Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 6

The Mediating Role of Motivation between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship behaviour in the Jordanian Telecommunication Companies

Amneh Almaqableh, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Khatijah Omar, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Azlinzuraini Ahmad, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Nuri Herachwati, Universitas Airlangga

Hazriyanto, School of Economic Science

Citation Information: Almaqableh, A., Omar, K., Ahmad, A., Herachwati, N., & Hazriyanto (2021). The mediating role of motivation between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behaviour in the Jordanian telecommunication companies. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 27(6), 1-10.


The study's goal was to determine the computerized organizational climate (OC) and their relationship to improving the organizational citizenship behaviour with motivation as mediating of the employees of the Jordanian telecommunication companies. A questionnaire was prepared and produced to gather data and measure the study variables in order to meet the study's objectives. SmartPLS (3.3.2) was used. 350 randomly selected respondents from three major telecommunication companies in Jordan were given the self-administered questionnaire. The study found the following direct effects are positive and significant namely, OC on OCB (β=0.484; P = 0.000), OC on motivation (β=0.852; P = 0.000), and motivation on OCB (β=0.383; P = 0.013). The study also found motivation mediates the relationship between OC and OCB. Overall, the findings support OC and its link to motivation as a means for businesses to assist employees in improving their OCB.


Organizational Climate, OCB, Motivation, Telecommunication, Jordan.


The telecommunication industry in Jordan is characterized by dynamic competition and increased growth and it is continuously being upgraded and extended. The industry happens to be the top competitive one in the whole of the Middle East region. The telecommunications and information technology sector is one of Jordan's most important economic sectors. Telecommunications can be considered a gateway for Jordan's economic growth and social life through developing the services it provides (Almaqableh & Omar, 2021; Enas, et al., 2019). The government of Jordan is mobilising the most extensive possible access to communication services at reasonable costs The Middle East North Africa Financial Network (MENAFN) and is ensuring that the telecommunication sector is fair game in terms of competition (Ashour, 2014). In this regard, the private sector is urged to participate and invest in the development of this service sector (Alnsour, et al., 2014; Enas, et al., 2018). Therefore, the service quality provided by the sector is highly significant if companies are desirous of becoming and remaining competitive.

Furthermore, these businesses are governed by the Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technology. This provides additional control and organization for this sector, ensuring that these businesses provide high-quality services to society. Furthermore, the government ensures fair competition and a secure environment (Awwad, et al., 2018; Dash & Meredith, 2010; Ghaith, 2020; Qasim, Mohammed, & Liñán, 2018).

This study devoted considerable time and effort to better understanding and identify ways to decrease employee turnover. As a result, encouraging employees to engage in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) will benefit Jordanian telecoms because it has been demonstrated to boost productivity, efficiency, and customer satisfaction, as well as lower costs and rates of attrition and absenteeism (Ghaith & Mutia, 2019). OCB in Jordanian telecommunications because it impression output will increase the quality of performance by 18%, the quantity of performance by 19%, financial efficiency indicators by 25%, as well as indicators of customer service by 38% (Zhang, 2011).

Because there are some problems in this sector, which prevent the achievement of OCB, it will be important to address these problems. This sector has a lack of quality of customer services from the employees was affected by OCB by 38%. Also; climate within the company and among employees affects the quantity of performance 19%, thus will adversely affect the telecom companies. According to the Jordanian Telecommunications Regulatory Commission 2019 (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Percentage of Problems Solved (Sources: Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (TRC, 2019)

In order to understand the employees’ needs, concerns, and perceptions, the OC must be assessed. Individuals in the telecommunications industry have particular expectations, and whether these expectations are met relies on their opinions of how the OC creates a work environment that makes them happy or unhappy (Subramani et al., 2015). OCB is a consequence of the work environment in the telecommunication sectors (Pitaloka & Sofia, 2014; Ude, 2016). This indicates a strong correlation between OC and OCB, (Abu-Hussein, et al., 2016) found that the working environment in the Jordanian telecommunications sector is bad and therefore will directly impact on OCB. Hence, in the present study, the findings are expected to contribute to the literature by integrating OC, and the mediating role of motivation among Jordanian telecommunication companies.

The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

Pozveh & Karimi, 2017, for example, investigated the association between OC and OCB of staff employees in the Isfahan municipal department of education. The study's findings show that organizational climate, its dimensions, and OCB have a clear and significant link. Farooqui (2012) discovered that the dimensions of the OC were strongly associated to OCB in an exploratory study conducted in Pakistan's education sector, and that gender had an explanatory power towards OCB. In the same way, Cohen and Keren (2010) looked at the relationship between organizational climate and employees' organizational citizenship behaviour in Israel. The findings validated the relationship between OC and OCB, according to the analysis. Their research also demonstrated that OC, specifically views of principal leadership style, contributed significantly to the knowledge of OCB. The relationship between OC and OCB has been studied in the medical field. In the setting of Turkey, (Ge & Erdogan, 2015) conducted research to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior in significant institutions and organizations in the health industry. According to the results of this study, there is a statistically significant correlation between OC dimensions and OCB subscales. Hence;

H1: Organizational climate has significant-influence on organization citizenship behavior (OCB) in Jordanian telecommunication.

The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Motivation

Ghaith & Mutia, 2019, suggested that in addition to OC, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is also influenced by work motivation. According to (Abuiyada & Chou, 2012), Motivation was the first stage in a person's decision to act in order to achieve a specific objective. Work motivation can motivate people to carry out their tasks and duties (Ek & Mukuru, 2013; Lazauskaite-Zabielske, et al., 2015), showed that employees whose needs are not met can be a motivation for them to meet those needs. So motivation can be interpreted as a force that emerges from within or from outside someone and arouses enthusiasm to achieve something desired. Few researches studies the relationship between OC and motivation and found positive relation between them (Ghaith & Mutia, 2019; Hadiyatno, 2018; Haseeb, et al., 2016; Madhukar & Sharma, 2017; Rusu & Avasilcai, 2014). Hence;

H2: Organizational climate has significant influence on motivation in Jordanian telecommunication.

The Relationship between Motivation and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

The past several years have evidenced the motivation-OCB relationship in literature. Studies dedicated to the relationship have discussed OCB as a motive-based behavior, indicating that it is developed through motivation (Ariani, 2012; Dávila & Finkelstein, 2013; Mohamad et al., 2018). In the same way, (Allen & Rush, 1998) also revealed that employees who display OCB are largely dependent on the perception of their leaders in terms of their motives and expectations. Hence, it can be stated that a significant relationship exists between employee OCB and motivational sources. Based on the conceptualization of OCB by (Organ, 1988; LePine et al., 2002) meta-analysis, motivation and OCB are highly correlated and no variation in relationships occur in the top OCB antecedents. On the other hand, (Cázares, 2012), claimed, based on the

findings of his study, that organizational citizenship behavior and motivation are significantly related. Likewise, (Kim, 2006; Ghaith & Mutia 2019; Mostafa & Leon-Cazares, 2016) that there is a significant relationship correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and motivation. This led to the creation of the following hypothesis:

H3: Motivation has significant influence on organization citizenship behavior (OCB) in Jordanian Telecommunication.

Mediating Role of Motivation

Cameron & Quinn, 2011, stressed that organizational culture type and organizational climate are different. (Siourouni, et al., 2012) noted that organizational climate is the organizational members’ temporary beliefs and attitudes. (Cameron & Quinn 2011) posited that organizational culture was enduring because it is core to the organization.

Moreover, people with intrinsic motivation take part in activities they are attracted, creating a pleasant working environment for all. Thus, it can be stated that workers who enjoy their work have a greater tendency to help others and develop a cooperative working climate and they find OCBs to be fun. However, some other related studies showed a negative relationship between OCB and external motivation as motive calls for some social reward or recognition for the efforts expended by employees, while OCB is not formally rewarded within organizations (Barbuto et al., 2000; Barbuto Jr & Scholl, 1999; Ghaith & Mutia, 2019). This is further supported by Herzberg’s motivation theory that posits extrinsic factors to facilitate strong motivation levels, with the existence of which prevents dissatisfaction among employees. But in recent analysis, while intrinsic motivation is indisputable on OCT, external motivation should not be taken for granted in that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation develops and supports OCB in a direct way (Chow et al., 2015; Ghaith & Mutia, 2019; Ibrahim & Aslinda, 2013; Lemmon & Wayne, 2015; Mohamad et al., 2018). Intrinsic conditions and extrinsic rewards can motivate employees simultaneously and this could result in OCBs if the mediating variables exist. Considering these past findings, the following hypothesis is suggested:

H4: Motivation mediate the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB).

Research Methodology

The goal of this study is to look into the relationship between OC and OCB and motivation as a mediator. Employee perceptions from three major telecommunication firms were gathered for the purpose of analyzing the linkages. Telecommunications companies in Amman, on the other hand, were targeted. During the month of June 2021, employees were given a self-administered questionnaire at random. A total of 350 usable questionnaires were received back. The surveys consisted of measures to obtain data pertaining to organizational climate, motivation, and organizational citizenship behaviour. Therein, organizational citizenship behaviour was assessed through 26- item OCB scale (Ghaith & Mutia, 2019). A 14-item scale by (Alharbi, 2016) was utilized to look into how employees felt about the organization's climate. Finally, an 8-item measure was used to investigate the direct and mediated effects of motivation by (Mazatul Nadiah, 2015). Respondents were asked to react and rate on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating strong disagreement and 5 indicating strong agreement.

Analysis and Results

The assessment of the measurement model and structural model utilizing SmartPLS were two major parts of this study's data analysis (3.3.2). Convergent validity and discriminant validity were used to evaluate the measurement model. Table 1 shows the convergent validity outcomes, with loadings ranging from 0.705 to 0.918 for all items except OC1, which had loadings of less than 0.4 and was thus eliminated based on Hair et al., (2016). All variables have Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability ratings of more than 0.7. In the meantime, all variables had average variance extracted values greater than 0.5. As a result, all variables exceeded than the proposed threshold value by (Hair et al., 2016).

Table 1 Convergent Validity Analysis
Variable Items Loadings Cronbach's Alpha Composite Reliability AVE
Organizational Climate OC2 0.800 0.948 0.954 0.616
  OC3 0.728      
  OC4 0.829      
  OC5 0.705      
  OC6 0.848      
  OC7 0.784      
  OC8 0.741      
  OC9 0.720      
  OC10 0.820      
  OC11 0.794      
  OC12 0.821      
  OC13 0.817      
  OC14 0.781      
Motivation MO1 0.865 0.957 0.964 0.768
  MO2 0.856      
  MO3 0.903      
  MO4 0.918      
  MO5 0.839      
  MO6 0.859      
  MO7 0.859      
  MO8 0.908      
Organizational Citizenship Behavior Altruism AL1 0.883 0.931 0.946 0.743
AL2 0.825      
AL3 0.878      
AL4 0.911      
AL5 0.843      
AL6 0.829      
Civic Virtue CV1 0.867 0.896 0.928 0.763
CV2 0.826      
CV3 0.904      
CV4 0.895      
Conscientiousness CON1 0.823 0.943 0.952 0.687
CON2 0.862      
CON3 0.856      
CON4 0.726      
CON5 0.836      
CON6 0.821      
CON7 0.862      
CON8 0.837      
CON9 0.829      
Courtesy COU1 0.782 0.733 0.838 0.634
COU2 0.737      
COU3 0.865      
Sportsmanship SP1 0.847 0.894 0.926 0.759
SP2 0.893      
SP3 0.893      
SP4 0.850      

The Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio was used to investigate discriminant validity (HTMT). (Table 2) reveals that the HTMT values for each component were all less than 0.85 and ranged from 0.597 to 0.727 (Hair et al., 2016).

Table 2 Discriminant Validity Based on Htmt Ratio of Correlations
Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT)
Variable Organizational Climate Motivation Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Organizational Climate      
Motivation 0.727    
Organizational Citizenship Behavior 0.597 0.693  

The path coefficients were constructed using the PLS algorithm embedded with SmartPLS in order to evaluate the hypotheses (3.3.2). After creating the path coefficients, the next step was to use SmartPLS's bootstrapping techniques to test the P-Values and T-Values for each path coefficient to determine whether the hypotheses were statistically significant or not (3.3.2). The hypotheses test is reported in (Table 3).

As shown in Table 3, organizational climate has a positive direct effect on organization citizenship behaviour (Path Coefficient = 0.484; T-Value = 3.919; P-Value = 0.000; 95% LL= 0.272; 95% UL= 0.752), therefore H1 was supported. This finding is in line with earlier research on the OCB Pozveh and Karimi (2017). In contrast, organizational climate has a positive direct effect on motivation (Path Coefficient = 0.852; T-Value = 26.075; P-Value = 0.000; 95% LL= 0.773; 95% UL= 0.905), As a result, H2 was approved. This outcome is consistent with past motivation research (Hadiyatno, 2018; Haseeb et al., 2016; Madhukar & Sharma, 2017; Rusu & Avasilcai, 2014). Moreover, motivation has a positive direct effect on organization citizenship behaviour (Path Coefficient = 0.383; T-Value = 2.478; P-Value = 0.013; 95% LL= 0.051; 95% UL= 0.653), therefore H3 was supported. This finding is in line with the findings of prior OCB research Likewise, (Kim, 2006; Ghaith &Mutia 2019; Mostafa &Leon-Cazares, 2016).

Table 3 Results of Hypothesis Testing
No. Hypotheses Path Coefficient SE T-Value LL UL P-Value Decision
H 1 OC → OCB 0.484 0.039 3.919 0.272 0.752 0.000** Supported
H 2 OC → MO 0.852 0.032 26.075 0.773 0.905 0.000** Supported
H 3 MO → OCB 0.383 0.045 2.478 0.051 0.653 0.013* Supported

Regarding the mediating effect of motivation, as shown in Table 4, motivation mediated the relationship between organizational climate and organization citizenship behaviour (Indirect Effect = 0.326; T-Value = 2.473; P-Value = 0.015; 95% LL= 0.049; 95% UL= 0.565), therefore H4 was supported. This result is consistent with previous studies the examined (Chow et al., 2015; Ghaith & Mutia, 2019; Ibrahim & Aslinda, 2013; Lemmon & Wayne, 2015).

Table 4 Results of Mediating Test
No. Hypotheses Path Coefficient SE T-Value LL UL P-Value Decision
H4 OC → MO → OCB 0.326 0.047 2.473 0.049 0.565 0.015 Supported*

In addition, the current study found that a positive work environment is necessary for employees to provide their best and demonstrate corporate citizenship behavior. The study has defined a new area of research for engagement-focused scholars to investigate how organizational climate might aid in the explanation of a variety of other empirical linkages related to key HR possibilities. Similarly, the findings suggest that policymakers focus on opportunities that will make them feel like the work they are doing is meaningful and beneficial to themselves and organizations as a whole.

Recognizing and understanding in the notions of motivation is critical for organizational leaders, according to this study, because numerous studies have shown that high levels of motivation lead to high levels of performance. Motivation aids in the management of the human behavior, the achievement of telecommunication goals, increased job satisfaction, increased employee efficiency, assisted both leaders and employees in achieving personal goals, encouraged team harmony, and ensured organizational citizenship behavior by strengthening the workforce. Within the context of the individual's ongoing job experience, such a force dictates the orientation, strength, and persistence of the individual's conduct. Being motivated entails being “driven” to complete a task. Non-motivated people are those who do not feel motivated to take action toward a specific goal. Internal and exterior behaviors that are consciously motivated are all focused toward achieving a goal. Human behaviors are driven by causes that communications, beliefs, actions, and social relationships.


The current research has provided empirical support for the concept of organizational citizenship behavior by describing how employees' motivation might contribute and how the environment can intervene. The study discovered a favorable association between organizational climate and OCB, with motivation serving as a mediating factor. The findings, in general, provide evidence supporting preservation of resources theory explanations and how individual good behaviors can be formed. The research also has crucial implications for academicians and researchers to assist them better understand and comprehend organizational climate, motivation, and OCB. The results have been experimentally aimed at guiding HR policy makers and motivating advocates to clearly grasp the significance of giving growth chances and assigning contributed work to employees to help them enhance OCB at work.


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