Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S

The Leadership Behavior of Hotel Managers and the Job Satisfaction of Staff in Five-Star Hotels in the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (ASEZA)

Ehab Abdul Raheem Alshatnawi, The University of Jordan

Rami Muneer Mahmoud, University of Jordan

Keywords

Leadership Behavior, Hotel Managers, Job Satisfaction, Hotels, Aqaba

Abstract

 The research examines the leadership actions of hotel managers and the job satisfaction of staff in five-star hotels in the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (ASEZA) and the connection of these behaviors to gender and expertise variables and their effects on the activation of leadership positions, the promotion of successful trends and the diffusion of experience. The research used the descriptive methodology in its survey type to fit the essence of the analysis, as a sample of its objective was selected from personnel in five-star hotels in Jordan, consisting of (300) staff members and their employees. The research suggested that the conduct of hotel managers was of a negative nature, since the analysis revealed that there was a negative relationship with each dimension of the relationship between the manager and the worker and the aspects of job and authority, although there was no relationship between the dimension of the relationship between the manager and the worker and the legal dimension.

The study proposed a set of recommendations which, in their entirety, centered on the significance of human relations within the hotel and provided them with sufficient treatment to achieve a better level of job satisfaction for all workers and at their different administrative levels, as well as broadening the basis for involvement in decision-making.

Introduction

As a result of the growth in the tourism trend in the world and the shift in the behavior and requirements of visitors, the definition of hospitality has grown in type and substance. With the rise in income generated by hotels, they concentrated on the most significant aspect in achieving these revenues, which is the human aspect.

A hotel with trained and highly skilled human capital is certainly a good hotel. Probably the most significant human factor in the hotel is the management, as he is the one who has absolute oversight of matters and has the power to give orders, to develop strategies and to authorize programs that accomplish the required objectives. As a consequence, the performance of hotel administrators is typically related to their subordinate staff (Bahadori et al., 2021).

The hotel manager is also a leader and has a significant and vital function to play in the performance of the job in the hotel that he oversees, such that he has the requisite expertise and skills that relate to making him a good manager and is able to develop productive relationships with staff both at their different administrative levels. One of the determinants of this performance is the hotel manager's style of leadership, which determines and drives the actions of workers, and which therefore has a direct effect on the individual worker's conviction, morale and job satisfaction with work, and therefore motivation and efficiency.

Job satisfaction is one of the most important factors that contributes to the production and continuity of the organization and enhances its productivity and effectiveness (Sharma et al., 2010). Therefore, the significance of this analysis lies in defining the trends of management conduct of hotel managers and what is expressed in these patterns in terms of job satisfaction for employees.

Hotel manager may improve their productivity in a variety of areas, such as enhancing service quality, increasing reputations and adding value to the current stock of hotel assets. As shown in a variety of reports, consumers would be happier if workers are satisfied (Heskett, Jones, Loveman, Sasser & Schlesinger, 1994; Jahmani et al., 2020; Jawabreh, 2020). Employees are an important element in assessing the level of corporate operation and market performance or loss (Alsarayreh et al., 2011b; Heskett, 1987; Tsai & Chung, 2006). The job material of foreign tourism hotel workers is to offer service-based technical work to groups of individuals, rendering human capital the most valuable resource in the industry. Arnett, et al., (2002) suggested that, with a high degree of work fulfillment, workers would commit their maximum efforts to the achievement of their assignments. Apparently, the work satisfaction of workers influences their success (Zeithaml & Bitner, 2000). Since they are the first-line members to satisfy clients, the work satisfaction of workers dictates consumer loyalty (Claessens, Eerde, Rutte & Roe, 2004). High-quality internal operation adds to the workplace satisfaction of workers. As workers' work satisfaction is high, clients can be taken care of by delivering high-quality service (Jawabreh et al., 2020; Chen, 2003). Joint actions by workers are required to maximize consumer loyalty. Hotels must also guarantee that their workers are happy in the workplace until employees are willing to offer adequate facilities to customers.

That is why the purpose of this study was to recognize the realities of the leadership actions of hotel managers in Jordan, which may help to resolve the strengths and shortcomings of these behaviors, and the effects of this on the activation of the leadership position, the promotion and reinforcement of successful habits, the generalization of their knowledge and advice that would promote good behavior.

Literature Review

The role of the service sector in the economy is becoming increasingly significant. The tourism industry is an industry that blends natural capital, cultural properties, travel, accommodation, dining, retail, trade, leisure, recreation, tourism media and other sectors. The growth of the tourism industry shows the degree of internationalization and modernization of the country. Developing nations depend on their foreign exchange tourism sectors to build employment prospects. As the cornerstone of the economy, the service sector is important to the prosperity of related sectors and thus strengthens the national profile. This is especially true of the modernized nations around the globe.

A variety of variables assess employee happiness at work. Pre-factor factors are classified into two groups – human characteristics and environmental variables (Seashore & Taber, 1975). Internal environmental variables – such as the corporate atmosphere, the size of the organization, the degree of centralization, the extent of formality, the level of organizational difficulty, the decision-making mechanism and leadership – are essential variables that influence employee productivity at the workplace. In the case of businesses that retain direct communication with clients, such as international visitor hotels, it continues to be investigated if leadership influences workers' satisfaction more than in other industries. If the response is good, leadership will help boost consumer loyalty. Previous reports have found that leadership has not consistently influenced staff productivity at work. Also, few researchers investigate the correlation between the leadership of hotel managers and the job satisfaction of employees. Although job satisfaction and leadership behavior have been thoroughly investigated in other fields, studies of these variables in tourism services, especially hotel management, are almost non-existent. The purpose of this analysis is therefore to discover the relationship between the two variables through research on international tourism hotels, with a focus on their specific characteristics – high customer touch. The research offers a method from which hoteliers can receive input from workers on leadership types. Such suggestions will then act as the foundation for further evolving the philosophy of leadership through disciplines. This study offers a roadmap to the growth of the hotel industry supervisors as successful leaders in the competitive world of the future.

This research also offers a framework for educating creators of leadership preparation initiatives that can contribute to better academic hospitality leadership and analysis of the literature on the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction, and thus outlines its conclusions, accompanied by a field study on workers employed for foreign tourist hotels. In the final pages, this review reflects on the application for administration and provides the highlights of potential studies.

There has been a great deal of literature in the past in leadership studies, but there have been various hypotheses owing to different research methodologies. Many leadership reports suggest that efforts have been made to collect advances in leadership analysis methodologies (Jawabreh & Al Sarayreh, 2017; House, Wright & Aditya, 1997; Maheshwari Yadav, 2019). However, there is currently no agreement on the evolutionary past of leadership studies. Various literatures view leadership in a variety of various forms. For example, Masa'deh, et al., (2016). Describe leadership as an interpersonal negotiation mechanism in some contexts that direct a community to step forward (Malik et al., 2021.) towards a particular objective (Alsarayreh et al., 2011a). Leadership is superior to the power exerted by a mechanical conformity directed by a particular organization (Katz & Kahn, 1978). Leadership is a mechanism (Rauch & Behling, 1984) and is also a function. In the leadership process, all actions of the participants are directed and organized by non-compulsory control (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990) with a view to achieving the aims of the organization (Jago, 1982; Yang, 1995). Leadership is a power mechanism that occurs in an entity that is illustrated by the influence of experiences (Chang, 2000).

Based on previous studies, leadership models, there are three potential views on leadership: trait, behavioral, and situational. Leadership philosophy concentrates on working out what great leaders have in common. For the whole of the 1950s through the 1960s, reports on leadership traits remain vague and there was little agreement on what was assessed by the study. Leadership concepts then began to look into real-world accomplishments. As a theorist, Condon claims, theories of great individuals and theories of leadership are both essential for the leader. According to Bennis & Nanus (1986), leadership cannot be conditioned, but can be taught by unique qualities. We came up with the principle of leadership to address flaws in previous studies.

Models built by advocates of operant conditioning also had a greater effect on subsequent studies, according to some academics. There are several instances that these two University of Ohio and Michigan research overlap, as well as several where they differ. There are two kinds of leaders: Job-oriented and people-oriented. This thesis contributed to our understanding of leadership through the application of quantitative methods. Two determinants of action were built into the equation: construction and concern. It had an excellent reputation among other studies and had several follow-up papers as a result. Construction and consideration have not been accounted for in a dimensional partnership. Reddin & Moutin collaborated on the creation of the second variant in the 1970s. There are three aspects to think about leadership: becoming a mission-oriented, having an eye on the partnerships, and taking care of the bottom line.

Methodology

Method Is characterized as a course that leads to the disclosure of the truth in science through a set of general laws (Badawi, 1977). In view of the essence of the objectives of this report, the researcher used the descriptive approach in its survey and analytical context, which is focused on the compilation, arrangement and review of data and the definition of the phenomenon under study, in order to classify its variables, triggers and relevant factors and to draw conclusions from the relationship between the variables of the phenomenon.

After the researcher verified the indications of validity and reliability of the two scales that he used for the purposes of the study, he distributed them to the sample members of hotel workers, whose number is (300) male and female workers, who were chosen in a way of its purpose. The researcher also clarified the method of answering the paragraphs of the questionnaire to the respondents, assuring them that their answers will be completely confidential and that they will only be used for the purposes of scientific research. The number of retrieved questionnaires reached (262), and after reviewing the questionnaires, the researcher found (12) incomplete questionnaires, so he excluded them, leaving (250) valid for statistical analysis, i.e. 83%.

Statistical Treatment

For the purposes of answering the hypotheses of the study, the researcher used the following statistical treatments:

To answer the first hypothesis related to determining the relationship between leadership behavior of hotel managers and employee job satisfaction, the researcher used the correlation coefficient Pearson to determine this relationship.

To answer the second question related to determining the relationship between sex and job satisfaction of the workers, the researcher used the arithmetic averages, standard deviations, and the (T-test) to compare the arithmetic mean of males with the arithmetic mean of females.

As for the answer to the third question, which includes determining the relationship between experience and job satisfaction of the workers, the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Neumen Coles test for dimensional comparisons were used.

Sample Study

The survey sample consisted of (300) male and female hotel workers who were chosen using the objective sampling system to achieve the objectives of this study.

Tools for Study

The researcher has also translated the scale into Arabic and adapted it to fit the Jordanian climate. An exploratory questionnaire was used to create a scale that included (25) paragraphs spread over the three dimensions mentioned above. The first dimension (action) included (12) paragraphs, while the second dimension (authority) included (7) paragraphs, and the third and last dimension (legal) included (6) paragraphs.

Second Method (Measure of Work Satisfaction)

The researcher created this scale on the basis of a variety of experiments that dealt with this subject and made use of several instruments that were used to assess job satisfaction, such as the (Minnesota) scale, and the scale included (13) elements to measure the relationship of the boss with the staff and their job satisfaction with this relationship.

Study Hypotheses:

1 There is a statistically significant relationship (α 0.05≤) between leadership behavior and job satisfaction from the employees' point of view.

2 There is a statistically significant relationship (α 0.05≤) between the sex of the worker and his job satisfaction.

3 There is a statistically significant relationship (α 0.05≤) between the worker's experience and job satisfaction.

The researcher checked the internal feasibility of the technique by applying it to a pilot study of (26) individuals using the Test-Retest process, with a gap of around two weeks between the first and second applications. And Pearson measured the correlation coefficient for the instrument for all of its products and noticed that it was equivalent to (0.91) and the scale measurements were unchanged, as seen in the graph (1).

The internal accuracy coefficient for the test products was also determined by means of the research sample and it was observed that the reliability coefficient for the scale according to the Cronbach Alpha equation is approximately (0.63), which suggests that the correlation paragraphs with the scale is strong and there are no items with a poor correlation to the scale which confirms its usage in this study.

Table 1
The Reliability Coefficient Values for the Leader Action Description Scale.
Field Internal Consistency
leadership behavior 84%
Job Satisfaction 88%
Authority 92%
Total 91%

Study Design

After the researcher verified the indications of validity and reliability of the two scales that he used for the purposes of the study, he distributed them to the sample members of hotel workers, who numbered (300) male and female workers, who were chosen in a way of its purpose. The researcher also clarified the method of answering the paragraphs of the questionnaire to the respondents, assuring them that their answers will be completely confidential and that they will only be used for the purposes of scientific research. The number of retrieved questionnaires reached (262), and after reviewing the questionnaires, the researcher found (12) incomplete questionnaires, so he excluded them, leaving (250) valid for statistical analysis, i.e. 83%.

Statistical Treatment

For the purposes of answering the hypotheses of the study, the researcher used the following statistical treatments:

To answer the first hypothesis related to determining the relationship between leadership behavior of hotel managers and employee job satisfaction, the researcher used the correlation coefficient Pearson to determine this relationship.

To answer the second question related to determining the relationship between sex and job satisfaction of the workers, the researcher used the arithmetic averages, standard deviations, and the (T-test) to compare the arithmetic mean of males with the arithmetic mean of females. As for the answer to the third question, which includes determining the relationship between experience and job satisfaction of the workers, the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Neumen Coles test for dimensional comparisons were used.

Results

There is a statistically important association at the level of importance (α ≥ 0.05) between the management, conduct of hotel managers and the employee's work satisfaction from the point of view of workers.

In order to test this theory, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between the dimensions of leadership activity and the dimensions of work satisfaction. Table (2) displays the correlation coefficients that have been achieved.

Table 2
Displays the Correlation Coefficients that Have Been Achieved.
Iteam Job Satisfaction Authority leadership behavior
The relationship of the manager with the employees 0.56* -0.57* 0.17
The level of significance (a = 0.05)

Table No. (2) indicates that there is a detrimental association between the scale of the manager's relationship with the worker and the two aspects of job and authority, where the correlation coefficient varied between (0.56_0.57), which is a statistically important relationship at the degree of significance (α ≥ 0.05) although there was no significant relationship between the variable (0.56 0.57).

Results of the Second Hypothesis

There is a statistically important association at the degree of importance (α ≥ 0.05) between the sex of the worker and his job satisfaction.

The arithmetic mean and standard deviations were determined and the (T) T-test was used to test this hypothesis. Test)) comparing the arithmetic mean of males with the arithmetic mean of females, and Table (3) indicates that:

Table 3
Arithmetic Means, Standard Deviations, And (T) Values of the Job Satisfaction Dimension According to the Gender Variable.
Dimensions Level Number Means SD t value P value
The relationship of the manager with the employees Mal 180 18.52 3.4 2.062 0.049
Female 70 21.67 4.98

Table (3) indicates that there are statistically significant differences in the dimension of the manager’s relationship with workers due to the gender variable, as it was found that the arithmetic means of males (18.52), the standard deviation (3.40), the arithmetic mean of females (21.67), the standard deviation (4.98) and the value of (t) calculated (2.062-) and it is a function at the level of significance (α ≥ 0.05).

Results Related to the Third Hypothesis

There is a statistical significant relationship at the level of significance (α ≥ 0.05) between work experience and job satisfaction.

To examine this hypothesis, a single analysis of variance was used, and the results were as shown in Table (4):

Table 4
Analysis of Variance of the Variable Experience on the Dimension of Job Satisfaction
Dimensions Source Degree of freedom Sum of squares Average of squares F 0
Test
The relationship of the manager with the employees Between groups 2 257.46 137.73 14.679 0.001
Within groups 27 253.34 9.38
Total 29 528.8 --

We notice from Table (4) the existence of statistically significant differences on the dimension of the manager’s relationship with the workers due to the experience variable at the level of significance (α ≥ 0.05) as the value of (P) was equal to (14.679) and (15.125) and with a degree of freedom (2/27) and these values Statistically significant at the level of significance (α ≥ 0.05).

In order to identify the sources of the differences on the dimension of the relationship of the manager with the workers, the statistician Newman Coles test was used, where it was found that there are differences between workers who have experience of (1-5) and between workers who have experience (6 _ 10) and greater than (10). Experience is from (1-5) (22.79), and the average score o those with experience is from (6-10) (18.87), and the difference between the two averages is (4.03). The average grades of workers whose experience was greater than (10) (14,80), and the difference in the arithmetic mean of the workers whose experience was (1-5) and workers whose experience was greater than (10) (7.57), which is a statistically significant value at the level of significance ( 0.01 ≥ α) and the difference between the two averages was (7,23), which is a statistically significant value at the level of significance (see Table (5).

Table 5
Newman Quills Test for Dimensional Comparison of the Means
Arithmetic mean Experience 5-Jan 10-Jun More than 10
22.79 5-Jan -- ** **
18.78 10-Jun -- -- --
14.8 More than 10 -- -- --

Conclusion

The findings of the analysis indicated that there is a detrimental association between the dimension of satisfaction with the relationship between the manager and the worker and the two dimensions of job and authority, and this suggests that the more the manager is involved in output or work, the less the satisfaction of the worker with the manager and the relationship with him/her. Studies suggest that managers who concentrate on output and power are distinguished by their strong interest in function and its conditions, by establishing their goals and working towards achieving them by setting specific frameworks for the methods of achieving them, and that they do not think about the private and official needs of employees and do not assign part of their forces to staff and do not include them in ma. The explanation for the managers' acceptance of this approach can be traced to the lack of consistency of management thinking, which considers administrative function to be a comprehensive perspective. This could also be attributed to their failure to build their leadership abilities on the basis of foundations and recent innovations.

Results often suggest that the trend of leadership behaviour that takes care of staff and addresses their interests, which delegates powers to staff and allows them to engage in decision-making (for lack of consideration) contributes to an improvement in satisfaction with the interaction between managers and workers. This can be due to creating an environment of friendship and encouraging people to make choices that affect them in the hotel and to providing them with material and moral encouragement, which contributes to greater loyalty and strengthened ties.

There is a statistically important association at the degree of importance (Δ ≥ 0.05) between the sex of the worker and his job satisfaction.

The findings revealed that there are variations due to the gender component in the dimension of the partnership between the boss and the two employees. The degree of happiness in females was found to be higher than in males with a disparity in statistical significance (α ≥ 0.05). This can be due to the female worker's feeling that her career offers her flexibility and job protection, leads to self-fulfillment, and gives her a social environment and positive relationships. Furthermore, the areas of employment open to females are restricted if they are calculated by those available to males, which can have an effect on the degree of happiness of the worker with their work on the above-mentioned grounds.

There is a statistically important association (α ≥ 0.05) between the perception of the director of the organization and his work satisfaction.

It is obvious from Tables (3-4-5) that employees who have less expertise are more comfortable with their partnership with the boss, and this is attributed to their lack of awareness and lack of mastery of managerial and job matters relative to their colleagues who have more experience and are thus able to assess the function of the manager. People of little experience often have a less optimistic approach about work than people with long experience, and the explanation for this could be because more seasoned people are more comfortable with work and their capacity to establish strategies to respond to the nature of work than new employees.

I am convinced that identifying the three aspects of workplace happiness which respondents find missing in will lead to greater job satisfaction. That involve topics like their job evaluation, degree of salary, and the amount of work they're expected to perform. At mid-year and at the end of the year, supervisors can score workers and provide input on their output. Improvement and progression of this will be accompanied by new responsibilities and duties will also contribute to progress. For workers to feel fulfilled and accepted, they should realize that they are contributing to the organization's overall mission (Masadeh et al., 2019). That managers should know about some of their workers' skills in order to include activities that can support or assist their operations or improve their usefulness to clients (or get work done). Increased their ownership and leverage in their careers as they believe they are meaningfully contributing to something bigger than themselves.

Thus, to maximize workforce interest in the administration, a workplace should also provide development opportunities to those who want it.

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