S that the network can continue to operate normally after such

S that the network can continue to operate normally after such perturbations. We develop a new method for measuring stability of probabilistic signaling networks. At the level of the biological functions we explore the set of functions that a given probabilistic signaling network performs. To do this, we use the Gene Ontology (GO) [27] term annotations of the source and target nodes of the given network. We develop two methods to model two orthogonal characteristics. The first one finds the most popular GO terms (i.e. the GO terms PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28827318 that are enriched by the most reachable target nodes). The second one finds which functions can be initiated with the highest probability (i.e., most reachable GO terms). Collectively, these two methods explain the prevalent functions that are carried out by a given signaling network through propagating signals from receptors to reporters.Results and discussion In this section, we present experimental results for characterization of probabilistic signaling networks. We used the Homo sapiens signaling networks taken from KEGG [28] in our experiments. Among those, we used the largest ones (i.e., networks with more than 50 edges), which are ErbB, MAPK and Wnt. We obtained the sources and targets of each signaling network based on the hierarchical organization of its proteins [29]. We set the genes at the top of the hierarchy as the source nodes and the ones at the bottom as the target. We extracted the confidence scores for each interaction from STRING [16] and usedGabr and Kahveci BMC Bioinformatics 2015, 16(Suppl 17):S6 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/16/S17/SPage 4 ofthem as edge probabilities. STRING computes the confidence values by benchmarking groups of associations against the KEGG functional classification scheme, which is manually curated. STRING has confidence values in the [1, 1000] interval, where 1000 indicates 100 confidence. We normalized this number to the[0, 1] interval for each interaction by dividing by 1000.Node centrality in probabilistic networksIn this section, we present experimental results for measuring probabilistic node centrality in probabilistic signaling networks. As explained later in the Methods section, We measured the probabilistic centrality value for all proteins in ErbB, MAPK and Wnt. The first question we need to answer at this point is whether probabilistic networks yield different centrality values than deterministic ones. If yes, what is the significance of the difference? To answer these questions, we compared our results with the betweenness centrality of each node in the underlying deterministic topology, where all edges are certain. We used the betweenness centrality for comparison as it is used frequently in the literature [30-32]. Also, it is the closest centrality measure to ours in terms of the biological meaning of centrality. We ranked the proteins according to both centrality values separately. We then measured the disagreement between the two rankings as follows. For each protein x, we counted the number of proteins whose position relative to x in one of the purchase MK-8742 ranking disagree with the other. In other words, a protein y was counted if it is more central in the deterministic centrality ranking and less central in the probabilistic one, or vice versa. We normalized the resulting number to the[0, 1] interval by dividing it by the total number of proteins in the network. Figure 2 shows the disagreement value of all proteins when they are ranked according to.

AChR Inhibitor

AChR is an integral membrane protein