Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences (Print ISSN: 1524-7252; Online ISSN: 1532-5806)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 22 Issue: 1

The Influence of Self-concept in Using Credit Card on its Decision to Use

Gatot Wijayanto, Universitas Riau & Universitas Padjadjaran

Yuyus Suryana, Universitas Padjadjaran

Yevis Marty Oesman, Universitas Padjadjaran

Arief Helmi, Universitas Padjadjaran

Abstract

The rapid advanced technology leads all business fields compete to incorporate technological elements into each of their products. Bank is utilizing technology by issuing credit card as it provides many cashless advantages. Another advantage of using credit cards is the ease in utilizing many promotions at merchants. Despite many advantages provided, many credit card users do not have a good self-concept, resulting having a lot of debt. Therefore, this research was conducted with the aim at knowing the influence of self-concept in using credit cards on its decision to use. This research employed an explanatory survey method involving 400 respondents who had credit cards, which were selected using accidental sampling method of 6,770,000 total populations. The results show that self-concept influenced the decision to use credit cards. In addition, the four dimensions of self-concept, namely self-control, responsibility, confidence, and self-esteem also influenced credit card users in managing their behaviours using credit cards with influence in medium category.

Keyword

Self-Concept, Decision to Use, Credit Card.

Introduction

Credit card business has provided significant benefits in addition to income from other credit sectors. As a medium of exchange, a credit card can be used to make payments in every economic activity and cash withdrawals. Its payment obligation is fulfilled formerly by credit card manager (acquirer) or credit card issuing bank (issuer). The cardholder is obliged to make payments at the agreed time with full repayment or instalment payment to the issuer (Agarwal et al., 2009). In its implementation, the current national banking sector seems quite courageous to rely on its credit distribution to various consumer sectors, including the credit card sector. The credit card business is considered capable of giving a high contribution as a fee-based income, as an alternative to interest income.

The data released by Bank Indonesia (2017) show that the volume of credit card transactions in Indonesia from the past two years (2015) has increased by 8.54%, from 281.32 million transactions to 305.05 million transactions in 2016. Meanwhile, the value of credit card transactions increased only 0.35% from Rp.280.54 trillion and Rp.281.02 trillion in 2016.

Bank Indonesia (2017) states that credit card issuing companies posted a modest increase in business at the end of 2016. The increase in business came after having dropped in the middle of last year because a number of issues, such as credit card transparency plans for taxes and consumer purchasing power have declined due to the economic slowdown. Bank Indonesia still limits ownership of credit card numbers, namely only two issuers for customers who have revenues below Rp.10 million per month. In Indonesia, there are seventeen private banks and three state banks that have issued credit cards (issuing banks). The number of credit cards issued in Indonesia reached 16.5 million as of December 2016 from twenty issuing banks.

A credit card provides benefits for users, namely cashless transaction and its rewards points, which h can be exchanged with goods or discount coupons provided by the bank in accordance with the number of collected reward points. Therefore, it will be useful to customers in regulating financial flows for expenses or payments (Akers & Douglas, 2005). With the rapid development of information technology, a credit card can be used to pay electricity, telephone, water, or subscription television bills. Therefore, customers no longer need to queue to pay and do not need to be afraid of being fined if they are late paying (Brito & Peter, 2007). According to Pinto & Marry (2008), in the United States, it shows that lower social classes tend to use credit cards for instalment purposes more frequent than the higher social classes who use credit cards for facilitating payment transactions. Furthermore, the results of research show that all credit card users generally had a positive attitude towards credit.

Credit cards do not only provide benefits to the users, but also for the issuers. According to Chan & Chong (2012), the benefits of banking obtained by providing new technology services to customers are business development, customer loyalty, the increasing revenue and reducing expenses, and having new competitiveness and business models. According to Ingene & Levy (1982), there are three reasons why someone chooses to use a credit card rather than paying cash. First, customers need credit to be able to buy the desired goods or services. Second, customers want to take the advantage of cashless transaction convenience. Third, customers tend to be calculating and they understand the benefits of buying now and paying later.

In fact, many people become credit card’s customers without knowing exactly what the terms and conditions in the credit card. This can be seen in the results of Pinto & Marry’s (2008) research, which explains that the lack of customer knowledge about banking activities resulted in problems caused by customer errors in understanding the product, ignorance of benefits and risks of bank products, and how to resolve problems.

The role of banks in people’s lives cannot be separated from the existence of customers. The lack of knowledge about credit cards generates problems caused by credit card users’ misunderstanding about the product, ignorance of benefits and risks of bank products in the form of credit cards, and how to solve if problems occur. Wang & Hwang (2001) conclude that customers with a high level of product knowledge would evaluate a product based on its quality because they believe in their level of knowledge. Therefore, it is very likely that they will be more aware of product value and then increase to the stage of willingness to buy something. Conversely, customers with a low level of product knowledge are more likely to be affected by the direction of surrounding environment, for example, persuasion from the seller who might change how they receive information from a product.

Knowledge is part of a broader study and is believed to be a very meaningful experience for a person in the process of forming someone’s concept. Knowledge in an individual is needed a learning process or a certain educational mechanism to get good knowledge, hence, an individual’s cognitive abilities can automatically increase. This is based on the opinion of Epstein (1973) stating that self-concept is as a self-theory, relating to self that is composed on the basis of self-experience, function, and ability throughout his or her life. Therefore, it can be said that the customer's knowledge of credit cards will form customer’s self-concept as a basis for consideration of using or not using their credit card.

Hurlock (1997) states that self-concept is a core of individual personality development patterns that will affect various forms of traits. It plays a role in individual behaviour because all attitudes and views of individuals towards themselves will influence the individual in interpreting every aspect of their experiences. In addition, Susana (2006) states that self-concept is the core of one’s personality, which concerns the views and attitudes of individuals towards themselves regarding physical dimensions, individual characteristics, and self-motivation. Self-concept is a reflection of how someone interprets, evaluates and responds to themselves.

In line with the opinion above, Rosenber (Ferrinadewi, 2008) says that self-concept explains individual personality aspect, which is a person’s self-expression. According to Calhoun & Acocella (2007), self-concept has three dimensions, namely the individual’s knowledge about themselves, individual’s expectations for themselves, and the assessment of themselves. Engel et al. (2005) also explain that a difference in customer’s behaviour is related to the differentiation of customer’s self-concepts. According to Fitts (Agustiani, 2009), self-concept has a strong influence on one’s behaviour.

Several studies suggest that this self-concept influences customers’ behaviour (Wang & Chen, 2013). Therefore, this research uses this concept of customer knowledge in explaining the factors that influence self-concept in using a credit card. Rao & Monroe (2009) explain that customer knowledge is the main factor for decision making. Customer knowledge is important to build customer response or evaluation of products that can be referred to as the perceived product value. The perception of customer’s psychology openly reflects the customer’s point of view about product knowledge that can help them to make their decisions effectively. Customer knowledge is indeed significantly correlated with many valuable dimensions and customers’ self-concept in purchasing depending on many valuable factors.

Theoretical Foundation

Self-concept is the whole self-image including people perception, feelings, beliefs and values associated with themselves. The self-concept develops based on someone’s experiences. Marsh & Hattie (2006) explain that customers will associate their self-concept with the brand image of goods and services that they will buy. Rakhmat (2003) suggests the definition of self-concept as the views and feelings of individuals about themselves psychologically, socially, and physically. Furthermore, Agustiani (2009) explains that self-concept is an image owned by individuals about themselves, which is formed through experiences obtained from environmental interactions. The self-concept is not an innate factor, but develops from a continuous and differentiated experience. Brunner (2010) states that self-concept is all individual feelings and thoughts about themselves including ability, self-character, attitude, life goals, needs and appearance.

Hurlock (1997) explains self-concept is the core of individual personality development pattern that will affect various forms of traits. An event will be interpreted differently between one individual and another because each individual has different views and attitudes towards themselves. Furthermore, Hurlock (1997) explains that individual interpretations of an event are much influenced by individual attitudes and views on themselves. Negative interpretations of experience are caused by negative views and attitudes towards themselves and vice versa. According to some experts, this expectation is at the core of self-concept. Hope is the goal and ideal of individuals that are always wanted to be achieved to reach a pleasant inner balance.

Hurlock (1997) also adds the self-concepts based on five psychological aspects. First, self-potential is the ability and strength either that has or has not been realized, which is possessed by someone, but has not been fully seen or optimally used. Second, community acceptance is a place for people to do social interaction as a human effort to realize their self- esteem. Sobur (2003) provides an explanation that the individual's self-concept is expressed through his attitude which is the actualization of that person. Third, social interaction is a concept that individuals are recognized, valued, and loved by people in other groups. Fourth, views as family members is about the existence of a warm relationship in the family, family attention to individual behaviour, individual perceptions of teachings or norms set by the family. Fifth, hope and ideals are values to be achieved based on their views on their behaviours.

The fundamental of the individual’s self-concept, according to Agustiani (2009), is instilled in the early days of their lives and becomes the foundation that influences their behaviours in the future to show their self-awareness. Then, after accustoming to doing some behaviour, their total selves as experienced by individuals are also called a phenomenal self. Furthermore, self-concept has a strong influence on individual behaviour. By knowing the individual's self-concept, they will be more easily predicted and understood their behaviour. Cokley & Patel (2007) state that self-concept is a mixed picture of our thinking about what people think, about ourselves, and what we want to be. According to Marsh & Hattie (2006), in general, the ideal self-concept is a reference point with the actual self that is compared. If there is a gap between them, an individual tries to achieve an ideal state.

Based on the aforementioned definition, it can be concluded that the notion of self-concept is what is seen, felt, and thought by individuals about themselves as a whole so that it appears in individual behaviour. According to Brunner (2010), the behaviour is formed in a long time by being influenced by: (1) physical condition to improve their abilities and achievements; (2) language as a symbol in forming conceptualization and verbalization; (3) feedback from the environment to give people’s views and judgments; (4) identification to see how people think and behave; (5) family parenting as the first agents of socialization for someone. Those things support several functions of self-concept (Folker in Brunner, 2010). First, self-concept is a maintainer of internal consistency or balance in a person. Second, self-concept influences the way a person interprets his experience. Third, self-concept is a hope owned by someone.

According to Hawkins et al. (2010), self-concept can be divided into four basic parts. First, “actual self-concept” is related to how the individual actually values himself through attitudes and behaviours that have been reflected in his daily life personally. For example, people will use products that have the same brand image as their self-image. Second, “ideal self-concept” is a concept that actually wants to be achieved. Ideal self-concept is really related to self-esteem that is someone’s positive attitude towards himself. Third, “actual social self-concept” is someone’s effort to actualize them and find out how the actual environmental assessment of the self-concept they have shown. Fourth, “ideal social self-concept” expresses the views of the people or other people about a person or someone's wishes about how the community or other people should see them.

Calhoun & Acocella (2007) divide self-concepts into positive and negative self-concepts. Positive self-concept shows the existence of self-acceptance where individuals with positive self-concept know themselves very well. This concept is stable and varied. Individuals who have a positive self-concept can understand and accept a number of very diverse facts about themselves. Hence, an evaluation of themselves become positive and they can accept themselves as it is. People who have a positive self-concept will design goals that are in accordance with reality, namely goals that have a high probability of being achieved. Conversely, people with a negative self-concept have a feeling of being insecure, not accepting themselves, disliking, and respecting themselves. Besides having an uncertain picture of them, it is difficult to define themselves and be easily influenced by persuasion from outside. They have many perceptions that conflict with each other and feel strange to them, which resulted in difficulties to get along.

Research Methodology

This research employed quantitative research using explanatory method aimed at examining the influence or relationship between variables in the hypothesis. This research focuses on behaviour in marketing management of economic study. The unit of analysis was the behaviour of using a credit card, while the observation unit was the credit card users. Therefore, it is expected to find a theory developed through research into testing factual propositions, namely deductive propositions (hypothesis) tested imperatively.

The population of this research was credit card users in the three largest credit card issuing banks in Indonesia in 2016 and credit cards are still actively used by their customers as seen in Table 1 below.

Table 1: The Population Number Of Credit Card Users
The Issuing Banks Population (people)
Mandiri Bank 2,670,000
BCA Bank 2,400,000
BNI Bank 1,700,000
Population Total 6,770,000

Source: Bank Indonesia.

Accidental sampling is a technique for determining samples based on chance, that is, anyone who accidentally met with a researcher could be a sample if the person was suitable for being a data source. Sample size determination in this research used Taro Yamane’s formulation (Riduwan & Kuncoro, 2011). Based on the determination of sample size based on Yamane formula, it was obtained a minimum sample of 399.9 rounded up to 400 respondents as seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1:Operating Venture Capital Funds (KVCA, 2016)

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this research is:

H1: Self-concept has significant influence on the decision to use credit cards.

Before the hypothesis was tested with a SEM structure model on the influence of self-concept in using a credit card on the decision making of the users, ideally the goodness of fit model was tested first by using indexes such as Chi-Square, probability, RMSEA, GFI, CFI, TLI and CMIN/DF.

Findings

Self-concept is the core of individual personality development patterns that will affect various forms of traits. Self-concept plays a role in individual behaviour because all attitudes and views of individuals towards it will influence the individuals in interpreting every aspect of their experiences (Hurlock, 1997). In this research, self-concept in using a credit card was measured using four dimensions, namely self-control, responsibility, self-confidence, and self-esteem. Self-control dimension was measured by the ability to assess usage, control shopping behaviour, and make decisions in using a credit card (Table 2). Responsibility dimension was measured by prudence and risk taking in using a credit card. Self-confidence dimension was measured by confidence in their own abilities, positive thinking, and attitude based on true or legitimate beliefs in using a credit card. Self-esteem dimension was measured by pride and independence of credit card users.

Table 2: The Score Of Self-Control Dimension
Indicators Score Category
Ability to objectively assess the use of credit card 3675 High
Ability to control the shopping behaviour using a credit card 3.693 High
Ability to make decisions in the use of credit card 3.684 High
Average Score 3.684 High

Self-control is the ability in sensitivity to read the situation of individuals and their environment and the ability to control and manage behavioural factors in accordance with the situation and conditions to present them. The investigation results of self-control on the use of credit cards were included a high category. This means that respondents’ perceptions toward the use of credit cards had been able to control and manage credit cards. Users were able to assess the use of credit cards objectively, control shopping behaviour, and make decision whether or not to use a credit card.

The investigation results of the ability to objectively assess the use of credit card were included in high category. This means that the average respondents were fully able to use a credit card in accordance with the specific conditions. They had been able to control the use of credit cards after the given credit limit. Users also considered and noticed to the usefulness of goods purchased using a credit card, whether it was very important or not at all. This is because the credit card users should consider the importance of purchased goods and services to avoid high credit card debt bills and uselessness later on. This is not in accordance with the research conducted by Omar et al. (2014) discovering that credit card misuse by the working adults in Malaysia was influenced negatively by their self-esteem and positively by compulsive buying.

The investigation results of the ability to control the shopping behaviour using credit cards were included in high category. This means that the average respondents were fully able to control their behaviour in using a credit card only for the important or urgent matters, such as entering a hospital or having no money to give birth. Sometimes, sudden health necessity occurred and needed immediate treatment. Although, people have insurance, it will take some times to do verification and claim process. In this case, a credit card is truly useful at times like this. Therefore, every card user must be able to control the use of credit cards, especially shopping. They were not affected by large discounts or gifts to buy unimportant products.

The investigation results of the ability to make decisions in the use of credit cards were included in high category. This means that the average respondents carefully planned their credit card transaction (Table 3). Planning is very important, especially in financial planning, because if the use of credit cards is not well-planned, this will have a negative impact on the user, where the larger credit debt plus the interest is also getting bigger. The convenience offered makes credit card users become consumptive because they feel they are facilitated, especially for shopping. If they are not able to use credit cards wisely, it is not impossible that financial management will be chaotic because they have to pay a debt. The amount of debt can be greater than the ability to pay, so credit card users cannot set aside for other things such as saving money.

Table 3: The Score Of Responsibility Dimension
Indicators Score Category
Prudence in the use of a credit card 3.529 Medium
Ability to bear the risk of using a credit card 3.736 High
Average Score 3.633 Medium

The responsibility in using credit cards means that the credit card users mean and dare to bear all the risks and everything resulting from the use of credit cards. The investigation results of the responsibility of using credit cards were included in medium category. This means that respondents’ perceptions toward the responsibility of using credit cards had not been fully able to bear the risk in using credit cards and the principle of prudence in the use of credit cards. It becomes very risky that credit card users will become entangled in debt and may not be charged with civil penalties in accordance with statutory provisions.

The investigation results of prudence in the use of credit cards were included in medium category. This means that the average respondent had not been fully able to perform self-control in using a credit card. Self-control failure is resulted from impulsive buying (Omar et al., 2014), which could lead to credit card misuse (Pirog & Roberts, 2007; Rook & Fisher, 1995; Roberts & Jones, 2001). Less careful credit card users usually spent their credit cards without thinking about returning the credit card debt. Even though doing shopping using a credit card means owing to the bank and using bank money to buy the item. Not being responsible for credit cards will not only be a financial burden to the users, but also damage the credit quality of users for the bank and will find it difficult to apply for other loans.

The investigation results of the ability to bear the risk in using credit cards were included in high category. This means that the average respondents had the ability to bear the risk of using a credit card. The risk of using a credit card included an over limit fine that will be imposed by the bank when the credit card usage has exceeded the maximum of credit limit provided by the bank. The fee for withdrawing cash from ATMs and its interest is higher than the interest charged if the credit card is used for shopping at merchant. Any late payment and payment of less than the amount of the final bill will be subject to late penalties and remaining interest on the loan. As a result, the amount of bills in the following month will increase and so on if it is not resolved. This is known as interest rates (Table 4).

Table 4: The Score Of Confidence Dimension
Indicators Score Category
Confidence on self-ability 3.361 Medium
Ability to think positively in using a credit card 3.361 Medium
Ability to behave based on true or legitimate beliefs in using a credit card 3.656 Medium
Average Score 3.640 Medium

Self-confidence is an attitude of trust and confident on self-ability, which can help someone to see themselves positively and realistically. Therefore, individuals are able to socialize well with others. The investigation results of confidence in using credit cards were included a medium category. This means that the respondents’ perceptions of confidence of credit card users did not have full confidence on self-ability, the ability to think positively in the use of credit cards, and the ability to behave based on true or legitimate beliefs in the use of credit cards.

The investigation results of confidence on self-ability to use credit cards were included in the medium category. This means that the average respondents did not have fully believed in their ability to use credit cards optimally and feel afraid not to pay in accordance with the provisions set by the bank. Credit card users had not been able to optimally solve the problem properly when having problems with the bank over their credit cards. In addition, self-confidence by having a credit card did not show higher status because they realized that credit cards are debts that must be paid in accordance with the time set by the bank.

The investigation results of the ability to think positively in the use of credit cards were included medium category. This means that the average respondent did not have full positive abilities in using a credit card. Credit card users certainly took advantage of all promotions and offers. Every credit card user wants to get something for free. However, too much focus on rewards when using a credit card will only make the shopping style impulsive. Without a definite budget, users will be entangled in credit card debt and the targeted rewards will be forfeited. Therefore, positive thinking is very important, hence, they are not snared in the things that make credit debt bigger.

The investigation results of the ability to behave based on true or legitimate beliefs in the use of credit cards were included in medium category. This means that the average respondents did not have full the right confidence in using a credit card. One form of confidence that is not possessed by users is when banks have many ways to make users always feel they want to have more than one credit card because different credit cards have different advantages and promos. Besides that, application facilities are usually lured with direct prizes. However, this will tempt users to spend more money. Having a large credit card means increasing the shopping limit. This consequence affects the ability to pay bills from one credit card, so this makes the user trapped in credit debt (Table 5).

Table 5: The Score Of Self-Esteem Dimension
Indicators Score Category
Pride of credit card users 3.578 Medium
Independence of credit card users 3.621 Medium
Average Score 3.599 Medium

Frey & Carlock (2010) reveal that self-esteem is an assessment that refers to positive, negative, neutral, and ambiguous judgments as a part of self-concept, but that does not mean self-love. The investigation results of self-esteem on the use of credit cards were included in medium category. This means that respondent perceptions of self-esteem for credit card users had not provided a positive assessment toward credit cards.

The investigation results of pride of credit card users were included in medium category. This means that the average respondents feel they were not proud on using a credit card. Since credit card application is easy to do, everyone will be able to have it. However, if it is based on pride, then this will make them unable to control their use because their reason having credit card is only based on pride or desire to show off.

The investigation results of the independence of credit card users were included in medium category. This means that the average respondents did not have sufficient independence in using a credit card. This is because the use of credit cards will be difficult to control, even though the users must also see the income they have. Therefore, if both of them are not balanced, it will influence their finances and make them unable to independently manage their finances.

Based on the investigation results of each indicator, the following Table 6 shows the assessment of self-concept variable of credit card users based on the aforementioned dimensions.

The Table 6 shows that the average of self-concept variable of credit card users was included in medium category. This shows that credit card users, who did not have a high self-concept in carrying out self-control, responsibility, confidence, and self-esteem, are prone to spend beyond their limits and face financial risks, which could lead to credit card misuse. This is in accordance with the findings of Omar et al. (2014) suggesting that credit card users with low self-esteem were more likely to misuse their credit cards. This is thought to be one factor in the number of credit card users who experience financial difficulties with large credit debt due to defaults that are overdue. Hence, the debt and interest increased and eventually experienced financial problems that affect the legal crimes.

Table 6: The Score Of Self-Concept Dimension
Indicators Score Category
Self-Control 3.684 High
Responsibility 3.633 Medium
Confidence 3.640 Medium
Self-Esteem 3.599 Medium
Average Score 3.639 Medium

As has been discussed earlier, goodness of fit model analysis test was done, and the result is presented in the following Table 7.

Table 7: The Goodness Of Fit Test Model Sem
No. Goodness of Index Cut-off Value Model Result Category
11 Chi Square Expected to be small 1050.317 Bad
22 Probability ≥ 0.05 0.000 Bad
33 RMSEA ≤ 0.08 0.045 Good
44 GFI ≥ 0.90 0.865 Marginal
55 AGFI ≥ 0.90 0.847 Marginal
66 CMIN/DF ≤ 2 1.792 Good
77 TLI ≥ 0.90 0.940 Good
88 CFI ≥ 0.95 0.944 Marginal

The results indicate that the model used has not been accepted. The CMIN/DF value of 1.792 showed a good structural equation model. The RSMEA measurement index was in the range of expected values, namely ≤ 0.08, which is 0.045. However, the Chi Square, Probability, GFI, and AGFI did not meet the criteria, so modifications need to be made based on AMOS modification indices.

The model modification test results were conducted by combining values or eliminating some indicators, hence, the following model is obtained.

The results of the goodness of fit model analysis test can be seen in the following Table 8.

Table 8: The Goodness Of Fit  Modification Test Model Sem
No Goodness of Index Cut-off Value Model Result Category
1 Chi Square Expected to be small 622.282 Good
2 Probability ≥ 0.05 0.000 Bad
3 RMSEA ≤ 0.08 0.034 Good
4 GFI ≥ 0.90 0.907 Good
5 AGFI ≥ 0.90 0.892 Marginal
6 CMIN/DF ≤ 2 1.461 Good
7 TLI ≥ 0.90 0.968 Good
8 CFI ≥ 0.95 0.971 Good

The results indicate that the model used was acceptable. The CMIN/DF value of 1.461 showed a good structural equation model. The RSMEA measurement index was in the range of expected values of 0.034<0.08, and GFI, TLI and CFI show good values. In a feasibility model tests, a model is said to be feasible if at least one method of the feasibility test model is met (Hair et al., 1998). In an empirical study, researchers are not required to fulfill all the criteria of goodness of fit, but it depends on the judgment of each researcher. From the output suitability model test criteria, several criteria are at the marginal category. Marginal category is the condition of the model suitability below the absolute fit and incremental fit criteria, but can still be continued on further analysis because it is close to the good fit criteria (Seguro in Fitriyana, 2013).

Structural Analysis of Equation Modeling (SEM)

The results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis that has been adjusted through modification of the model were as follows.

Based on the Table 9 above, the structural equation obtained was as follows.

Table 9: Standardized Regression Model Sem
      Estimate S.E. C.R P-value
Decision to Use <--- Self-concept 0.991 0.076 12.993 **
Self-control <--- Self-concept 0.896 0.069 12.954 ***
Responsibility <--- Self-concept 0.958 0.076 12.662 ***
Self-reward <--- Self-concept 1.000      
Confidence <--- Self-concept 0.933 0.071 13.202 ***
Passive Behavior <--- Decision to use 1.000      
Active Behavior <--- Decision to use 0.963 0.069 13.894 ***
Usage Intensity <--- Decision to use 0.917 0.063 14.541 ***

Decision to Use a Credit Card=γ3 Self-concept+ζ2

Decision to Use a Credit Card=(0.991) Self-concept+0.076.

The equation showed that the decision to use a credit card was influenced by self-concept as much as 0.991. This meant that the higher the customer's self-concept means the more the customer's decision to use a credit card increased; while the lower the customer's self-concept means the lower the customer's decision to use a credit card.

Hypothesis Analysis of MODEL SEM

Hypothesis analysis was used to test the variables’ influence in the research. Based on the results of the SEM test with AMOS, the model met the requirements to function as measurement. The following data were obtained based on the results of the structural model analysis (Table 10).

Table 10: Inter Variable Analysis Of Model Sem
Hypothesis Estimate S.E. C.R. P-value
Self-concept influence towards the decision to use credit cards. 0.991 0.076 12.993 ***

Source: AMOS calculation result, 2018.

The results of the investigation on the effect of self-concept in using a credit card towards the decision to use credit card by the users showed that the Estimate=0.991, SE=0.076, CR=12.993 and ***=p<0.001, which was significant. This showed that there was an influence of customer value on self-concept in using credit cards.

This investigation showed that the higher the self-concept in term of self-control, responsibility, confidence and respect for oneself was, the more it increased the decision to use a credit card.

Discussion and Conclusion

Bank is utilizing technology by issuing credit card as it provides many cashless advantages. Its cashless easiness and promotion have attracted many people to experience the benefits. However, many credit card users do not have a good self-concept, resulting having a lot of debt. An analysis on four aspects of self-concept (self-control, responsibility, confidence, and self-esteem) was done to see the influence of self-concept in using credit card and its decision to the users.

This research has found that self-concept had an influence on decision to use credit card. The self-concept factor in using a credit card influenced the decisions on credit card users, in which the increasingly individuals’ confidence to the use of a credit card will simplify the work, this will change the perceptions, feelings, and attitudes of individuals toward themselves against credit card products. If the change is positive, they will make a decision to use a credit card, whereas if the change is negative, they will make a decision not to use a credit card. The factor of customer value and customer knowledge influenced the decision in using credit cards through self-concept in using a credit card. Hence, it is recommended that the credit cards users must ensure and build their capability in using credit card in order to avoid a lot of debt and impulsive transaction. It is in line with Arslan’s (2015) research that credit card use had influence on impulsive buying. The issuing bank is recommended to provide detailed information on credit card usage, benefits and possible inconveniences resulted from unwise use of credit cards. The third party is recommended to maintain the relationship with the merchants since they have several risks like longevity and financial stability, industry, business model, billing method, products sold/services offered, and previous processing history.

References