Research Article: 2022 Vol: 25 Issue: 4S
Sikarnmanee Syers, Business Management and Information Technology
Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Khon Kaen Campus
Citation Information: Syers, S. (2022). The influence of human capital and support from the government sector that affects doing business under the covid-19 situation of Thai community enterprises. Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences, 25(S4), 1-11.
Human Capital, Team Capabilities, Competitive Management, Competitive Human Resource Management, COVID-19
The objective of this research is to study the Influence of Human Capital and Support from the Government Sector Affects Doing Business Under the Covid-19 Situation of Thai Community Enterprises through the Team Capabilities of 231 representatives of community enterprises. Employing the questionnaire for a descriptive statistical research tool consisting of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Relationship analysis between independent variables using Pearson's correlation coefficient statistic and test hypotheses with multiple regression analysis using import techniques.
The results showed that Human Capital, Team Capabilities, Recognition of Perceived Team Support in Competitive Management and Competitive Human Resource Management are at a high level. The mean values were 4.07, 4.06, 3.98, 3.98 and 3.96, respectively. The hypotheses testing revealed that Human Capital has a positive influence on the Team Capabilities where Human Capital and Recognition of Government Support Perceived Team Support have a positive influence on the Team Capabilities. This is the ability of Team Capabilities which has a positive influence on the ability to perform Competitive Management and the Competitive Human Resource Management of community enterprises of which the Team Capabilities are partial mediating variables in Human Capital and that affected the Competitive Management and the Competitive Human Resource Management.
The results of this research can be used as a guideline for improving and revising policies, strategies and strategies of community enterprises in crisis situations. As well as during the Covid-19 pandemic situation in order to make it possible to Competitive Management and the ability to Competitive Human Resource Management at the next higher level.
In technical and general perception on Human Resources Management-HRM, it is accepted as a crucial key in organization management as well as challenging and complicated issues in overall administrative and management for the massive or high volume of people in relationship, capability and perception. In order to achieve the common but important organizations’ goals or even as a team work, Human Resources Management-HRM related unavoidably to societies, politic and economy and the changes in those aspects affected tremendously to HRM. In such the relation and vital roles of human in the sectors as their environment, changes are compulsively developed to survive the HRM and organizations. In reviewing the era of HRM by set of principle as called ‘Theory’. (Owens, 1981) Review the era of human management knowledge from the initiation to present day, there are many progressive ideas on the concepts and thoughts from theorist, manager/administrator/executive and academic besides the set of principle called Theory. It was the time of management in Classical Approach then Administrative Management, Quantitative Approach, and The Contemporary Approach of which initiated in the 1960 decade the Systems Approach later Contingency Approach (Widjaja, 2021) to the present days of Modern Organization and now Human Capital Management. (Baron & Armstrong, 2007)
Causes and consequences that turn the spotlight from all organizations to the above mention issue are all about human as core and all the business competitive advantages and HRM is the critical mission that organization must work with human resources personnel, resilience and ease adaptability are also underlined and not least for not only attachment to method-based but result-based for success and achievements. (Devanna, Fombrun & Tichy, 1981).) In resulting the realization of organization to view human resources as investment and cost effectiveness to build advantage competitiveness in business or it is called as Human Capital.
Presently Thailand has been encountering the challenging of Covid-19 pandemic (Kamnuan Ungchoosak, 2021) directly has impacted to the World Economy and Thailand as a nation. Government policy makers working to mitigate negative or advert effects of the conditions to all sectors particularly from the Popularism Policy. One of those sectors targeting by GS is SMCE or Small and Micro Community Enterprise meaning community-based entrepreneurship run their business on farm-based products, services and so on, managed by group of community members who live and have shared livelihood in those communities formed a group in all type; legal entity or none legal entity, to boost family income and in self-reliance concept for their families, community and among communities. In summary, community enterprise means business cooperated as ‘community capital’ in which is creative, self-reliant, community-based capital, but not limited, to funding including to other resources, farm produces, knowledge/know-how, local wisdom, cultural capital and social capital (Suriyajarus Techatanmenasakul, 2020) supported by related government agencies who shared the same concept of Human Capital, sustainable development in considering 2 dimensions focusing on: Community Enterprise Management and Human Resource Management.
I see the great need and importance in Human Capital Management as effect of community enterprise management. Human Capital Management in Community enterprise with outside factor support is interesting to understand how the outside influence like government support perceived by community entrepreneurs in the context and under crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic as in the Human Capital-HC, a core of organizational development, HC can certainly drive Thai community enterprises through the worst situation.
Objectives of the Research
1. To study Human Capital (HC) in Team Capability of Thai enterprises
2. To study HC and Government Support (GS) in Team Capability (TC) of Thai enterprises
3. To study Team Capability (TC) in enterprises’ Competitive Management-CM of Thai enterprises
4. To study Team Capability (TC) in Competitive HR management of Thai enterprises
5. To test influences of HC and TC in CM of Thai enterprises
6. To test influences of HC and TC in Competitive HRM(CHRM) of Thai enterprises
Review of Literature
Documents in wide scope included all of the related research, thoughts, concepts and theories were reviewed to construct conceptual framework and research hypotheses.
Human Capital (HC)
Human Capital (HC) plays substantive roles in organization development as the meaning of HC covering all knowledge/know-how, skills and individual proficiency/talent belong to a person from learning, experiences preparing and self-containing as a human. Therefore, HC is and has individual or personal ownership in which is untransferable and that’s why HC is viewed a valuable asset enhance value and value-added organization lead to advantage competitiveness for organization. (Kal Pinkeson et al., 2017) Thailand has recognized the word ‘Human Capital’ since 2001 (Thamrongsak Konkhasawat, 2007) and the concept to view human resource who is highly capable as asset to be invested on and as a value-added organization opportunity. Human resource becomes the most valuable resource for an organization from the basis production factors consisting of; Man, Money, Material and Machine- so called ‘4M’. (Department of Industry Promotion, 2021) As an organizational management planning for future target goals and activities determination to perform work and any operation by having efficient resources management to achieve the goals. Management plans demand data and information analysis from the past, present and future in order to undertake activities designation and means of practical work performance, in-hand resources management and additional resources of which is all about resources.
HC components generally viewed as personal preparance containing in an individual like skills, experiences, knowledge/know how and expertizing, initiative, personality and creditability for example. HC must be constructed and takes time. Each component of HC is mutual contribution along with a person success enhancement. Academics sorted HC components in groups to ease and simply system of HC work performance and management and be different from old-fashioned organization management style that viewed human/personnel as ‘Expenses’. And these personnel, in that style, must be organizational, inside and outside controlled otherwise organization could ‘at the expense of’ or lose efficiency in operation. However, components of HC can be categorized into these following groups; Intellectual Capital which is knowledge/knowhow, skills and expertizing: Social Capital which is structure and network quality: and Emotional Capital which is courage and resilience in dialogue making and effective communication and work performance. (Martin, 2006) These lead to HC dimensions linking to competitive work performance of Thai enterprises and the background of research hypotheses.
Team Capabilities – TC
Team capability as co-working and positive promotion and supports, resulting in total outcome of team must be higher than each member’s outcome in total. (McTiche, Jay & Grant Wiggins, 2004) Existing of individual capability may not reflect clear capability of organization which is different from team capability. However, the study done by Boyatzis (1999) about Emotional Intellectual competency and the study of Spencer, Lyle M. and Spencer, M Signe, (1993) and competitive groups affected organization development.TC is viewed as Social Skills which is basic, needed skills and important to living life and happy team working, certainly these skills in the team are needed and affected TC.
The concept of team capability depending on strategic management of organizations of which from applying knowledge and many aspects of capability available and enable for efficiency and utilizing by organization. (Kogut & Zander, 1992) These capabilities are substantive in organizational development context. Any challenge and existed problem resolution will be mobilized from each team member’s knowledge, opinions, knowledge and information process, experienced work performance, capability and independent decision making of which all of these related and link each of them together and create impact to work performance environment and organization efficiency eventually.
Competitive Management (CM) and Competitive Human Resource Management (CHRM)
Today profit making capability of organization/enterprises related to broader and more diverse competitive management and when business enterprises begin to concern about influence from technological changes, pandemic situation and crisis including to accept decision making in the government’s policies. Each large enterprise influencing to economic system not only related to industry and market but to other vital societies scopes. By the fact that dominant of competitive about conceptual characteristic and needs to have modern management affecting greatly to business management and organization. (Chursin, 2015) Business empowered to steps forward, and demands for medium size to big business enterprises is promising and going toward stability by which continually needed to have knowledge and management capability. By all means, compatible to their enterprises, knowledge, capability and requirements, today business must be based to develop on them. These following aspects are needed for running enterprises. (Natthaphong Juturachatsukon & Saruda Somphong, 2016) Development of body of knowledge in business administration and management, leadership skills and capabilities, Information Technology, human relation capability, psychology and effective communication.
Business competency and capability development is on-going process while fast learning and high potentiality is advantage. Besides learning and self-development, business enterprises needed to engage in varied programs to build network and consulting agents to collaborate and mobilizing outsource specialists and expertizing in particular issues to build body of knowledge/ know how and experiences from these specialists/ experts to save time and energy from direct experiences and self-learning.
In the other side, HRM competitiveness is strategy and technic to build particular competitive and capacity including to the HR process in dimensions to afford and avail personnel or human in the organization to perform their work in the highest efficiency and lowest constraint/challenge including to boost person potentiality to reach their goals in better efficiency and increase promising organization’s success. Managing Human Resource Capabilities in organization’s efficiency and sustainable competitive advantage, in world class organization studied in India by Khandekar & Sharma, 2005, found CHRM has positive influence to organization efficiency and HRM capability can be important forecasting in sustainable competitive advantage. This research support theory in HC as a high-level strategic issue link to organization efficiency and advantage in competitive sustainability from the firms’ resources in India context and affecting understanding in HRM as a need in Strategic HRM and international HRM. Business enterprises are given in deep information about business situation and environment and can explain strategic policy and HRM planning that crucial to successful business.
Government Support - GS
It was a study in working department or unit smaller than organization (Gray .E, Sheng. Y, Nossal. K, Oss-Emer. M and Davidson, 2011) noted that team commitment leads to factors to higher commitment by which has many studying supporting this in recognizing or perception of team government support is crucial to team commitment and affects working unit effectiveness. In all type of supports that team members of (working unit) recognized from executives and from other team members i.e., work performance support and performance capability support for example. From literature reviewed found researches on team dynamic, team capability and recognition of team supports have impacts on enterprises’ management capability and HRM.
The research summarized 4 variables to be employed and built as these following hypotheses.
H1: HC has positive influence to Team Capabilities (TC) of Thai enterprises
H2: HC and GS have positive influences to TC in Thai community enterprises.
H3: TC has positive influences to CM in Thai community enterprises.
H4: TC has positive influences to HRC
In the relevant literature reviewed found studying in TC as a mediating variable in HC and affecting CM and HRM in minor part, the researcher, thus, the issue was indeed interesting and determined and leaded to these following hypotheses.
H5: TC is a mediating variable in HC affected CM in Thai community enterprises.
H6: TC is a mediating variable in HC affected CHRM.
This is the Quantitative research employed Survey Research of which to identify HC influences and PTS that affected business enterprises under COVID-19 pandemic situation. 300 questionnaires on-line distributed to collect data and information.
This research is quantitative research collecting data and information employed questionnaires distribution to all-over country community enterprises, using on-line data and information collection and connection method.
Index of item Objective Congruence-IOC of the experts examined IOC questionnaire for Content Validity and Objective Congruence between questions and objectives or content. (Limpiphiphatn & Saksiri, 2011) However, the research questionnaire determined by researcher to examine validity and improved questionnaires retest the validity with 40 sample of the group which was not the research target sample to bring to validity analysis in the 95% of validity by Alpha coefficient (James Dean Brown, 2002) using Cronbach, value between 0.81 - 0.90, questionnaires were reexamined by the experts to find the IOC value at 0.88
Population (N) in the research is 465 Thai community enterprises from Department of Community Development’s base line data. These were participants in August 2021 Workshop. Sample determined by utilizing instant table Krejcie & Morgan, (1970) at the Error (E) 5% and 95% validity and make the population (n) as 231 representatives of Thai community enterprises.
In sample selection, it was conducted using Quota Sampling for data sampling in even ratio (Statistic Methodology Unit, Policy and Statistical Technique Division, National Statistical Office. (2016) It was sampling considering work force ratio of Thai community enterprises at August 2021 in the Department of Community Development’s Workshop, Ministry of Internal Affair.
Analysis employed the questionnaire collecting of data and information and as a descriptive statistical research tool consisting of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Relationship analysis between independent variables using Pearson's correlation coefficient statistic and test hypothesis with multiple regression analysis using import techniques (Enter).
Demographic analysis found questionnaire 146 female respondents (63%) and 85 male (37%), age range mostly was 30 - 45 year (70%) and the second high was less than 30 year (25%). Education level mostly was Graduated at 190 (83%) and the second was 41 High School respondents (18%), Time duration spent with the enterprises was mostly between 5-10 years, 177 respondents (77%), the second high was less than 5 years at 29 respondents (13%).
Mean, Standard Deviation of Correspondents Concerning HC Influences and Pts Affect Thai Enterprises in Covid-19 Situation Sorting By Samples Groups
|Human Capital (HC)||4.07||0.506||High|
|Team Capability (TC)||4.06||0.519||High|
|Government Support (GS)||3.98||0.491||High|
|Competitive Management (CM)||3.98||0.489||High|
|Competitive Human Resources Management (CHRM)||3.96||0.496||High|
Table 1. Presenting level of HC (=4.07, S.D. =0.506) TC (=4.06, S.D. =0.519) PTS (=3.98, S.D. =0.491) CM (=3.98, S.D. =0.489) and CHRM (=3.96, S.D. =0.496) are in high level
Basic Assumption Analysis For The Use of Coefficient of Multiple Regression Analysis To Test Collinearity And Multicollinearity
|Variables||HC||PTS||CM||CHRM||VIF - CM||VIF - CHRM|
|Human Capital (HC)||1.967||1.967|
|Team Capability (TC)||0.766*||1.881||1.881|
|Government Support (GS)||0.206*||0.290*||1.147||1.147|
|Competitive Management (CM)||0.550*||0.464*||361*|
|Competitive Human Resources Management (CHRM)||0.116*||0.105*||0.558*||0.557*|
Table 2. Presenting the analysis of multiple regression coefficient in testing relation between variables in which multiple coefficients among independent variables valued over 0.05 demonstrated unrelative variables. Besides the researcher considered VIF figure to test Multicollinearity found VIF figure value, independent variables values between 1.147 – 1.967 of which less than 20 therefore each independent variable was unrelative. (Punagrat Thaweerat, 2000)
Multiple Regression Analysis Multiple Regression Correlation Test
|Independent Variable||Dependent Variables|
|Adjusted R Square||0.464||0.513||0.478||0.528|
***p<0.001 (Multiple Regression figures presenting multiple regression coefficients and Standard Error of Measurement-SEM)
Table 3. Analysis of HC and PTS influences affected Thai community enterprises’ CM and CHRM using analysis by enter technic found; HC has positive influences to TC (ß=0.701, p<0.001) in 46.40% forecasting rate. H1 is accepted. GS affect HC and affect TC (ß=0.097, p<0.001) by which has 52.80% forecasting rate. H2 is accepted. TC affect CM (ß=0.437, p<0.001) by which has 51.30% forecasting rate. H3 is accepted. TC affect CHRM (ß=0.101, p<0.001) by which has 47.80% forecasting rate. Therefore, H4 is accepted.
TC analysis as a mediating variable using multiple regression employed testing statistic of Baron & Kenny, (1986) when mediating variable controlled.
Team Capability makes HC Influences affect to Competitive Management (CM) of the Enterprises
1. Influence of HC affect CM (ß=0.463, Std. Error=0.043, p<0.001) by 47.50% forecasting rate.
2. Influence of HC affect TC (ß=0.701, Std. Error=0.038, p<0.001) by 46.50% forecasting rate.
3. TC affect CM (ß=0.437, Std. Error=0.042, p<0.001) by 51.30& forecasting rate.
4. Influence of HC and TC affect CM (ß=0.294, Std. Error=0.058, p<0.001) by 49.70% forecasting rate.
In comparation ß of HC’s influence and TC that affect CM of the enterprises with HC affect to CM found the ß value declined. It is concluded that TC as a partial mediating variable of HC affect CM. Therefore, H5 is accepted.
TC makes HC Influences affect CHRM and the test found;
1. Influence of HC affect CM (ß=0.166, Std. Error=0.049, p<0.001) by 47.30% forecasting rate.
2. Influence of HC affect TC (ß=0.701, Std. Error=0.038, p<0.001) by 46.40% forecasting rate.
3. TC affect CHRM (ß=0.101, Std. Error=0.048, p<0.001) by 47.80% forecasting rate.
4. Influence of HC and TC affect CHRM (ß=0.156, Std. Error=0.067, p<0.001) by 50.90% forecasting rate.
Compare HC ß and TC affect CHRM and TC affect CHRM in decreasing value enable to be concluded that TC as a partial mediating variable of HC affect CHRM. Therefore, H6 is accepted.
Influence of Human Capital (HC) and government support affected Thai enterprises under crisis pandemic situation. The unpredictable, constant mutation of the new Corona Virus 2019-nCoV general namely COVID-19 pandemic, causing lung failures by Pneumonia in human, spread across the globe made crisis in all of the world sectors firstly found in Wuhan, Hubei of China since December 2019 and have failed the world until now. Thai enterprises need a considerable deal of adjustment to cope with the crisis for all the products and services have been abruptly shunt almost in all market distribution channel. In particular for the lack of ‘Marketing Online’ skills has caused advert impacts. In the applying of community-based economy and/or the Sufficiency Economy as the main concept thus Thai community-based enterprises are basely economic driver of the microeconomy, with all possible supports in various projects from Government Sector.
However, the HC and relevant components research can be guided any required development under theoretical variables; independent and dependent variables. These are the discussion on the results of the study.
1. HC’s positive influences to TC in Thai enterprises: as the enterprises have clear function and be independent entity in decision making in their operation under mutual control and functioning in their own communities, plus collaboration and shared purposes in all cooperation, and the substantiality is their friendly relationship and a-long-time mutual understanding in accordance with the study of Glenn M. Parker (1938). He noted the efficient team work has vital linkage to HC considering the shared cooperation purposes, mutual understanding from participating, listening and accepting each other’s opinions with clear and present work performances. Members of teams play roles properly and have clear assignment. These are substantive components to efficient work performances. However, researcher also found HC composes of another, many factors affect TC and CHRM and finally CHRM Capability.
2. HC and GS have positive influences on TC of Thai enterprises: In promotion of enterprises activities and supports that avail opportunity to members on committee roles, team work enabled to make decision fully in scope of authority and in their vision and mission of their own enterprises. Organizational strategies support TC in their performances of which in accordance with Farley MJ and Stoner research (1989). They noted the executive team that strategy and/or authority defined in policy and communication to team make the team success in their performance. It is the results of person-to-person efficient relationship. The trend to build team work success is perception of policy and find support for organization, planning or target determination from executive, suitable time for meeting, practical tasks and objectives clearly informed to team members and all team members understand objectives while executives understand feeling and demands of team, have team mutual help and accept team members differences. However, the researcher found positive influences of TC besides GS and influence of HC in which have clear authority scope comprising of collaboration and shared target goals in work performance in accordance with the research mentioned.
3. Team Capability has positive influences to CM of enterprises: Teams were supported and availed opportunities in team activities and these are supportive factors for good work performances and eventually satisfaction. In accordance with study of Monica Izverciana , Sabina Potraa & Larisa Ivascua (2015) in factors impact to organization management capability and work performance satisfaction. By applying Grounded Theory, Social Interaction can change satisfaction with these components i.e., personnel preferences, clear and effective communication process and work participation in group work. These factors are substantive need and affected performance satisfaction. A part of Harrell, D. E. (1964) study explained work performance satisfaction concerning factors i.e., job interest, working skills and job structure. Besides researcher found team capability is one of skill component and expertizing of team members can create variety of capability and resulting in more efficiency in work performance.
4. Team Capability has positive influences to HRMC of Thai enterprises:
TC has positive influence to HRMC of which came from participation among team members and neighboring community, as a kinship system, caused good results when coworking and promoting the above studied factors and in accordance with the research finding of Suphaphorn Thoboot. (2020) She studied ‘The factors of team work affected efficiency of work performance of government sector’s personnel in Prajeenburi Province in the objectives to understand personal factors like gender, age, status, education, monthly income and time duration of working that affected work performance efficiency among government sector’s personnel in Prajeenburi Province, and also factors to the team work affected efficiency of these target population and found the test of hypotheses. Factors affected to team work efficiency in 3 aspects; process, components and attribute, and work design, and the significance was 0.05 of which in accordance with the research conducted by Susan E. Jackson, Chih-Hsun Chuang , Erika E. Harden, Yuan Jiang (2006). It was HR system development to achieve team working focusing on knowledge and the findings were building resource-based view of the firm and complex System Theory can be confirmed the effective utilization of Knowledge - Intensive Teamwork: KITwork can be source of sustainable competitive advantage for firms that pursue a variety of strategies and compete in a variety of industries, industrial market competitive. KITworkis a multi-dimensional, multi-level social process that promotes knowledge flows within and between organizations. Through KITwork, the knowledge resources of individual employees are transformed into a capability that contributes to the effectiveness of knowledge-based organizations. After introducing and explaining the concept of KITwork, we explore the challenges that organizations must address in order to design HRM systems that support and facilitate KITwork.
5. TC as partial mediating variable in HC affect CM According to efficeincy results of CM come from work performance/ behavior supported by quality and standard support policy including to individual behavior in capability to finish job in due date or time frame as objective determination in which in accordance with the research of Sheikh Raheel Manzoor HafizUllah Murad Hussain & Zulqarnain Muhammad Ahmad (2011). They studied the impact of team work for organizations resources management and the findings were positive impact/effect in the studied variables comprised of shared working goals, pride as one of team, shared activities and mutual participation, mutual trust. These factors are substantive and requirements affect to work performance, organization management, besides the researcher found in persons, in team the trust and understanding can lead to team work challenges and problem solving and solutions, enable to solve problem quickly by the factors mentioned above for the TC.
6. TC as a mediating variable in HC affect CHRM: Finding coefficient multiple-regression of TC as mediating variable in HC influence to CM and CHRM of the enterprises. According to the enterprises perceived job description, working process and collaborate with the committees as a team work through TC in which make CM and CHRM vitally increasing. It is in accordance with research by Sheeba Khan & Layal Said Al Mashikhi (2017) pointed that team working of employee enable to improve for each team member can share variety of ideas, to improve and to complete the work efficiently, working process and level of employees’ decision making is much better. In not limited coworking still increase communication skills and coordination which assisted better development. However, the research presented factors influence to increasing and decreasing of team working under hypotheses test i.e., skill and expertizing in work performance, decent work development, for example. These components assist work performance in a much better output. In the HR aspect, the research conducted by Alamdar Hussain Khan Muhammad Musarrat Nawaz Muhammad Aleem & Wasim Hamed (2012) presented affecting factor to performance capability and results in relation. The study about participatory work and free opinion sharing and group working relation for example which all the components have positive effects to performance capability and its’ result. And it is as well performance capability can improve job satisfaction and have relation and has positive effect to performance result. In other hand from the research found TC as partial mediating variable showed in any problem the team found, the enterprises enabled to solve it properly and this is show that the teams have potentiality in their performances and increasing team work skills.
From research, body of knowledge as a HC development which is a process to develop HC, for competitive management enhancement and for CHRM under HC as flowchart presenting.
• Intellectual Capital; comprises of knowledge/know how, skills and expertizing
• Social Capital; comprises of Structure and Network quality
• Emotional Capital; comprises of courage and resilient in dialogue/communication and work performance
Studying HC concept and GS affecting community business enterprises under COVID 19 pandemic as variables testing through researching hypotheses, however to understand work performing phenomena focusing on factors of CM and CHRM to bringing in new variables relevant to work in grouping or the so called ‘team’ from literature reviewing and/or from qualitative research by which co-considering with the factors under this research could lead to new factors existed under these hypotheses in order to find the most influence as dependent and mediating variables affect CM and CHRM.
Benefit from Managerial Research
1. Enable to bring in factors influence to CM and CHRM to organizations’ management
2. Enable to bring in factors from dependent and partial mediating variables to determine as future and further development strategies to better community enterprises
Recommendations for Future Research
Some of dependent and partial mediating variables are influential factors to the enterprises’ CM and CHRM. However, there are relevant variables i.e., individual demand and work performance self-esteem for instance probably influent to enterprises work performance of which enable researcher to test them under assumptions and developed variables in order to apply to the next level of administrative and management. Moreover, existed or preexisted variables from qualitative study in which is valid and creditable to affect directly organizational development and HC as they are intra-organization factors researcher enabled consider them to further organization management.
Alamdar, H.K.M.M.N.M.A., & Wasim, H. (2012). Impact of job satisfaction on employee performance: An empirical study of autonomous Medical Institutions of Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management, 6(7), 2697-2705.
Baron, A., & Armstrong, M. (2007). Human capital management: Achieving added value through people. Kogan Page Publishers.
Retrieved, K.P., Chalermchai, K., & Jirawan, K. (2017). Human capital: Organizational indicators for human capital. Journal of Graduate Studies Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University, 11(2), 193-202.
Chursin, A., & Makarov, Y. (2015). Formation of the theory of competitiveness management. In Management of Competitiveness, 3-81.
Devanna, M.A., Fombrun, C., & Tichy, N. (1981). Human resources management: A strategic perspective. Organizational Dynamics, 9(3), 51-67.
Gray, E., Sheng, Y., Nossal, K., Oss-Emer, M., & Davidson. (2011). Improving productivity—the incentives for change, Australian Commodities, 18(1), March quarter, ABARES, Canberra, 218.
Jackson, S.E., Chuang, C.H., Harden, E.E., & Jiang, Y. (2006). Toward developing human resource management systems for knowledge-intensive teamwork. In Research in personnel and human resources management. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kamnuan, U. (2020). Impact trend and coping with the second phase of COVID-19. Journal of Health Science, 29(4), 765-768.
Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the Replication of Technology, Organization Science, 3(3), 383-397.
King, R.W.P., Smith, G.S., Owens, M., & Wu, T.T. (1981). Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications. NASA STI/Recon Technical Report A, 81, 29690.
Khandekar, A., & Sharma, A. (2005). Managing human resource capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage: An empirical analysis from Indian global organizations. Education+ Training.
McTighe, J., & Grant, W. (2004). Understanding by design: Professional development workbook. Alexandria: Association for supervision and curriculum development, 50-59.
Martin, S.P. (2006). Trends in marital dissolution by women’s education in the United States. Demographic research, 15, 537-560.
Natthaphong, J., & Saruda, S. (2016). Roles of department of industry promotion in driving the government’s 4.0 Strategy Policies. Journal of Social Sciences Review, MoJoRo, 8(2), 130-142.
National Statistical Office. (2016). Statistic methodology unit, policy and statistical technique division.
Suriyajaras, T. (2020). Influence of good management and social capital building toward community capital accumulation capability support by upper northern communities’ village banks. Journal of the Association of Researchers, 16(3), 39-51.
Supaphorn Thobutra. (2020). Factor of team work’s efficiency in personnel work performance in Prajeenburi Province, faculty of business administration, ramkhamheang university.
Sheikh, R., Manzoor, H.U., Murad, H., & Zulqarnain, M.A. (2011). Effect of teamwork on employee performance. International Journal of Learning and Development, 1(1), 1-17.
Spencer, L.M., & Spencer, M.S. (1993). Competence at work. New York. Willey, 5-7.
Sheeba, K., & Layal, S.A.M. (2017). Impact of teamwork on employees performance. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 4(11), 1 – 2.
Thamrongsak, K. (2007). Competency: How they organize it in Practice. the 4th. Edition. Bangkok: Technology Promotion Association (Thai-Japan).
Widjaja, M.E.L.K. (2021). Strategic orientation and human resources management in public sector organizations in the society 5.0 Era. In 18th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2021), 235-240. Atlantis Press.
Received: 20-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. JMIDS-21-10027; Editor assigned: 22-Dec-2021; PreQC No. JMIDS-21-10027(PQ); Reviewed: 06-Jan-2022, QC No. JMIDS-21-10027; Revised: 13-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JMIDS-21-10027; Published: 20-Jan-2022