Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (Print ISSN: 1098-8394; Online ISSN: 1528-2651)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 2

The Required Competences for Schools Leaders in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate

Taher bin Hashem bin Muhammad Al-Ahmad, Al-Ahsa Education Department, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Ben Sulaiman Bani Murtada, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Citation: Al-Ahmad, T.B.H.B., & Murtada, A.B.S.B. (2021). The required competences for schools leaders in light of selfmanagement in Al-Ahsa governorate. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 24(S2).

Abstract

This study aimed to find out the required administrative, technical and human competences for school leaders in light of the Self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive survey approach was used, a questionnaire was developed as a study tool to collect data, where it included three main sections: Technical competences , administrative competences , human competences , the study sample consisted of 191 school leaders for all academic levels. The study concluded that the highest arithmetic mean was in the ranking of the competences sections (human competences with an arithmetic mean of 4.29, followed by the section of administrative competences with an arithmetic mean of 4.27, and finally the section of technical competences with an arithmetic mean of 4.24). The human competences also were with a “strongly agree” degree, and the item “deals with workers with respect.” ranked first, and the arithmetic mean for all dimensions of the administrative competences section required for school leaders in light of self-management were with a “strongly agree” degree, and came after the organizing in the first place, the technical competences section also ranked a “strongly agree” degree, and the item "He is continuously updated about the school leadership” The study concluded several recommendations, most notably: to give more towards decentralization and decision-making for school leaders, and the development of the administrative and technical competences of leaders of self-management and high school education through a set of training programs during the service.

Keywords

Schools Leaders, Competences and Self-management.

Introduction

The school management plays a vital and important role in developing and improving all educational and administrative processes through its daily tasks and responsibilities, and it is concerned with making the necessary and accelerating changes to make the educational and teaching process both successful, these changes include all the administrative and technical operations of the school leader, considering need for the emergence of the new role of the school leader as a leader, he must possess some modern skills and capabilities to be more effective and efficient in his tasks and roles of school leadership, and this matter requires expanding administrative and functional powers and reconsidering a modern, more independent and autonomous concept of school administration.

Where, the rapid changes and developments that the world is witnessing on a daily basis in the fields of modern technology; It had clear effects in various aspects of life, social, cultural, and educational. As a result, this influence included educational leadership, which aims to prepare students to live successfully in this world (Al-Harbi, 2012).

These rapid changes have put specialists in the educational process in front of new requirements and needs, which are no longer comprehended by the traditional methods used in education; this made it imperative for specialists in the educational process to search for new goals and methods that are compatible with this change (Al Fayyad, 2011).

Moreover, this rapid development and change in the world today, and in the educational process in particular, made it necessary - indeed inevitable - for a real change to occur in the educational system, and to use new administrative methods and approaches that keep pace with the successive changes that the educational community is exposed to, and this is exemplified by limiting centralization, giving school leaders more powers to run their schools autonomously and independently (Salim, 2015).

The school is one of the social institutions affected by this change, and it has a major role in shaping the students' personality in all its aspects. As it contributes to his physical, psychological, social, and religious development and formation, and affects various aspects of the student’s personality. The school leader represents the most important role in the success of the educational process in schools, where the school needs wise, qualified, and creative leaders to achieve its goals, the leadership style followed by school leaders often affects the quality of the educational process. This stems from the practices of the leader who must be influencing the employees' activity (Al-Otaibi, 2014).

Self-managed schools are more economically effective, as the people who have the best information about how their schools can function best, are the most able to make appropriate decisions about how schools use their scarce resources and how to teach Students (King & Olzer, 1998).

To make this change; It is possible to move towards decentralization, restructure decision-making methods, work to activate community participation in development, and adopt new administrative methods, such as school self-management, and the way the administrative process in the school is changed by shifting from centralization to decentralization, by activating the application of self-management in the school, This transformation and application is something that improves educational outcomes. Because it depends mainly on teamwork, in which all employees participate with the local community to effectively manage the school (Salim, 2015).

Self-management, if implemented, allows broad participation by teachers and all workers in all aspects of school administration, including participation in school decision-making, which is positively reflected on the level of implementation of these decisions, so this study came to identify the degree to which school leaders practice self-management in light of the implementation of administrative, technical and human competences of the leaders (Hussein, 2006).

Research Problem

The complaint about the negative aspects of the extreme centralization of education and bureaucracy are many, as centralization prevented the school leader from carrying out his duties, led to the postponement of decisions on many matters, and the suspension or postponement of work until the approval of the responsible authorities. The financial complications affected the possibility of providing the school with equipment and tools, subsequently, in the smooth running of work and the level of performance in the school (Al-Ajami, 2011).

The study problem also emerged through what some previous studies have indicated in its recommendations, such as the studies of (Al-Dossary, 2007; Al-Omari, 2015; Al-Sulami, 2019 & Al-Ghamdi, 2019) about the necessity of following modern administrative methods in school management and leadership, including the self-management style. They also indicated the need to expand the circle of participation and authorization in making administrative decisions, which may increase the powers granted to the school.

Through the researcher's work as a school leader in Al-Ahsa education, he noticed that continuing with the traditional approach to management based on implementing what is received from the central authority and not allowing the use of administrative methods that give the school and its employees the freedom to conduct its administrative and financial affairs. This will lead to the devotion of administrative methods that are no longer suitable for keeping pace with development in educational and school administration, as well as not achieving the school's goals fully. The leader must have a set of skills and competences that qualify him to lead the school towards achieving the desired goals. Given the lack of previous studies in the subject area and the study population according to the knowledge of researchers, the issue of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate schools was addressed in this study.

The study problem can be identified considering the following questions:

  1. What are the required administrative competences for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate from the viewpoint of school leaders?
  2. What are the technical competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate from the viewpoint of the study sample?
  3. What are the required human competences for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate from the viewpoint of the study sample?

Research Objectives

  1. To know the required administrative competences for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate.
  2. To know the technical competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate.
  3. To know the required human competences for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate.

Research Significance

This study is significance in the following points:

  1. It corresponds to the global trend of implementing school self-management, and the consequent shift to decentralizing management and financing.
  2. It deals with schools of education in its three stages: (primary, intermediate, and secondary), which have been subject to centralization since its beginning.
  3. It is hoped that the results of the research will benefit in developing the performance of school leaderships in Al-Ahsa city by identifying the competences required for practicing self-management and improving their performance.

Study Scope

Subjective scope: The subjective scope included the study of the required competences for school leaders in light of the self-management of the public education schools leaders in Al-Ahsa city on three competences: (technical, cognitive, and human competences).

Time scope: This study is applied during the second semester of the academic year 2019/2020.

Spatial scope: This study is applied to the public education schools for boys in Al-Ahsa city, with its three stages (primary, intermediate, and secondary).

Human scope: This study is applied to the leaders of general education schools for boys in Al-Ahsa city, representing the entire research population (Ministry of Education, 2019).

Study Definitions

Competences: It is a set of attitudes, forms of understanding, and skills that facilitate the educational process with its mental, emotional and psychomotor goals (Bushnaq, 2017). It is defined in this research procedurally as: the possession of the school leader in public education schools in Al-Ahsa governorate of the competences and skills required to self-manage the school through the responses of the study sample which includes (technical, cognitive and human competences ).

Self-Management: Organized decentralization at the school level, in terms of authority, and responsibility for making decisions related to the school and its operations, within a specific framework of goals, policies, curricula, standards and responsibility, and it is also a cooperative system for managing schools with a greater level of flexibility, which enables the school to subordinate rules and policies to meet the needs of society The Local (Caldwell, 2005).

The Researchers Define it Procedurally: It is the school's possession of the authority and the ability to make the required decisions, whether on the financial, technical, or administrative level, which contribute to the participation of the teacher, the student and the parents in the decision, in a manner that guarantees improving the academic performance of students, and enhancing the self-responsibility of teachers to carry out their teaching tasks and administrative duties in accordance with the educational regulations, rules and laws, with periodic monitoring from the Education Department.

The Researchers Define it Procedurally: It is the school's possession of the authority and the ability to make the required decisions, whether on the financial, technical, or administrative level, which contribute to the participation of the teacher, the student and the parents in the decision, in a manner that guarantees improving the academic performance of students, and enhancing the self-responsibility of teachers to carry out their teaching tasks and administrative duties in accordance with the educational regulations, rules and laws, with periodic monitoring from the Education Department.

Self-management appeared in industry and trade since the middle of the twentieth century, and from there it moved to schools, also, from the workplace a growing encouragement of all workers to participate in making daily decisions that had an impact on their products and their positions at work. The philosophy of that was to create a sense of ownership among all workers. Many Researchers in the field of education, including: Murphy & Beck (1995), Sergiovanni (1990), and Spilman (1996), contributed in applying this approach as it provides logical solutions to many contemporary educational problems and issues, where applying the school's self-management style makes the school the basic unit of self-government and even has the ability to solve its own problems, also it develops cooperation and the sharing of responsibilities among all participants in school life (Al-Jabr, 2006).

School self-management aims to:

  1. Increase the participation of parents and local communities in schools.
  2. Empowering administrators and teachers.
  3. Establishing transparency at the local level.
  4. Building accountability mechanisms by those involved in self-management and improving transparency through transferring powers from the national levels to the local level (Vernez, 2012).
  5. Providing opportunities for decision-making at the local level.
  6. Transferring services in a more efficient manner to the school community under the supervision of the administrative authorities, with an emphasis on community control. (Watson, 2004).

Each process defines a set of goals that it seeks to achieve, and self-management as a process of decentralization aims to involve teachers, parents, and the local community in decision-making processes, with the aim of improving students ’educational conditions (Sorour, 2008; David, 1996; Hanson, 1998).

Stages of Self-Management Implementation

Self-management is a continuous process consisting of six stages, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Stages of Self-Management (Badah, 2014: 460)

The Foundations of School Self-Management

  1. Participation in Decision-Making: As participation in decision-making is the basis to ensure the activation of the self-management approach at the school level. Where the process of participation in school decision-making develops the sense of collective ownership and commitment among the participants. Many studies have emphasized the importance and necessity of participation in the decision-making process at the school level to build the capacities of administrators, teachers, parents and all participants in school decision-making, also to qualify them to take responsibility for ensuring the provision of the appropriate educational environment, and to equip students with the skills, behavior and values that serve their community. believing that they are themselves the most understanding. Due to the nature of the local context and the societal culture within which the school operates, it is difficult - if not impossible - to support the quality and subjectivity of educational work without their innovative initiatives (Michael & Ballou, 2001).
  2. Decentralization: Territorial decentralization is viewed as a form of freedom that enables members of the institution or the people of a village, city or region to participate in their affairs or institutions in a climate of democracy. Decentralization, as an administrative pattern, leads to reducing the burden on the higher educational administration or the ministry, taking into account the general principles of the administration policy, as the owner of the approach of activating the decentralized administration is an administrative pattern based on facilitating administrative procedures, and then facilitating the efforts that are often carried out when the decision is dominated by the higher educational administration or the ministry of education (Mamdouh, 2014).
  3. Delegation: Delegation of authority has several advantages, including: The school leader organizing the work environment to share the authority with teachers and students and reduce the workload of the manager to devote himself to more strategic tasks in the field of continuous development. In addition to giving workers the opportunity to use delegated authority without direct interference. Then give the opportunity to workers to talk about the problems they face during delegation of authority.

The legislative framework: Those in charge of the school self-management pattern should develop a legislative framework that is strictly followed. It is defined in the following aspects: The school authority's specializations: its responsibilities, tasks and responsibilities of its employees, the method of directing their creative energies and abilities, and the methods of counseling and guidance required to support their capabilities. The basic elements that must be clarified to the employees are the school's mission and vision, now and in the future, its goals and policies, its role towards the local community, its sources of funding and the mechanism for self-monitoring of its activities (Daoud, 2010).

The competences that must be met in the school leader as an educational leader:

Katz explained in his theory about the competences of the leaders, the necessity of the availability of three basic competences as follows:

  1. Technical Competences: Owned by the school principal, and he employs them in his administrative work, represented by setting the school's budget, recruitment procedures, setting an administrative schedule for all work, defining responsibilities, observing them and applying them.
  2. Conceptual competences: What the principal needs to see the overall picture of the school, identifying its parts, components, and the relationship between them.
  3. Human competences: It possesses the skills of dealing with subordinates, coordinating their efforts, forming a team spirit among them, and accepting differences in viewpoints (Al- Sebaei, 2015).

Literature Review

Al-Dossary (2007) conducted a study aimed at presenting a proposal of the application of self-management in public education schools for girls in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by identifying the reality of school administration in girls’ schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, defining the concept of school self-management and determining the requirements to apply it. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive and analytical method by distributing a questionnaire aimed at finding out the opinion of the study sample in order to collect and analyze data and identify the responses of the study sample. The study population consisted of 102 administrative supervisors, and all 291 female principals at the public intermediate and secondary schools in the city of Riyadh.

The study reached several conclusions, the most important of which are: One of the most important justifications for the trend towards self-management in schools is the need for school principals to issue decisions related to school affairs without referring to the education department. One of the most important justifications for the trend towards self-management in schools is the need for school principals to provide a fast and flexible budget for spending to meet the school’s requirements without complications that may hinder the workflow. Finally, one of the most important requirements of self-management in schools is to enhance loyalty and belonging to the school among the school members. The study presented a proposed scenario for the application of self-management in general education schools for girls in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Al-Omari (2015) conducted a study entitled: The Reality of the Application of Self-Management in Private Education Schools in the City of Tabuk, the study aimed to identify the reality of the application of self-management in private education in Tabuk schools, and to reveal the obstacles to the application of self-management in the private education in Tabuk schools, the study adopted the descriptive survey approach, the study sample consisted of 71 directors, and the most prominent results were that the school administration takes over the responsibility of selecting teachers, building the organizational structure, and contracting with new teachers.

In the study of Al-Balawi & Alzboon (2017), which aimed to define a proposed model for self-leadership for schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia according to the approaches to systems analysis and knowledge management, the study sample consisted of all school principals and in the primary, intermediate and secondary education stages in the Tabuk region. The (403) principals were chosen randomly, and in order to achieve the objectives of the study, a tool was designed to reveal the degree of self-leadership practiced by principals, and the system analysis and knowledge management in schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from their point of view. The results showed that the arithmetic means were medium and there were no differences in the degree of self-management practice among the study sample according to the variable of gender, and there were no statistically significant differences in all fields except in the field of supportive environment and support services, where the difference was in favor of the category (10 years and more). The study recommended the necessity of spreading the culture of the model fields (planning and organization, quality assurance, professionalism and leadership development capabilities, self-development and continuous development).

The study of Vucina (2017) aimed to assess the effects of self-management of schools on academic achievement of students in the Philippines through the use of information related to management in all public schools in (23) school sectors at the secondary level. The researcher used the analytical method in the study through the social survey. As for the study tool, it was represented by the general results of the combined test at the school level and the test results in three different branches: English, Mathematics, and Science. The study sample was from third stage students from the school sectors, and the most prominent results of the study came to confirm the positive impact of self-management of schools, and its reflection on the average results of the academic achievement test in the school sectors in the Philippines, also, the study provided a preliminary overview of the possibility of achieving self-management of schools in East Asia.

The study of Al-Anzi (2017) aimed at identifying the degree of practicing professional competences among secondary school principals in the northern border region, and revealing the perceptions of principals about practicing professional competences among secondary school principals in the northern border region. The researcher used the descriptive approach. The study population consisted of the secondary school principals and teachers in the northern border region, while the study sample consisted of all secondary school principals in the northern border region, and five teachers from each secondary school. The study concluded that the perception of the school principals, teachers in the northern border region about the degree to which high school principals have practiced professional competences was to a high degree.

Where the study in (Al-Ghamdi 2019) aimed at identifying the degree of Al-Baha school leaders' practice of self-management and its relationship to teachers’ participation in decision-making from their point of view. The study sample consisted of (342) teachers, the researcher used the relational descriptive approach, the questionnaire was used to collect data from the study sample, which was prepared by the researcher. The study concluded that the degree of self-management by leaders of Al-Baha schools from the teachers’ point of view was large, and it was evident that there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (α ≤ 0.05) in the degree of school leaders’ practice of self-management according to the variables of academic level and years of experience in favor of self-management school and those with years of experience (less than 10 years). The results also showed that the degree of teachers ’participation in decision-making from their point of view was large, and the results of the study showed a statistically significant correlation at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.01) between the degree of self-management of Al-Baha school leaders and the degree of teachers ’participation in decision-making.

The study (Al-Salami, 2019) presented a proposal for the application of self-management in public education schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is a field study that relied on the descriptive survey approach. The study tool was a questionnaire, which was applied to a sample of 357 principals of public education schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for the primary, intermediate and secondary educational stages in the regions of Riyadh, Jeddah, Eastern and Tabuk. The results of the study showed that the requirements for achieving self-management in the school administration have achieved great importance. The knowledge requirement “cognitive information systems requirements” ranked first in terms of importance. The results also confirmed the existence of statistically significant differences due to the difference in the position of the principal in the educational stage "primary-intermediate-secondary" in the dimensions of planning for self-management, administrative organization, decision-making and making, accountability for results, community participation, education quality requirements, funding requirements, the requirements of management information systems, while there are no statistically significant differences in the "professional development and training, and human requirements" variables.

The study of (Ibrahim, 2020) aimed at identifying the self-management of the school in Central American countries in general and El Salvador in particular and the possibility of benefiting from it in Oman, the study used the documents analysis in collecting data, also, the study used the descriptive approach, and concluded that the school self-management in El Salvador focuses on the independence of schools, wide participation by parents and the local community through parents' councils, interest in continuous professional development for teachers and increasing their wages and incentives, and the high interest in school buildings and equipment. The results also concluded that small number of schools participated in the school self-management project in Oman, and that the Self-management focuses on giving school principals special powers to manage financial matters in the school cooperative society, and the lack of participation of parents and the local community in the school's self-management.

This study is distinguished from previous studies in that it is considered more comprehensive than previous studies. Where it focused on three dimensions related to school leaders in the study sample directly, and affecting their performance, which are self-management, competences, and school leadership. This study was also distinguished by being the first to address self-management competences in secondary schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate schools, as well as in the implementation environment.

Methodology

The current study used the descriptive survey approach for its relevance to the nature of the study and its objectives.

Study Population

The study population consisted of all the leaders of public education schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate, whose number was (371), according to the statistics of the Ministry of Education (General Administration of Education in Al-Ahsa Governorate, 2018).

Study Sample

The size of the sample was estimated using the Herbert Arken equation, and according to the statistical group, the number of the study sample reached (191) leaders from the leaders of public education schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate, divided into three school stages (primary school, intermediate school, and secondary school) using the stratified random sampling method, as in the following Table 1.

Table 1
Distribution of The Study Sample According To The Study Variables (Academic Qualification And Years of Experience)
Variable Level Frequency Percentage
Qualification Bachelor's degree or less 159 83.2
Postgraduate 32 16.8
Total 191 100%
Years of experience Less than 5 years 5 2.6
From 5 years to 10 years 21 11.0
More than 10 years 165 86.4
Total 191 100%

Study Tool

Due to the nature of the study in terms of its objectives, population, and methodology, a questionnaire was prepared to collect data; the questionnaire went through the following practical steps:

  1. Determining the general purpose of the tool and the objectives of the questionnaire: The general goal of the study tool was to know the administrative, technical and human competences required for school leaders in light of the self- Administration in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  2. Reviewing research tools, research thesis and previous studies such as the studies of Al-Ghamdi, 2019; Voucina, 2007; Ibrahim, 2020, which aimed to measure the application of self-management in local, Arab and foreign educational environments.
  3. Determining the areas and dimensions of the study tool: the questionnaire consisted of two parts:

The first part: Contains personal information related to the study sample, namely (academic qualification - number of years of service).

The second part: Contains the questionnaire areas:

  1. The first section: the required administrative competences for school leaders in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate and it consists of (21) items that dealt with four dimensions (planning dimension, organizing dimension, guidance dimension, evaluation dimension).
  2. The second section: the technical competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, and it consists of (13) items.
  3. The third section: the required human competences for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, and it consists of (17) items.

The five-point Likert scale was used to rank the responses of the study sample to the items of knowledge of the administrative, technical and human competences required for school leaders in light of the self- Administration in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

Study Tool Validation

The validity of the study tool means the extent of which study tool measures what it is intended to measure, the researcher verified the validity of the questionnaire through the following:

The Face Validity (Arbitrators) of the Study Tool

After completing the construction of the research tool that deals with "The required competences for schools’ leaders¬ in light of Self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate in Saudi Arabia" they were presented to a number of arbitrators, 11 arbitrators who are educational administration expert responded in order to be guided by their opinions. The arbitrators were asked to express their opinion on the clarity of the items and their suitability for what they were designed for, and the suitability of the items for the section to which they belong, along with putting amendments and suggestions through which the study tool could be developed in its initial form.

Based on the amendments and suggestions made by the arbitrators, the researchers made the necessary adjustments that were agreed upon by the majority of the arbitrators, including modifying some items and deleting others, until the study tool became in its final form.

Internal Consistency Validity

After confirming the face validity of the questionnaire, the researchers distributed it, where the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to find out the internal consistency of the questionnaire between the degrees of each of the questionnaire items with the total degree of the section to which the item belongs, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Study Dimensions And Sections With The Total Degree of The Same Dimension And The Total Degree of The Sections of Administrative Competences Required for School Leaders in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate
Item Correlation Coefficient with the Dimension Correlation Coefficient with the Total Degree of the Section Item Correlation Coefficient with the Dimension Correlation Coefficient with the Total Degree of the Section
First dimension: Planning
1 0.752** 0.660** 4 0.817** 0.614**
2 0.802** 0.639** 5 0.732** 0.693**
3 0.734** 0.505**      
Second dimension: Organizing
1 0.662** 0.504** 4 0.595** 0.534**
2 0.783** 0.660** 5 0.578** 0.556**
3 0.625** 0.498**      
Third dimension: Guidance
1 0.704** 0.539** 4 0.835** 0.730**
2 0.838** 0.759** 5 0.866** 0.695**
3 0.787** 0.739** 6 0.768** 0.635**
Fourth dimension: Evaluation
1 0.744** 0.630** 4 0.722** 0.662**
2 0.885** 0.737** 5 0.866** 0.714**
3 0.800** 0.785**      

It is evident from Table 2 that the values of the correlation coefficient of each of the items with its dimension and with the overall degree of its section of administrative competences required for school leaders in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa governorate is positive and statistically significant and has medium and high values, in addition to being statistically significant, it indicates that the dimensions and sections of the study have a very high degree of validity, and therefore this result shows the validity of the items of the sections of the questionnaire and its validity to be applied.

Construct validity of the section of administrative competences required for school leaders in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate:

The construct validity of the study sections was calculated by calculating the correlation coefficients between the degree of the dimension and the total degree of the section to which the dimension belongs, and the results are as follows:

It can be seen from Table 3 that the values of the correlation coefficients between the dimension and the total degree of the section: (the administrative competencies required for school leaders in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa governorate), to which the dimension belongs are high; Where it ranges between (0.813) and (0.881), all of which are positive and statistically significant. This means that there is a high degree of internal consistency, which reflects a high degree of validity for the items of the questionnaire.

Table 3
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for The Dimensions of The Section: The Administrative Competencies Required for School Leaders in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate With The Total Degree of The Section
Dimensions Correlation coefficient with the total degree of the section
Planning 0.813**
Organizing 0.847**
Guidance 0.853**
Evaluation 0.881**

It is evident from Table 4 that the values of the correlation coefficient of each of the items with the total score of the section of technical competencies required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa governorate to which the item belongs is positive and statistically significant at 0.01 level of significance or less, and has medium and high values, which indicates that the items of this section have a high degree of validity and suitability for field application.

Table 4
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for The Section Items (Technical Competencies Required for School Leaders, in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate) With The Overall Degree of The Section
Item number Correlation coefficient with section Item number Correlation coefficient with section
1 0.733** 8 0.754**
2 0.706** 9 0.866**
3 0.680** 10 0.688**
4 0.476** 11 0.810**
5 0.718** 12 0.784**
6 0.654** 13 0.754**
7 0.689**    

It is evident from Table 5 that the values of the correlation coefficient of each of the items with the total score of the section of human competencies required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa governorate to which the item belongs is the positive and statistically significant at 0.01 significance level or less, and has medium and high values, which indicates that the items of this section have a high degree of validity and suitability for field application.

Table 5
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for The Section Items (The Necessary Human Competences for School Leaders, in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate) With The Overall Degree of The Section.
Item Number Correlation coefficient with the section Item number Correlation coefficient with the section
1 0.518** 10 0.804**
2 0.637** 11 0.751**
3 0.841** 12 0.732**
4 0.721** 13 0.733**
5 0.471** 14 0.708**
6 0.634** 15 0.654**
7 0.809** 16 0.762**
8 0.704** 17 0.598**
9 0.760**    

The Reliability of the Study Tool

The Chronbach Alpha coefficient was used to ensure the reliability of the study tool, Table 6 shows the reliability coefficient for the study tool sections.

Table 6
Cronbach Alpha Coefficient To Measure The Stability of The Study instrument
  Questionnaires Dimensions Number of Items Section’s Reliability
The first section dimensions First dimension: Planning 5 0.823
Second dimension: Organizing 5 0.716
Third dimension: Guidance 6 0.888
Fourth dimension: Evaluation 5 0.861
The first section: administrative competences 21 0.925
The second section: technical competences 13 0.920
The third section: human competences 17 0.928
Total reliability of the study sections 51 0.969

It is evident from Table 6 that the reliability coefficients for the study sections are high, ranging between 0.920 and 0.928, and the general reliability coefficient reached (0.969). This indicates that the questionnaire has a high degree of reliability that can be relied upon in the field application of the study.

Study Results and Discussion

The answer to the first question: What are the required administrative competences for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa?

To answer this question, the arithmetic averages, standard deviations and ranks of the responses of study members from leaders of public education schools in Al-Ahsa governorate were calculated on the dimensions of the sections of administrative competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate (planning - organization - guidance - evaluation) and the results are shown in Table 4.

Table 7 above indicates that the arithmetic means of all dimensions of the administrative competences required for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, ranges between 4.08 and 4.37, these means are in the fourth and fifth categories of the five-points Likert scale, which indicate the degree of (Agree/Strongly Agree) for the study tool, and that the total mean of the responses of the study members on the total dimensions of administrative competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, reached (4.27 degrees out of 5) with a strongly agreed degree, this may be attributed to the study sample individuals seeing an urgent need to train and equip school leaders in Al-Ahsa with more administrative skills at the levels of planning, organization, guidance, and evaluation, because they will contribute to improving their professional and functional performance levels in the future, these results is consistent with the results of Al-Ghamdi study (2019) and Al-Salami study (2019) and the study of Cheng et al., (2016).
Table 7
Responses of Study Sample From Leaders of Public Education Schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate on The Dimensions of The Sections of Administrative Competences Required for School Leaders, in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa
# The Dimensions of the Administrative Competences Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Rank Degree of Application
1 Planning 4.31 0.47 2 Strongly agree
2 Organizing 4.33 0.48 3 Strongly agree
3 Guidance 4.37 0.51 1 Strongly agree
4 Evaluation 4.08 0.58 4 Agree
The total mean of the Administrative competences section 4.27 0.43 Strongly agree

The answer to the second question: What are the technical competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate?

To answer this question, the arithmetic means, standard deviations and ranks of the responses of study individuals from leaders of public education schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate were calculated on the section of technical competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, the results are as shown in the following Table 8.

Table 8
Responses of Study Sample From Leaders of Public Education Schools in Al-Ahsa on The Section of Technical Competences Required for School Leaders, in Light of Self-Management
  # Item Degree Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Rank Degree of application
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
F % F % F % F % F %
4 He is continuously updated about the school leadership. 0 0 5 2.6 5 2.6 83 43.5 98 51.3 4.43 0.68 1 Strongly agree
8 Provides the necessary school needs at the beginning of the year. 0 0 11 5.8 10 5.2 68 35.6 102 53.4 4.37 0.83 2 Strongly agree
5 He uses technology effectively in carrying out business. 0 0 5 2.6 16 8.4 82 42.9 88 46.1 4.32 0.74 3 Strongly agree
2 He can solve problems. 0 0 0 0 15 7.9 104 54.5 72 37.7 4.30 0.61 4 Strongly agree
9 Has the ability to invest time to accomplish executive tasks. 0 0 0 0 21 11 93 48.7 77 40.3 4.29 0.66 5 Strongly agree
6 The school leader is fully aware of the regulations and laws. 0 0 0 0 25 13.1 94 49.2 72 37.7 4.25 0.67 6 Strongly agree
7 interested in the evaluation because it constitutes a catalyst for the relationship between him and the teacher. 0 0 5 2.6 11 5.8 114 59.7 61 31.9 4.21 0.66 7 Strongly agree
1 The school leader has enough information about school leadership. 0 0 0 0 31 16.2 93 48.7 67 35.1 4.19 0.69 8 Agree
3 He possesses leadership styles for managing
various educational situations.
0 0 0 0 26 13.6 102 53.4 63 33 4.19 0.66 9 Agree
10 He is keen to divide his time between administrative and technical work. 0 0 0 0 25 13.1 106 55.5 60 31.4 4.18 0.64 10 Agree
11 He determines the appropriate time to contact the internal school personnel. 0 0 0 0 26 13.6 109 57.1 56 29.3 4.16 0.64 11 Agree
13 He can complete the necessary projects considering the school's financial potential. 0 0 5 2.6 15 7.9 115 60.2 56 29.3 4.16 0.67 12 Agree
12 Determines the appropriate time to contact outside school personnel. 0 0 0 0 30 15.7 110 57.6 51 26.7 4.11 0.64 13 Agree
Total arithmetic means of the dimension 4.24 0.48  

It is clear from Table 8 that there is a convergence in the degree of approval of the study sample members with the items of the section "technical competences required for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate", as this section includes 13 items, the responses of the study sample members to 7 items with a degree (strongly agree), where its arithmetic means ranged between 4.21 and 4.43. These means are in the fifth category of the five-points Likert scale, whose means range from 4.21 to 5.00 which indicate a degree of strong agreement with the study tool.

The total mean of the section was 4.24 which indicates a degree of (strongly agree). This may be attributed to the presence of most of the required technical competences among school leaders especially with regard to continuous knowledge of updates related to school leadership. The results of the study are consistent with the results of Al-Anzi study, (2017), and the study of Fukina (2017), which confirmed the positive application of self-management, while it differed with the result of Al-Balawi & Al-Zboon (2017).

The answer to the third question: What are the human competences required for school leaders, in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa?

The arithmetic means, standard deviations and ranks of the responses of study sample members from leaders of public education schools in Al-Ahsa governorate were calculated for the section of human competences required for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa governorate, the results are shown Table 9.

Table 9
Responses of Study Sample of Leaders of Public Education Schools in Al-Ahsa Governorate on The Section of Human Competences Required for School Leaders, in Light of Self-Management in Al-Ahsa Governorate
  # Item Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Rank Degree of Application
1 He treats employees with respect. 4.70 0.51 1 Strongly Agree
2 He makes people feel their important to the job. 4.59 0.59 2 Strongly Agree
9 Has the ability to know individual differences between workers. 4.43 0.70 3 Strongly Agree
3 He is concerned with educating teachers about the philosophy of education, its objectives, and the laws and regulations of the ministry. 4.38 0.64 4 Strongly Agree
5 He encourages workers to work with a team spirit. 4.35 0.93 5 Strongly Agree
7 He enhances employees' motivation to achieve the required goals. 4.35 0.63 6 Strongly Agree
10 He encourages teachers to belong to their profession by fostering their professional identity. 4.35 0.63 7 Strongly Agree
8 He works constructively to solve other people's problems that may affect teamwork 4.33 0.62 8 Strongly Agree
16 He can follow students' social issues in cooperation with parents. 4.32 0.58 9 Strongly Agree
12 He varies the methods of communication between the school and the community. 4.22 0.67 10 Strongly Agree
11 Has the ability to link the school with development programs in the community. 4.21 0.67 11 Strongly Agree
15 Supports positive participation with local community programs. 4.18 0.70 12 Agree
4 Understands the vision of others and can reconcile his vision as a leader with others’ vision. 4.17 0.71 13 Agree
14 He can communicate and cooperate with various community institutions. 4.15 0.65 14 Agree
13 It strengthens the teachers' relationship with the local community and provides opportunities for meetings between them. 4.08 0.88 15 Agree
6 He follows up the training needs of teachers and works to satisfy them. 4.06 0.90 16 Agree
17 He benefits from the experiences of local community members in serving the school. 4.05 0.71 17 Agree
  The overall average 4.29 0.48    

It is clear from Table 9 that there is a convergence in the degree of approval of the study sample members with the items of the section of "human competences required for school leaders, in light of self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate", as this section includes 17 paragraphs, and the responses of the study sample to 11 items of the section with a degree of (strongly agree), where its arithmetic means ranged between 4.21 and 4.70. These means are in the fifth category of the five-point scale whose means range between 4.21 and 5.00 and indicate a degree of strong agreement, the general mean of the section was 4.29 which that falls in the fifth category of the five-points scale indicating a degree of (strongly agree) to the study tool. This may be attributed to the actual awareness of school leaders' to the implementation of the aspect of human relations, and dealing with teachers with respect and activating participation by the principle which reflects positively on the teaching and learning process to achieve what the school aspires to. The result was consistent with the results of Al-Sulami’s study, (2019), while it disagreed with Ibrahim’s study (2020), which revealed the lack of interest in the parent’s participation in the application of Self-Management.

Conclusion

The current study examined the knowledge of the administrative, technical and human competences required for school leaders in light of the self-management in Al-Ahsa Governorate, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results provided an important basis for understanding school leaders' attitudes towards the administrative, technical and humanitarian competencies required in the educational environment. This is also indicated by the available literature and related studies, the results of the current study showed that the highest average in the ranking of the competences sections was for the human competences, followed by the section of administrative competences and finally the section of technical competences). The item of “He treats employees with respect.” Ranked first within the human competencies axis, and the arithmetic mean of all dimensions of the axis of administrative competencies required for school leaders in light of self-management came in a strongly acceptable degree and came after the organization in the first place, and this requires the tendency to give more towards Shifting to decentralization and decision-making for school leaders, developing the administrative and technical competencies of school leaders related to the research community and strengthening the relationship between the leadership style used and the level of technical competencies of school leaders.

Recommendations

Based on the results of the study, the researchers reached the following recommendations:

  1. Attempting to grant a greater measure to the transition to decentralization and decision-making for school leaderships in Al-Ahsa schools in particular and all other schools in the educational regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  2. Developing the administrative and technical competences of self-management leaders and high school education schools through a set of training programs for them while in service.
  3. Enriching school libraries with this type of studies and research that deals with more knowledge of the self-management and the required competences that help its success.

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