convergent technologies are the subject of scientific work of Russian scientists in various fields of science: physics, chemistry, Economics. Interest in them is shown by the Center of convergent technologies at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow. "We need to focus on the development of convergent technologies. This will allow Russia to take off just as we did in our time in nuclear power or space".

We have found that the typological identity of the new industrialization is the expansion of the industrial complex in the structure of the economy with a deep diversification of basic industries, as opposed to neoindustrialization, which formulates the economic policy of highly developed countries for the repatriation of industry from developing regions with parallel to this process the introduction of cyber-physical systems in the field of production, social spheres and the development of technology of a new technological order (Lin Justin Yifu, 2010).

To assess the effectiveness of structural modernization the author proposes a method of assessing the involvement of human capital in the new industrialization. In the framework of which, the involvement in the new industrialization is understood as a regulated market process of capitalization of human potential, which gives an increase in technological multiplier, the main macroeconomic indicators and the synergetic effect of the level and quality of life.

The involvement of human capital in the process of structural modernization helps to overcome the main limitation of scientific and technological progress of the Russian economy. After all, while maintaining the importance of the classical factors of economic development, socio-economic efficiency and dynamism of the economy will largely depend on the use of innovative and technological sphere of highly qualified personnel, new knowledge, skills and competencies.

The content of the author's methodology is based on successive aggregations of estimates from the level of the indicator (i.e. the most disaggregated level) to the total index of human capital involvement (HCEI).

In the indicators position, the increase is calculated relative to the previous year of analysis, the arithmetic mean is used to aggregate the estimates and becomes the overall estimate (Tolkachev, 2018).

The effect of the calculation of HCEI for 2014, 2015 and 2016 and comparison of the index of human capital involvement for the years indicate insufficient and tends to further reduce the involvement of human capital in key areas of new industrial growth and economic development, which indicates the need for a comprehensive program of structural modernization of the economy, which will include measures to improve the efficiency of the labor market, the development of social sectors of human reproduction, formation of incentives for innovative business development and increase of state contribution within the framework of targeted growth and development (Abramov, 2016). These measures can have an impact on increasing the capitalization of human potential in the scientific and technological sector of the economy.

The main principle of the new industrialization is the principle of social structuralism. This principle is that man is a structural-forming factor in the implementation of positive structural changes and, at the same time, the main goal of the policy of new industrialization, as the socialization of convergent technologies stimulates the development of the reproductive foundations of the industrial breakthrough of the Russian economy (Shashkova, 2018). Based on the application of this principle in the analysis of man, or rather his ability to generate new knowledge as a key factor in the modernization process, the principle of the primacy of the role of man in economic relations through the prism of dialectics (understanding of man not as a "homoeconomicus", but as the basis of the structural development of the economy in the long term). Consequently, social structuralism is the quintessence of structural-transforming modernization based on the accelerated reproduction of new mass identities through formal socially-oriented institutions that develop external motivation for innovation and productive work in the industrial complex (Tronin, 2019).

As a effect of the analysis of the dialectical understanding of the new industrial role of man, it is found that the structural transformation necessary for the formation of economic growth, technological and social identity of the Russian economy. With this in mind, a set of guidelines and factors for the formation and functioning of the economic structures of the new industrialization for modern society: the adjustment of formal institutions, taking into account the indicators of "good" economy; innovative development of productive forces, induced by the consumption of goods with maximum utility; institutionalized formation of the social basis of the new industrialization; priority in the economy of scientific knowledge and creative self-realization of the individual, her creativity (Vanyan, 2016).

The main point presented as a goal of the application of the new industrialization research methodology in the course of the current work is that the new industrial modernization forms not only a positive technological shift, but at the same time brings the country to a new level of social development, which is a modern benchmark for the modernization of the economy.

Taking into account this specificity in the modernization process on the basis of new industrialization, the author proposes a conceptual mechanism that integrates the core basis of technological transformation, but taking into account social restructuring, the use of which will allow for structural development through the formation and involvement of human capital (Shashkova, 2017).

The proposed mechanism of new industrialization reflects the transformation of relations between institutional actors in the context of the deepening process of globalization. Technologies of everyday life initiate more flexible, situational forms of identification, strengthening the manifestation of the trend of delocalization of social actions, their extraction from a specific context and free movement in the widest space-time framework. This leads to the fact that for local communities the problem of selection of innovations becomes permanent.


Modernization of the economy on the basis of new industrialization is a long-term process, which is based on a complex and consistent algorithm of actions. Initially, it is necessary to make intermediate decisions that eliminate the most severe failures of the modern economic system. In the future, strategic planning with clearly defined development guidelines is necessary. The medium-term target is a positive quantitative change in macroeconomic indicators, GDP, inflation and unemployment. In terms of the implementation of the principle of social structuralism, it is necessary to achieve the conditions for the formation of the social basis of economic development, demonstrated by a positive change in the quantitative indicators of the social sphere, such as an increase in the level of average wages by industry relative to the average level of the economy as a whole, the provision of basic goods of national production, etc. The long-term perspective is the formation of a competitive economy with access to the world market with competitive products of deep processing, which created the conditions for self-realization and self-sufficiency.

The presented model is a theoretical justification of modernization through the new industrialization of Russia in the implementation of the principle of social structuralism, is the identification and specification of value problems, the solution of which is formulated "from the future to the present."

The launch of a new model of the economy contributes to the acceleration of the process of reproduction of capital not only simple, but also expanded, increase productivity, improve the technological base of the production process, i.e. the initial growth of quantitative, structural and scientific and technological indicators, and in the long term – the formation of a "good economy", which is implemented subject to the primary implementation of not only the state program to support technological innovations, but also tools for the involvement of human capital in the process of technological breakthrough.

The modern world is going through a series of fundamental transformations, in which there is a convergence of market and state regulation, the convergence of man and technology. Scientific and technological progress initiates changes in socio-economic relations, the formation of contradictions in the interests of institutional subjects of the economy, which contributes to the formation of socio-economic imbalances that reduce the macroeconomic efficiency and sustainability of the national economy. According to the current work, it is proposed to solve the identified negative trends by the state initiation of new industrialization in the implementation of the principle of social structuralism, the driving force of which will be capitalized human potential.

The formation of the methodology of quantitative assessment of human capital involvement becomes relevant in the context of the initiation by the state of measures for its capitalization in the innovation and industrial sector of the economy.

Drawing up the author's method of calculating the aggregate indices of human capital involvement in the new industrialization should begin with the specification of the definition of human capital involvement.

Being a complex structural-factor phenomenon, involvement is defined ambiguously.

Taking into account the prerequisites and mechanism for the development of new industrialization, reflected in this article, the involvement of human capital in the framework of the assessment methodology is a regulated market process of capitalization of human potential, which gives an increase in technological multiplier, the main macroeconomic indicators and the synergetic effect of the level and quality of life.

Within the framework of this definition, the need for convergence of state and market regulation is actualized in order to create conditions for the launch of a motivational mechanism that forms the real inclusion of the potentials of various forms of human capital, in particular the complicated structure of human capital due to the emergence of innovative components, in the process of industrial revival of the Russian economy.


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