Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S

The Mediator Role of Anger in the Relationship Illegitimate Tasks and Sme Employees Turnover: Empirical Evidences From Developing Nation

Aamar Ilyas, University of Central Punjab

Jose Moleiro Martins, Instituto Universitario de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)

Ramraini Ali Hassan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Mario Nuno Mata,ISCAL - Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa

Joao Xavier Rita, ISCAL- Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa

Anabela Batista Correia, ISCAL - Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa

Pedro Neves Mata, ISCTE - Instituto Universitario de Lisboa


Illegitimate tasks cause a threat to employees' job security; as a result increasing the stress level. The purpose of this research is to explore how illegitimate tasks determine SME employees' turnover intentions and investigate the mediating role of anger in sustaining this relationship. A structured interview questionnaire was used for data collection from volunteering employees of manufacturing SMEs of Gujranwala city. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Partial Least Square (PLS) software were used to analyze the data. Data analyzed in two steps: first, to check the goodness of measures through reliability and validity of constructs. In the second step, to assess the hypothesis of this study with the help of the structural model. The results indicate that illegitimate tasks positively influence both employees' turnover intentions and their anger level. The findings show all relationships were statistically significant. Lastly, this study's finding shows that anger has successfully mediated the relationship between illegitimate tasks and SME employees' turnover intention.


Illegitimate Tasks, Anger Level, Small and Medium Enterprises, Turnover Intention, Developing Nation


Turnover has been a dangerous for every organization especially Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs), high cost is a consequence of high turnover such as recruiting, hiring, and training of new employees (Robinson et al, 2014). Turnover is a fundamental human resource issue in every aspect of the economy which impacts on employee’s proficiency and organization product quality, and productivity (Shahreki et al., 2019; Zhou, Fan & Son, 2019). Employee’s turnover intention may negatively effect of employee's behaviors and attitudes at workplace and it was considered a important factor of confirmed turnover (Akgunduz & Eryilmaz, 2018; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Their considerable antecedents have been pinpointed in literature that has positive and negative relationship with turnover intention. Previous literature has provided a detail of antecedents of turnover intention such as work attitude (Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, Job Embeddedness, Intrinsic Motivation and Organizational Commitment) (Harrison, Newman & Roth, 2006; Ryan & Deci, 2000), HRM practices (Schuler & Jackson, 1987), supervisor behavior (Eisenberger et al., 2002), Leader-member exchange and transformational leadership (Brown, Treviño & Harrison, 2005; Bass, 1985), emotional labor such as deep acting, emotional dissonance, performance Bass, 1985) organizational contexts (perceived organizational support, organizational politics, organizational justice) (Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter & Ng, 2001), and individual differences such as self-efficacy, customer orientation, negative affectivity (Bandura, 1982; Brown et al., 2002; Penney & Spector, 2005). Only one study investigates the relationship between illegitimate tasks and turnover intention with moderator of supervisory support (Ilyas et al., 2020). This study introduces a mediator, anger, among this relationship.

If a employees leave organization that means there are a lot of problems rise such as excessive work, stress, low organization commitment, bullying, disturbing, and insensitive working environment (Ilyas et al., 2020). When an employee to do something that is not his duty, like retail store manager goes to drop off his owner’s child at school. Basically, that’s not his job. In such cases, employees will be tired of their jobs and they will get angry and depressed in this situation. When employees are in a condition of tension and bullying within the workplace so this is the cause of stress and anger (Semmer et al., 2007). When employee angers and upset, they cannot come up with new ideas for their organization (Lee et al., 2014). According to SOS theory, unlawful acts are those that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable, thus violating expectations and violating the expectation of what an employee is reasonably required to do. May fall they indicate a lack of appreciation and respect from the employee who is expected to fulfil them, and thus a threat to one's self-esteem (Apostel, Syrek & Antoni, 2018). In this study, in the context of the stress theory, business intent is interpreted as a response to illegal actions. The purpose of this study is to develop a Self-Crime (SOS) framework to analyse the relationship between illegal acts, and the intent of business and the role of anger mediator as an organizational resource (Lee et al., 2014). Workplace aggression in many places arises from mutual conflicts; likewise it has been observed that in most of the associations where work stress is high there are mutual conflicts, as there is very little degree of justice (Fox, Spector & Miles, 2001). Anger reactions have also been noted, reactions that satisfy anyone's psyche, as an illegitimate task in the sense of distributional injustice may be perceived as lack of fairness. Therefore, anger mediates the relationship of illegitimate tasks and turnover intention. This study shows that anger could increase the employees' willingness to leave the organization.

This study provides two major contributions. First, this study provides an insight into this growing area by examining the influence of illegitimate tasks and turnover intention of employees. This research also examines the role of anger as a mediator in depth. Second, this study focuses on the level of small business organizations, while most of the studies investigated such relationship on large organizations. The next part of this research article provides a literary summary of the turnover intention, illegitimate tasks, stress, and anger. The methodology section is then described. After that, the results and discussion section are described. At last, final explanations is given through the lens of contributions and further research directions.

Literature Review

Illegitimate tasks are that work that employees engage they don't require to do (Semmer et al., 2007). Such sort of task which isn't associated with employee’s job and he or her consider any task as inappropriate and waste of time. The basic idea of illegitimate tasks is that a task makes an employee feel disrespected (Davis, 2018, 19). There are two types of Illegitimate that are unreasonable and unnecessary (Semmer et al., 2007; Semmer et al., 2015). Specifically, tasks are unreasonable if they go beyond one’s professional role and obligations (Semmer et al., 2015). For instance, an employee in a company who is asked to look after an owner’s child, while the executive attends a meeting may be feeling “this isn't my job”. Another example, asked to the driver of a company to drop the boss’ wife to a marriage party or shopping, or any social event. Tasks can also be unreasonable if they're at odds with specific aspects of one’s role, like the extent of experience, authority or expertise, as when a new employee is being asked to perform a task in a professional way (Semmer et al., 2015). llegitimate tasks are unnecessary if tasks are allocated to employees out of their nature (Ilyas et al., 2020; Ilyas et al., 2021). As an example, asked an employee to transfers data from one system to another because the system is incompatible might be perceived as unnecessary if there is no direct reason for this task to be performed.

The prevalent feature of both unnecessary and unreasonable tasks is that the employee considers them as illegitimate; he or she shouldn’t be expected to do them. Associated with it, is this lack of legitimacy, and the social message of disrespect, that distinguishes illegitimate tasks from existing concepts in occupational stress research. If illegitimate tasks are carried out in organization then there would be an increase in anger and also increase in employee's turnover intention. Illegitimate tasks are the main cause which increases anger of employees and they may develop turnover intentions among themselves.

Turnover Intension

Turnover intention is a measure of whether the employees of a business or organization intend to resign or whether the organization intends to remove employees. The relationship between an organization and its employees is both important and delicate. In many ways, it is an exchange relationship in which both parties bring something to the table that wants or needs other things. However, long-term relationships of organizational employees are often affected by many factors, such as organizational culture, unfair work and relative satisfaction, which in turn will affect whether an employee wants to stay or leave the organization. Because, it is detrimental if remove the employees who perform well in the organization (Omansky, Eatough & Fila, 2016), it is important to identify and understand the possible factors that predict employee turnover intentions. The business of skilled and professional staff can cover significant costs for organizations. Recruiting and training new employees is very expensive for organizations. In this case, the organization takes several steps to retain its staff. Scholars have paid special attention to the business of employees likes (Blau, 1993; Sjöberg & Sverke, 2000). An example of a turnover intention: an employee who is on a final written warning for attendance, then the employee tells the employer that due to family issues, the employee can no longer work in the expected hours. In this situation, he is thinking of giving notice or leaving the organization. Employee goes to competitors to make more money or sharing knowledge with competitors. In such cases, the organization thinking of firing employees itself. An organization gives task according to the abilities of an employee if these are missing it causes anger for workers and thus increases turnover intention.

Stress-as-Offense-to-Self and Turnover Intention

Stress-as-offense-to-self theory is that the workers feel stressed in a specific condition that put in danger their self-esteem (Lazarus, 2006). In recent times, SOS theory Introduce by Semmer, et al., that concentrates on the reality that personnel struggle to sustain a optimistic and positive self-image, self-respect, and self-esteem (Semmer et al., 2007; Semmer et al., 2015), unwanted, uninvited, unattractive, undesirable, and unattractive exercises at place of work that pressure one’s self-esteem and self-respect cause stressful work environment. The main idea of this philosophy is that community communication of place of work cause stress at job, such tasks pay no attention to the admiration and value of personnel and authority of laws at job (Ilyas et al., 2020; Sedikides & Strube, 1997; Baumeister, 1996).

onsequently, these tasks, one way of the other, lead to disgrace of employees and loss of their self-esteem. This loss of self-esteem and self-respect causes stressful work environment (Semmer et al., 2007; Baumeister, 1996). When threat is recognized, employees take action to overcome the serious issue (Lazarus, 1999). This action may result in an employee’s decision to leave that particular organization. As a result, we believe that danger to employees’ self-image, self-respect, and self-esteem has encouraging and optimistic outcome on employee’s turnover intention. Hence the following hypotheses are proposed.

H1 Illegitimate tasks can influence employees’ turnover

H2 Illegitimate tasks can influence employees’ anger

Anger as a Mediator

Anger is an emotion that people feel in the hard situation it may be good or bad. Anger can be a good or bad thing to express our emotions to others. It can give a sign to express the negative emotions or feelings (Fox, Spector & Miles, 2001). However, when person is anger and anger can create problems. It can Increase the blood pressure and other physical changes in body caused by anger it is the negative feelings that make you destroy and you are appear in difficult situation negative feelings can destroy your mental and physical health (Phillips et al., 2006). The feeling of anger is completely determined and hardly universal (Phillips et al., 2006; Ekman, 2016). Anger is discriminate the various components and it include the component of arousal as in the stress reactivity with discriminate the component of attendant autonomic arousal, cognitive components, including various attention to threat, hyper vigilance, and hostile various components (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Zinzow & Jeffirs, 2018). When anger appear in the person it can because serious problems arise in the person. Historically, two main approaches are taken to anger. The first is its total rejection and the other is qualified affirmation identifying specific circumstances in which anger is a virtue. Practically in the world people cannot show their emotions nonverbally in mostly in the world sometimes people cannot convey their emotion’s or feelings people can control their feelings of different types of emotions that is anger (Ozturk 2007, Tanr?verdi, 2012). Anger is one of the crucial human expressions. It is an emotion that arises due to frustration or a hurtful feeling. People show anger by attacking or hurting someone. It is shown by the verbal attack in terms of anger speech acts, such as blaming, mocking, sarcasm, etc (Ozmen et al., 2016). Anger is uncontrolled emotions that is arise in something wrong in our life sometimes tragedy or hard scenes are arrive in our life which we not deserve and we are not ready for this badly moments. When we are angry our other action to deals someone is not good and unfair. When we treat improperly others treatment by a blameworthy person is hurtful as a result, we hurt for others emotions because we feel the wrong doing conceives us as inferior. It makes us feel that our status, needs, and values are worthless (Ben-Ze'ev, 2000). However, anger is appearing in the condition when someone person unfairly treat in the environment. It is a very common reaction associating with illegitimate task to anger that people feel injustice and unfairness in the organization Anger is the common reaction in every organization and workplace and it appear when we just treat unfairness injustice and not provide basic rights in the organization (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). For Example, emotions or falling’s are arise in every good or bad situations however, feelings or emotions such as anger or fear are developed good thinking or motivate the people and the people to find possible solution in every situation and the people find the solution of the problems for example, athlete making mistake by anger they are not functional (Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009; Gross & Barrett, 2011). According to the various authors or various researches performed the unpleasant or bad feelings such as anger and anxiety in other organization can also be effective in increasing the performance. Mostly People don’t feel any type of hesitation or pause for their negative feelings mostly people think they will benefit them for anger is appear in this case in any person when men fear in any situation and they found no possible solution. Hence the following hypotheses are proposed.

H3 Anger can influence employees’ turnover

H4 Illegitimate tasks can impact employees’ turnover through anger

Research Methodology

Cross-sectional method was used in this study to evaluate the impact of illegitimate tasks and anger toward the turnover intention of SME's employees. Employee of Gujranwala city was unit of analysis of this study who has engaged in manufacturing SME's. Generally, worldwide small medium enterprises are defined based upon three points; 1) number of employees, 2) annual revenue 3) paid-up capital. In Pakistan, SME Development Authority (SMEDA) also follows these three points to define SME (see. Table 1).

Table 1
SME Definition By Smeda
Annual Sales <  250 millions (in Pakistani Rupees)
Paid-up Capital <  25 millions (in Pakistani Rupees)
Employment < 250 employees

We follow SMEDA definition in the selection of participants. Those SMEs were chosen as a sample of this paper which listed in SMEDA. Listed SMEs consist of all sectors such as services, manufacturing, retailing and agricultural. This study only focuses on manufacturing SMEs. The sample of respondents is picked from the district of Gujranwala, major city of Pakistan. Gujranwala has an extensive tradition of micro, small and medium size entrepreneurial activities (Ilyas, 2019).

Researchers tried to know the actual size of population from different sources (e.g., chamber of commerce, trade union, tax departments, local administration, and market unions), but failed to identify the actual size of population. After validation process, 650 questionnaires were valid for further analysis (see table 1). The entire survey was carried out from April-July 2019. Convenience sampling techniques was employed in this research to select the participants. This approach is frequently used in entrepreneurship and SME's studies (Nowi?ski, Witold & Mohamed Yacine Haddoud, 2019). Response rate was high in this research because structured interview approach was used and interviews were conducted at workplace of employees. The demographic statistics of the selected participants are given in Table 1.
From descriptive analysis (see Table 1), we examine that participants of the study have diverse demographic characteristics. Sixty-six percent (66) of the employees that take part in this survey were males. The possible cause of lower participants of female in this study is that females are less likely to work outside from homes in Pakistan. Most of the participants were between 26 – 45 years old (50 percent), the rest of the respondents were above 46 years old (38 percent), and 12 percent of participant were below 25 years old. Furthermore, the majority of the participants was have more than 10 years job experience (80 percent), remaining were fresher (20 percent). Most of respondents have a low level of educational background (39 percent of them have matriculation or below). Only 7 percent have master level or higher degree. The data also showed that the majority of participants belonged to lower level income family (<20,000 PKR per month, 59 percent; 20,001–30,000, 19 percent; 30,001–40,000, 11 percent; 40,001–50,000, 8 percent; >50,001 PKR per month, only 3 percent of respondents). Moreover, most of participants were working as non-managerial or first-line manager position (66 & 20 percent respectively).

Survey Instrument and Data Analysis

Semmer, et al., (2010) were developed nine items BITS scale "Bern Illegitimate Task Scale" to measure the illegitimate tasks. Authors of this study were not pay intention on whole construct for this study. BITS scale comprises two parts; (i) unreasonable tasks and (ii) unnecessary tasks. Sample items of unreasonable tasks and unnecessary tasks respectively: "Do you have work tasks that you believe are beyond your job scope and should not be expected from you?" and "Do you have work tasks that make you question whether they have to be done at all?". Four and Five indicators were chosen for unreasonable and unnecessary tasks respectively. Items of BITS comprise on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). We compute Cronbach's alpha score to check the reliability of both unreasonable and unnecessary tasks scale and we found acceptable value of Cronbach's alpha 0.90 and 0.87 respectively.

Meyer, et al., (1993) have introduced three-item scale of turnover intention. We adopted this famous scale to measure the turnover intention of employees. This scale is based on six-point Likert ranging from 'strongly disagrees' to 'strongly agree'. Sample item was "I intend to search for a job in another organization within the next year." Sukhodolsky, et al., (2001) have developed (ARS) nineteen items scale to measure the anger level of participants. Items of Anger Rumination Scale (ARS) comprise on a four-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 4 (almost always). Sample items are: "I have difficulty forgiving people who have hurt me", "I keep thinking about events that angered me for a long time" and "I think about the reasons people treat me badly".

Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Partial Least Square (PLS) software were used to analysis the data. The data was analysis in two steps: first, to check the goodness of measures through reliability and validity of constructs. To assess the hypothesis of this study with the help of structural model, in second step.

Results and Discussion

At the outset, we computed the outer model through construct and composite reliability and discriminant and convergent validity. All variables can be presented in table 2 which including Illegitimate Tasks (IT), Anger (ANG), and Turnover Intention (TI). Convergent validity depicted that factor loading of these variables had met the standard criteria that is >0.70 (Chin, 2009; Hair et al., 2013). These variables have factor scores between 0.724 to 0.884. But, we found one item (IT8) of illegitimate tasks and two items (ANG8, ANG16) of anger variable have low factor loading score than recommend criteria, so these items have discarded. Moreover, all variables of this research also met the criteria of discriminant validity, table 2 show that score of AVE is greater than 0.5. Furthermore, we calculated CR values through composite reliability formula suggested by Hair, et al., (2013). These variables, consisting illegitimate tasks (CR=0.962), anger (CR=0.945), and turnover intention (CR=0.929) have satisfied CR value. Therefore, Cronbach Alpha (α) value of illegitimate tasks, anger, and turnover intention were 0.915, 0.889, and 0.923 respectively. These values were greater than 0.70 that means composite reliability of these variables were satisfactory.

Table 2
The Demographic Statistics
S/No. Characteristics Total Percentage
1 Gender    
  Male 429 66
  Female 221 34
2 Age    
  Above 46 years old 249 38
  36 – 45 189 29
  26 – 35 137 21
  Below 25 years old 75 12
3 Experience    
  Less than 5 years 54 8
  5 – 10 77 12
  11 – 15 265 41
  16 – 20 175 27
  More than 21 years 79 12
4 Education    
  Matriculation or below 256 39
  Intermediate 173 27
  Bacholer 176 27
  Master or higher 45 7
5 Income level per month (Pakistani Rupee)    
  More than 50,001 23 3
  40,001 – 50,000 49 8
  30,001 – 40,000 72 11
  20,001 – 30,000 121 19
  Below than 20,000 385 59
6 Rank    
  Non-managerial Employees 430 66
  First line Manager 133 20
  Middle level Manager 63 10
  Top level Manager 24 4

Table 3 presents the value of cross-loading for illegitimate tasks, anger, and turnover intention is greater than 0.70, which means all variables had met the criteria of convergent validity [55, 56]. Heterotrait-monotrait ratio also used to assess the discriminant validity (Henseler, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2015). Table 4 indicates the results of heterotrait-monotrait ratio, each variable has less than 0.90 valve, which denotes all variables have satisfactory about discriminant validity.

Table 3
The Value Of Cross-Loading For Illegitimate
Variables/ Codes Loading CR a AVE
Illegitimate Tasks   0.962 0.915 0.783
IT1 0.841  
IT2 0.862
IT3 0.872
IT4 0.845
IT5 0.745
IT6 0.816
IT8 0.788
IT9 0.844
Turnover Intention   0.945 0.889 0.667
TI1 0.831  
TI2 0.852
TI3 0.787
Anger   0.929 0.923 0.784
ANG1 0.854  
ANG2 0.882
ANG3 0.852
ANG4 0.854
ANG5 0.776
ANG6 0.828
ANG7 0.822
ANG9 0.767
ANG10 0.867
ANG11 0.786
ANG12 0.884
ANG13 0.81
ANG14 0.835
ANG15 0.736
ANG17 0.882
ANG18 0.724
ANG19 0.78

Second stage of analysis is to evaluate inner model for structural model evaluation. We used five steps in this stage, including collinearity test, R-Square test, path coefficient, relevant predictions (Q2), and effect size test. Collinearity test was performed to check whether data is free from collinearity or occur high collinearity among variables. Hair et al., (2013) discussed criteria of Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) that is if VIF values lower than 5.00 then data is free from collinearity. VIF coefficient value of these variables less than 5.00 ranging 1.753 to 3.487. Consequently, indicators of constructs confirmed data free from collinearity.

R-Square or R2 (Coefficient of determination) is a value demonstrates the strength of the prediction accuracy (Chin, 2009; Hair, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2013; Lestari et al., 2019). Chin (2009) discussed R2 rule that is 0.67 value means model is strong, 0.33 value means model is moderate, and 0.19 value means model is weak. The results depicted that the R2 of anger variable is 0.561 that means the illegitimate tasks variable can explain 56.1 percent of the anger's variant with a moderate predictive level. Moreover, the R-Square of turnover intention variable is 0.614 that means 61.4% of entrepreneurial intention variants could be described by the illegitimate tasks and anger variables with a solid predictive level. The results of size effet test (f2) shows that the anger's f2 value on anger is 1.23, which shows a strong, (f2=1.23>0.35), effect size. Moremore, the value of f2 illegitimate tasks and anger on turnover intention is 0.33, which indicates a moderate effect size. The relevant prediction test (Q2) score of all variables were greater than zero. Therefore, results show that model of this research has a predictive relevance value.

Table 4
 Discriminant Validity
IT 0.889    
ANG 0.763 0.823  
TI 0.723 0.785 0.815
Table 5
 Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio
TI 0.876    
ANG 0.845 0.788  

The objective of path coefficients (PLS-SEM) is to assess the structural model. The test findings indicate that H1, illegitimate has a positive impact on anger level of employees, was accepted (β=0.545, p=0.000<0.001). The findings indicates that the relations (H2, H3 and H4) are statistically significant (p=0.000<0.001). In table 6 and figure 1, beta value, t-value, path coefficient value (p-value) of all relationship was stated.

Table 6
Summary Of Results
Relationship Hypothesis Beta P-value T-value Supportive/Non-supportive
IT ? TI H1 0.545 0 9.062 Supportive
IT ? ANG H2 0.743 0 27.634 Supportive
ANG ? TI H3 0.432 0 6.915 Supportive
IT ? ANG ? TI H4   0 6.723 Supportive

Figure 1: Results Of The Structural Equation Research Model


Four hypotheses were proposed in this paper and efforts to explain the relationships of among variables. The first assignment of this paper, to verify that illegitimate tasks can affect SMEs employees turnover intention. Calculation shows that t-value of first is 9.062 that means illegitimate tasks effectively drives employees’ turnover intention. The result of this relationship is evidently similar with Ilyas, et al., (2020) study that study was conducted in informal enterprises. At numerous spots work place hostility emerges from relational clash, likewise it has been seen that most affiliation made with work stressors incorporate relational clash, as a low level of equity has reliably been discovered (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). Connections have been found associating illegitimate task to anger. Anger has additionally been viewed as a typical response to shamefulness or foul play in the association (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001). A couple of studies led as of late in the developed nations indicated that illegitimate tasks showed fluctuations in anger and occupation fulfillment (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Eatough, 2013) and afterward this factor prompts turnover aim because of anger. Past investigations additionally show that illegitimate tasks errands undermine proficient personality, mental self-portrait, low confidence (Eatough et al., 2015). Therefore, working conditions, and circumstances of little and miniature endeavors, for example, work time, profit, and work environment, are not the same as the primary exercises which are referenced at the hour of starting agreement with representatives (Dawley et al., 2010; Zhou, Eatough & Che, 2020). The discoveries of this investigation show that illegitimate tasks likewise help the anxiety of representatives who work in little and miniature ventures. The pace of illegitimate tasks is high in those organizations that have no licenses and along these lines don't consent to lawful guidelines. Legitimizations of each task diminish the anxiety of workers (Cropanzano et al., 2001).

The findings of this study show that when we give illegitimate task to employees, and the other person not able to complete the task of that organization. So, why the feeling of anger happen in the employees, and they feel guilty. Illegitimate task increases the depression of employees, and the employees think to leave the organization such cases happen in small and micro firms. According to Cropanzano, et al., (2001), the high rate of illegitimate task happens in those businesses that have no manner to manage the business, and they have no rules and regulations of our business, and they have no licensee and the business is unlawfully managed.

Illegitimate task contains a perfect job designs as an entrepreneur creating a perfect job design motivation factor is important to start their career illegitimate task communicate the complex messages of those employees who leave the organization that’s why they unable to complete the illegitimate task as they suffer the financial damages. That why this is the main reason for turnover intention of employees therefore the supervisors, and managers pay more attention to the sensitive issues to these social signals. Therefore, it is hard to recognize the feeling of anger can be determined by the different cultures (Immordnang, 2014).

However, this relation indicates the positive relationship between anger and illegitimate task anger is naturally in human nature when a person feels the rights is not equally distributed in the organization or unfairly treated in the organization or when person not fulfill the illegitimate task, anger must happen if illegitimate task increases then anger must be in employees this shows the positive relationship between anger and illegitimate task. Illegitimate task increases the employee’s turnover so, it is important to support these employees who want to leave the organization due to the reason for anger and motivate them that’s why it is way to improve the organization performance. It is the managers' responsibility to conduct, feedback in every month so that’s why employees give opinion and give problem solving techniques that employees do not leave the organization.

Limitations and Future Directions

Justify of every legitimate task can reduce with the stress level of employees. However, the managers, and supervisors can motivate the employees who want to leave the organization due to the reason for illegitimate task. This type of explanations may diversify according to the time, location and situation (Semmer et al., 2007). Second, managers have been reducing the illegitimate task in the micro enterprises and reduce the fear and a feeling of anger and motivate the employees that are the reason to improve the responsibility. Third, our findings of this research validate that anger mediates the basic relationship between illegitimate task and turnover intention of employees who work in the SMEs.

The direct relationship of illegitimate tasks and turnover intention with anger mediates the relationship, is the first limitation which is examined. There is no moderating role of any variable. So, in future studies we should apply moderating role in this theoretical framework. Besides, the supervisory support and burnout should be examined in future studies. Social stressor and role of conflict might mediate this relationship. The second limitation is predicated on the methodological approach. During this study, an interview-administered questionnaire approach was used for data collection. The triangulation approach could be useful to get more reliable and valid data from respondents. The third limitation is related to geography. This study focused only on employees of SMESs located in Gujranwala city. Similar studies also can be piloted in several geographical areas, and the findings of studies may vary across geographical areas. Furthermore, findings of formal and little and micro enterprises might vary in several sectors (Ilyas et al., 2020; Ilyas et al., 2021). Future direction for researchers is that empirical evidences should come from informal entrepreneurship domain; this also can contribute significant knowledge within the field of management and entrepreneurship.


The aimed of this research paper is to investigate the effect of illegitimate tasks on employees’ turnover intention in developing nation. Evidences come from this study, it could be finalized that illegitimate tasks positively associate to employees’ turnover intention and boost up the anger level of employees. No doubt, this paper approved a strong association between illegitimate tasks and turnover intention. Finally, it can be recognized that anger level also absolutely force turnover intention. Findings of this study highlighted that SMEs managers should enhance in-house training practices to reduces illegitimate tasks and reduce the anger level of subordinate to retain their employees. Managers have been reducing the illegitimate task in the micro enterprises and reduce the fear and a feeling of anger and motivate the employees that are the reason to improve the responsibility. Furthermore, findings of formal and little and micro enterprises might vary in several sectors. Future direction for researchers is that empirical evidences should come from informal SMEs; this also can contribute significant knowledge within the field of management and entrepreneurship. Additional, mixed method approach should use researchers in future to explore more detail in this sphere.


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