Research Article: 2023 Vol: 29 Issue: 4S
Salah A.A. Alabduljader, Kuwait University
Citation Information: Alabduljader, S.A.A (2023). The role of talent management in promoting creativity and innovation among workers in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait: Mediating role of leadership. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 29(4), 1-22.
The relationship between talent management and innovation has been a subject of research for a long time. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the link between these two concepts, but few studies have looked at the mediating role of leadership. The current study aimed at examining the mediating role of leadership on the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation within the Kuwaiti private media sector. Quantitative methodology was adopted through a questionnaire and (100) individuals responded to the handed questionnaire from (Al- Qabas channel, Al-Rai channel, Kuwaiti Jazeerah, Marina FM and 99.7 FM, Al- Shahed FM, Al-Adalah FM, Al-Sabah Channel). SPSS was employed to realize the main aim of study, and results indicated that leadership mediates that relationship between talent management and innovation/creativity of employees. Study recommended developing a leadership training program that focuses on fostering a culture of creativity and innovation. Further recommendations were presented in the study.
Talent Management Dimensions, Recruitment and Selection, Onboarding and Orientation, Performance Management, Career Development, Compensation and Benefits, Succession Planning, Employee Engagement, Creativity and Innovation, Leadership.
Talent management is a crucial function in many organizations, especially those that prioritize human capital as a key driver of business success (Kravariti et al, 2022). Talent management in general is a process of identifying, developing, and retaining top talent within an organization to support the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Atrizka et al, 2020). According to Hongal & Kinange (2020); Claus (2019), the existence of talent management in organizations can be attributed to several factors, including the increasing competition for skilled labor, the need to create a diverse and inclusive workplace, and the desire to foster employee engagement and satisfaction.
However, Gallardo-Gallardo et al (2020) argued that effective talent management involves several key processes, including recruitment and selection, onboarding and training, performance management, career development, and succession planning. By investing in these processes, organizations can attract and retain top talent, build a strong employer brand, and ensure a steady pipeline of skilled leaders and professionals (Whysall et al, 2019).
As for Aguinis & Burgi-Tian (2021), talent management is a critical function in modern organizations, and its importance is likely to continue to grow as the nature of work and the workforce evolves. On the other hand, Al Aina & Atan (2020) argued that leadership is extremely important in talent management. Effective leadership is essential for identifying and developing talent within an organization; leaders who prioritize talent management can create a culture of excellence, foster innovation, and inspire employees to perform at their best (Shahi et al, 2020).
Aim and Objectives of Study
Based on above argument, this current study aimed at understanding the mediating effect of leadership on the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation within the Kuwaiti private media sector. Variables of talent management adopted included (Recruitment and Selection, Onboarding and Orientation, Performance Management, Career Development, Compensation and Benefits, Succession Planning, Employee Engagement). From that, study sought to realize the following set of objectives:
A. Identify the meaning of talent management as an HRM interest. B. Highlight the importance of creativity and innovation on an organization. C. Explore the role of leadership in nourishing the positive relationship between talent management. and creativity and innovation among employees.
Model and Hypotheses
In order to give a deeper understanding of the adopted aim, researcher has built the following figure 1 so as to highlight the relationship between adopted variables and extract the resulted hypotheses:
Launching from the above model, following set of hypotheses was reached:
H1: Talent management dimensions have a statistically significant influence on creativity and innovation
H2: Talent management dimensions have a statistically significant influence on leadership
H3: Leadership mediates the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation in an organization
Kravariti et al. (2022) noted that talent management is the process of attracting, developing, and retaining talented employees to meet organizational goals. According to Atrizka et al (2020) talent management can be defined in different ways, depending on the context and the organization's specific goals and objectives. Hongal & Kinange (2020) defined talent management as the strategic process of identifying, attracting, developing, and retaining talented employees to achieve business objectives.
Claus (2019) and Gallardo-Gallardo et al. (2020) defined it as the practice of assessing employee skills, competencies, and potential to identify high-potential individuals and develop them for future leadership roles. While Whysall et al (2019) referred to it as a process that involves creating a positive work environment and culture that attracts and retains top talent, as well as providing opportunities for personal and professional growth.
Talent management according to Aguinis & Burgi-Tian (2021) - involves aligning the organization's goals and objectives with the skills, competencies, and potential of its employees to create a high-performing workforce, Al Aina and Atan (2020) argued that talent management encompasses all aspects of employee development, from recruiting and hiring to training and development, career planning, and performance management.
From the perspective of Shahi et al. (2020) talent management involves identifying and developing the unique skills and abilities of each employee to maximize their potential and contribute to the organization's success, it is a holistic approach to managing human capital, encompassing recruitment, retention, training, development, performance management, and succession planning. Overall, talent management is a multifaceted process that involves a range of strategies and practices aimed at developing and retaining a talented and high-performing workforce to achieve organizational goals and objectives (Hasanpour et al., 2019).
Dimensions of Talent Management
According to Gupta (2019); Gupta (2020), dimensions of talent management in organizations can vary according to industry, size of the organization, aim and goals of organization and the nature of the environment in which the organization is operating; however, academic literature presented the most common dimensions of talent management which included:
Recruitment and selection
This dimension involves recruitment and selection processes which is based on practices such as job postings, interviews, assessment tests, and background checks (Harun et al, 2020). Among the most important aspects of recruitment and selection is attracting diverse talent which can foster innovation by exposing the organization to different ideas and approaches (Alves et al., 2020). From another perspective, Anlesinya et al. (2019) argued that recruitment and selection also involves identifying skill sets, for example, seeking out candidates with experience in research and development or design thinking, in addition to that, having recruitment and selection as one of talent management dimensions means that human resource department should assess candidates' creative thinking abilities and prioritize attributes like curiosity and risk-taking can foster a culture of innovation within the organization. While Liu et al (2021) argued that managing talents means to support collaboration by identifying individuals who are comfortable working in teams and have the skills to collaborate effectively, this can support innovation by promoting cross-functional collaboration and idea-sharing.
On the other hand, Meyers et al (2020) noted that recruitment and selection is based on prioritizing candidates who are eager to learn and grow, this can support innovation by ensuring that employees have access to ongoing training and development opportunities. It also can support innovation by identifying and retaining top talent within the organization, by providing opportunities for growth and recognizing the contributions of talented individuals, organizations can foster a culture of innovation and ensure that their best ideas are put into action (Al-Khateeb & Al-Louzi, 2020).
Onboarding and Orientation
Once talented individuals are hired, this dimension focuses on helping them integrate into the organization; this may involve orientation programs, mentorship, and training (Azizi et al, 2020). Generally speaking, onboarding and orientation is based on setting expectations, providing context to help employees understand the context in which they will be working and how their ideas and contributions can align with the organization's innovation goals (Jooss et al., 2021).
Also, onboarding and orientation is known to encouraging collaboration and foster a culture of innovation by encouraging idea-sharing and teamwork, it helps in identifying resources such as research and development teams, innovation labs, and employee training programs which can help employees understand how they can access these resources to support their own innovation goals (Hasanpour et al., 2019).
Friday & Sunday (2019) noted that onboarding and orientation have the ability to set up mentors and support as they navigate the organization's innovation goals and processes, supporting learning and development through onboarding and orientation programs can provide new employees with ongoing learning and development opportunities that align with the organization's innovation goals. This can help them build the skills and knowledge they need to contribute to the organization's innovation efforts.
According to Abeuova & Muratbekova? Touron (2019), this dimension involves setting goals, providing feedback, and evaluating employee performance; performance management processes may include performance appraisals, coaching, and development plans. In order for a performance to be managed well, organizations should set goals, measurable goals, so employees can focus on achieving outcomes that support the organization's innovation goals. Mujtaba & Mubarik (2022) added that performance management is able to provide feedback which can help employees understand where they need to focus their efforts and identify areas where they can improve to better support the organization's innovation objectives.
Al-Dalahmeh et al. (2020) noted that performance management is a crucial aspect in supporting innovation and creativity through fostering collaboration by evaluating employees on their ability to work effectively in teams and rewarding those who contribute to cross-functional collaboration, which support innovation by promoting idea-sharing and teamwork across the organization.
This dimension involves creating opportunities for talented individuals to grow and advance within the organization. This may involve training, mentoring, job rotations and succession planning (Kaleem, 2019). Career development takes place through providing growth opportunities by building a workforce that has the skills and knowledge needed to drive innovation, encouraging experimentation by providing a safe space to try new ideas and approaches, employees can be more innovative and creative in their work, and building cross-functional skills by promoting idea-sharing and teamwork across the organization (Cross Walker, 2020).
Mitosis et al. (2021) added that career development is basically the idea of recognizing and rewarding innovation which can help build a culture of innovation by demonstrating that innovation is valued and that employees who contribute to innovation are recognized and appreciated, in addition to encouraging continuous learning to support innovation by ensuring that employees have the latest knowledge and skills needed to drive innovation within the organization.
Compensation and Benefits
This dimension involves providing competitive compensation packages and benefits to attract and retain talented individuals, compensation and benefits may include salary, bonuses, health insurance, and retirement plans (Abu-Darwish et al, 2022) .Tyskbo (2021) added employee benefits can also influence innovation by providing resources and support for research and development, for example, offering training programs, access to technology and equipment, and funding for research projects can encourage employees to explore new ideas and experiment with new technologies.
The availability of benefits such as flexible work arrangements, parental leave, and wellness programs can also positively impact innovation by promoting work-life balance and reducing stress. When employees are able to balance their personal and professional responsibilities, they are more likely to feel fulfilled and engaged in their work (Mousa & Ayoubi, 2019).
Painter? Morland et al (2019) argued that compensation and benefits can also influence innovation by promoting diversity and inclusion within organizations. By offering equitable compensation and benefits packages, organizations can attract a more diverse talent pool, which can lead to a broader range of perspectives and ideas; in addition, it can impact innovation by creating a sense of financial security for employees. When employees feel financially secure, they are more likely to take risks and pursue innovative ideas, knowing that they have a safety net if their ideas do not pan out.
This dimension involves identifying and developing future leaders within the organization, succession planning may involve grooming talented individuals for leadership roles, creating leadership development programs, and ensuring smooth transitions when leaders leave the organization (Song et al., 2023). Shet (2020) argued that building succession plans allow for the continuation of innovative initiatives and strategies even as key individuals retire or move on to other roles, while Ali and Mehreen (2019) saw that succession plans mean that there is a deep bench of talent ready to take on new challenges and drive innovation in new directions.
Generally speaking, succession planning is based on the idea that creativity and experimentation are valued and supported, encouraging them to contribute their own ideas and initiatives, it can help organizations build a diverse and inclusive leadership pipeline, bringing in individuals with diverse backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives that can help drive innovative thinking and approaches (Ogbeibu et al., 2022).
This dimension involves creating a positive work environment where talented individuals feel valued, motivated, and engaged; employee engagement may involve communication, recognition programs, creating a positive culture and motivating employees to contribute their best ideas and innovations to the organization leading to a culture of innovation and creativity (Jooss et al., 2019). According to Anlesinya and Amponsah-Tawiah (2020), employee engagement allows for the exchange of diverse perspectives and experiences that can spark new ideas and approaches and lead to breakthrough innovations that can drive growth and competitive advantage.
On the same track, Borg et al. (2021) argued that employee engagement is equipped to leverage the full range of skills and expertise available within their workforce, unlocking the potential for innovation that exists at all levels of the organization, and by fostering a culture of employee engagement that supports innovation, organizations can position themselves as agile and adaptable in the face of rapid change, responding quickly to emerging trends and opportunities with creativity and innovation.
Talent Management in Media Sector Environment
Youssef and Moh Samir (2021) stated that talent management plays a critical role in the media industry, which relies heavily on the skills and creativity of its workforce to produce high-quality content that can captivate audiences and generate revenue. Wiblen and Marler (2021) noted that talent management appears in its most gracious looks when it comes to media industry as it has the ability to identifying and recruiting top talent as talent managers in the media industry are responsible for identifying individuals who have the skills, experience, and creativity needed to excel in various roles, such as writers, producers, directors, actors, and more, this involves networking, scouting talent, and conducting auditions or interviews to find the right fit for each project (Kusi et al, 2020).
On the other hand, Goestjahjanti et al. (2020) described the existence of talent management in a media environment as in its ability to developing talent; once talent is recruited, talent managers are responsible for developing and nurturing it, this may involve providing training, coaching, or mentorship to help individuals hone their skills and reach their full potential, in addition to that, it may also involve providing opportunities for talent to work on a variety of projects to gain experience and build their portfolio.
Kravariti et al. (2022) from their point of view argued that talent management in media industry launches from its ability to retain top talent as in a highly competitive industry like media, it's important to retain top talent to ensure that projects are consistently of high quality and that the company remains profitable. Also, talent managers may use various strategies, such as offering competitive compensation, providing opportunities for career advancement, or creating a positive work environment, to keep talent engaged and motivated (Sun et al., 2019).
From another perspective, Anlesinya et al. (2021) argued that talent management in media environment drew from managing talent logistics as talent managers are responsible for managing logistics related to talent, such as negotiating contracts, coordinating schedules, and ensuring that talent has the resources they need to succeed on each project. This requires strong organizational and communication skills, as well as the ability to handle multiple projects simultaneously.
The Kuwaiti Private Media Sector
The private media sector in Kuwait is relatively small compared to other countries in the region due to government restrictions on press freedom and limited advertising revenues. However, there are several privately owned newspapers, television channels, and radio stations operating in the country (Saleh, 2021).
In terms of newspapers, the leading private publications include Al-Qabas, Al- Rai, and Al-Anbaa, which are known for their coverage of politics, economics, and social issues, these newspapers often have a more critical approach to reporting than state-owned media outlets, but they still face restrictions on their reporting (Alsalem, 2021).
In the television sector, Kuwait has several privately owned channels, including Al-Rai TV, Al-Watan TV, and Al-Jazeera Al-Kuwaitiya; these channels cover news, sports, entertainment, and other topics, but they must adhere to strict government regulations on content and programming (Murad, 2022).
The private radio sector in Kuwait is also relatively small, with most stations being operated by the government or semi-governmental organizations. However, there are a few privately owned radio stations, such as Marina FM and FM 99.7, which focus on music and entertainment (Alsalem, 2021).
Generally speaking, the private media sector in Kuwait faces significant challenges due to government restrictions and limited advertising revenues, however, it continues to play an important role in providing diverse viewpoints and reporting on a range of issues affecting Kuwaiti society (Almutairi & Dashti, 2019).
Creativity and Innovation among Employees
In the ever-increasing competitive business environment, it is essential for an organization to equip its workforce with the knowledge and skills necessary for efficient and successful implementation of innovative ideas in order to sustain a competitive edge in the market (El-Kassar et al, 2022;Hashem, 2016). According to Asbari et al (2021); Ye et al (2022), creativity and innovation are two key components of the holistic approach to professional development, the combination of which can provide a platform from which employees can excel in the workplace and ensure sustained corporate success.
Tsegaye et al. (2020) argued that creativity and innovation are two essential components of any successful business organization. Creativity is the process of generating unconventional or original ideas and solutions to open-ended business problems; while innovation is the application of these ideas to the workplace to achieve tangible benefits (Siyal et al, 2021). These two components can often intertwine and influence one another in the goal of achieving professional development and corporate objectives. Employees, who are creative and innovative thinkers, can bring forth new and creative solutions, products and services to an organization (Lee et al, 2020). From the perspective of Karatepe et al (2020), creativity and innovation can lead to greater efficiency, better quality, and more successful outcomes in the workplace. Creative and innovative thinking can lead to increased productivity.
Leadership Role in Supporting Talent Management
Leadership plays a crucial role in supporting talent management in many ways (Hawi et al., 2015). Almaaitah et al. (2020) saw that among these way is that leadership helps in identifying and developing talents as leaders must have a keen eye to identify talented individuals within their organizations, and groom them to take on more challenging roles, they must provide training, coaching, and mentoring to help these individuals develop their skills.
Mitosis et al. (2021) argued that leadership provide a supportive culture as leaders create a culture that fosters talent development, innovation, and risk-taking, leaders are also proactive in creating an environment where employees feel valued, and their contributions are recognized and appreciated.
From Goestjahjanti et al. (2020) perspective, leadership can support talent management through building effective teams by identifying the skills and talents necessary for success and then bringing the right people together, they also provide opportunities for team members to work collaboratively and learn from each other.
While Harun et al. (2020) saw that leadership has the ability to retain top talent especially when leaders play an essential role in keeping top talent within the organization, this can take place through offering competitive compensation and benefits packages, opportunities for advancement, and a sense of purpose and meaning in their work.
A study by Hongal & Kinange (2020) aimed to examine the impact of talent management on organizational performance based on a review of existing literature and empirical research. The study involved a sample of 150 employees from various organizations in India, and data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results of the study indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between talent management and organizational performance. Specifically, the study found that talent management practices such as talent acquisition, talent development, and talent retention have a significant impact on organizational performance, as measured by factors such as productivity, profitability, and employee satisfaction. It was conclude that organizations that prioritize talent management are more likely to attract and retain high-quality employees, which can lead to improved performance and a better bottom line.
Ibrahim & AlOmari (2020) in their study investigated the impact of talent management on innovation in Jordanian banks, the study was conducted using a quantitative research approach, and data was collected through a survey questionnaire from 302 employees working in Jordanian banks, it used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the data. Results of the study indicated that talent management has a significant positive effect on innovation in Jordanian banks. Specifically, the study found that talent attraction, talent development, and talent retention all have a positive impact on innovation. Additionally, the study found that the relationship between talent management and innovation is mediated by knowledge management. The findings contribute to the literature on talent management and innovation, particularly in the context of Jordanian banks. The study highlights the importance of talent management practices in fostering innovation, and suggests that organizations can enhance their innovation capabilities by implementing effective talent management strategies. The study also provides insights into the specific talent management practices that are most effective in promoting innovation, such as talent attraction, development, and retention. Overall, the study suggests that talent management is an important factor in promoting innovation in organizations, and that organizations should prioritize talent management as a means of enhancing their innovation capabilities.
Zhang et al. (2019) explored the impact of big data on talent management practices and the role of challenge stressors in fostering or inhibiting creativity among employees. The study argues that the increasing availability of big data in talent management creates both opportunities and challenges for organizations, and that challenge stressors can play a critical role in shaping employee creativity in this context. To investigate these issues, the study collected data from 372 employees in various industries in China. The results of the analysis suggest that big data can enhance the effectiveness of talent management practices and promote employee creativity, but it can also create pressure and stress that can inhibit creativity. The study finds that challenge stressors, such as time pressure and workload, can have a double-edged sword effect on creativity, as they can stimulate creativity in some employees while hindering it in others. The study concludes that organizations need to adopt a balanced approach to talent management in the age of big data, taking advantage of the benefits of big data while minimizing its potential negative effects on employee creativity. This involves providing employees with sufficient resources and support to cope with the challenges of big data, while also creating a supportive and positive work environment that encourages creativity and innovation.
Khan (2019) examined the relationship between talent management practices, psychological empowerment, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior among employees. The study argues that talent management practices can contribute to employees' psychological empowerment, which in turn can foster innovative work behavior. Furthermore, the study suggests that knowledge sharing can play a moderating role in this relationship. The study collected data from 262 employees in various organizations in Pakistan. The results of the analysis suggest that talent management practices have a positive impact on employees' psychological empowerment and innovative work behavior. In addition, the study finds that knowledge sharing can enhance the relationship between psychological empowerment and innovative work behavior, indicating that when employees share their knowledge and expertise with each other, they are more likely to engage in innovative work behavior.
The study concluded that talent management practices can be an effective way to promote innovative work behavior among employees, but that knowledge sharing is also an important factor to consider. The study suggested that organizations should encourage knowledge sharing among employees to enhance the effectiveness of talent management practices and foster a culture of innovation and creativity.
Widodo and Mawarto (2020) explored the relationships between transformational leadership, talent management, innovative behavior, and organizational performance. The research aims to identify the mediating effect of innovative behavior in the relationship between transformational leadership and talent management on organizational performance. The study used a quantitative research design and collected data from 276 employees working in the hospitality industry in Malaysia. The researchers used structural equation modeling to analyze the data.
The findings indicated that both transformational leadership and talent management have a positive and significant effect on innovative behavior and organizational performance. Additionally, the results show that innovative behavior partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and talent management on organizational performance. The study provided empirical evidence that innovative behavior plays a crucial role in the relationship between transformational leadership, talent management, and organizational performance. The findings suggest that organizations should prioritize transformational leadership and talent management to foster innovative behavior and improve organizational performance.
Chang and Werther (2021) discussed the key talent management practices adopted by leading organizations in the hospitality industry. The study focuses on the winners of the Hospitality HR Awards, which recognizes organizations for their exceptional HR practices. The research used a qualitative approach, with semistructured interviews conducted with HR professionals from the award-winning organizations. The study identified six key talent management practices: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, career development, diversity and inclusion, and employee engagement.
The findings show that the leading organizations in the hospitality industry are highly focused on talent management and prioritize employee engagement and development. They also have innovative practices, such as using virtual reality for training and gamification for performance management. The study concluded that the key to success in talent management is to focus on creating a positive employee experience and to continuously innovate to stay ahead of the competition. The article provides valuable insights for organizations in the hospitality industry and beyond, looking to improve their talent management practices.
Current study depended on quantitative approach as a way to reach results and answer its questions. The suitability of quantitative approach launches from the numerical results that it provides and the ability to generalize its end results which leads to better explanation of the phenomenon.
Tool of Study
A questionnaire was adopted to be the main tool of study, the questionnaire consisted of two main parts, the first took into perspective demographics of study sample, while the other section contained statements related to study variables including (Talent Management Dimensions/Recruitment and Selection, Onboarding and Orientation, Performance Management, Career Development, Compensation and Benefits, Succession Planning, Employee Engagement/Creativity and Innovation and Leadership). The questionnaire was built based on likert 5 scale (1) Strongly disagree; (2) Disagree; (3) Neither agree nor disagree; (4) Agree; (5) Strongly agree, and it was handed to participants through their HR department.
Population and Sampling
Population of study consisted of managers, leaders and employees within human resource department of privately owned media organizations including (Al- Qabas channel, Al-Rai channel, Kuwaiti Jazeerah, Marina FM and 99.7 FM, Al- Shahed FM, Al-Adalah FM, Al-Sabah Channel). A convenient sample of (122) individuals was chosen to represent the population, after application process, researcher was able to reach (100) properly filled questionnaires which indicated a response rate of 81.9% as statistically accepted.
Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS was chosen as the main software for dealing with the primary data collected. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the reliability of the scale, and the numbers in the table 1 that follows show that the alpha values are statistically significant (i.e., more than 0.70), indicating that the scale is likely reliable.
Alpha Value Of Variables
|Recruitment and Selection||0.735|
|Onboarding and Orientation||0.72|
|Compensation and Benefits||0.768|
|Creativity and Innovation||0.757|
Demographics of Study
As according to the table 2 below, frequency and percentage of respondents' demographics were calculated, it appeared that majority of the sample were (females) forming 53%. Majority of respondents were more than 37 years old forming 36% and held (BA) degree forming 35% of the sample. As for experience, it appeared that the majority of individuals had an experience of (10-13 years) forming 43% of the sample.
Demographics Of Study
Table 3 below presented mean and standard deviation of questionnaire statements, it was seen that all statements and variable scored higher than mean of scale 3.00 which gave an indication that respondents had positive attitudes regarding questionnaire of study. The highest variable was (Succession Planning) and scored 4.12/5.00 compared to the lowest variable which was (leadership) and scored 3.81/5.00. As for statements of questionnaire, the highest statement scored 4.2/5.00 and was articulated (Performance management support innovation and creativity by setting clear goals that align with the organization's innovation objectives), compared to the lowest mean scored by (Career development programs can encourage employees to experiment and take risks in their work) as 3.79/5.00 but still positive as it was higher than mean of scale.
|Recruitment and selection can identify and attract talented individuals to join the organization.||3.90||.64|
|Recruitment and selection processes prioritize diversity and inclusion||3.95||.78|
|It has the ability to bring in employees with unique perspectives and experiences||3.89||.89|
|Recruitment and selection processes can identify individuals with skill sets that align with the organization's innovation goals||3.94||.85|
|By continuously recruiting and selecting talented individuals, organizations can build a pipeline of potential innovators who are eager to contribute to the organization's goals||3.87||.91|
|Recruitment and Selection||3.91||.57|
|Onboarding and orientation programs set clear expectations for new employees around the organization's innovation goals and how they can contribute to these goals.||3.88||.86|
|Onboarding and orientation programs provide new employees with a clear understanding of the organization's history, values, and culture||3.95||.89|
|Onboarding and orientation programs introduce new employees to cross-functional teams and provide opportunities for them to collaborate with colleagues||3.94||.83|
|Onboarding and orientation programs introduce new employees to the organization's resources and support systems||3.96||.88|
|Onboarding and orientation programs connect new employees with mentors or coaches who can provide guidance||3.96||.86|
|Onboarding and Orientation||3.94||.59|
|Performance management support innovation and creativity by setting clear goals that align with the organization's innovation objectives||4.20||.78|
|Performance management provide ongoing feedback to employees on their progress towards achieving their goals||4.15||.81|
|Performance management recognize and reward employees for their contributions to innovation within the organization||4.12||.84|
|Performance management support innovation and creativity by encouraging employees to experiment and take risks||3.94||.87|
|Performance management can encourage collaboration and teamwork by evaluating employees on their ability to work effectively in teams and rewarding those who contribute to cross-functional collaboration||3.88||.98|
|Career development programs can provide employees with opportunities to grow and develop their skills which can support innovation||3.91||.84|
|Career development programs can encourage employees to experiment and take risks in their work||3.79||.78|
|Career development programs can provide employees with opportunities to develop cross-functional skills which can support innovation||3.93||.81|
|Career development programs can recognize and reward employees for their contributions to innovation within the organization||3.99||.93|
|Career development programs can encourage employees to continue learning and growing throughout their careers||3.92||.82|
|Compensation and benefits play a crucial role in driving innovation within organizations.||3.89||.90|
|Offering competitive compensation packages and comprehensive benefits programs attract top talent with innovative ideas and skills.||3.87||.91|
|Prioritizing compensation and benefits programs that align with their innovation goals foster a culture of creativity and risk-taking||4.05||.76|
|Incentivizing innovation through compensation programs can motivate employees to think outside the box and develop new approaches to problems||4.02||.86|
|Rewarding employees for their contributions to innovation increases engagement and job satisfaction||3.86||.80|
|Compensation and Benefits||3.94||.61|
|Succession planning promotes a culture of innovation by ensuring that leadership roles are filled by individuals who are forward-thinking||4.12||.79|
|Succession planning allows organizations to identify and nurture emerging talent, providing opportunities for them to develop the skills, knowledge, and experience||4.17||.77|
|A well-designed succession plan help organizations ensure a smooth transition of leadership||4.20||.85|
|Succession planning can also help organizations identify and address potential gaps in innovation leadership||4.05||.85|
|By incorporating innovation as a key criterion in succession planning, organizations signal to their employees and stakeholders that creativity is valued||4.04||.84|
|Employee engagement fosters a sense of ownership and accountability among employees||4.05||.87|
|Engaged employees are more likely to collaborate and share knowledge and ideas with their colleagues||3.92||.81|
|Organizations that prioritize employee engagement are better positioned to attract and retain top talent||3.89||.80|
|Employee engagement can help break down silos and encourage cross-functional collaboration||3.72||.91|
|Engaged employees are more likely to take risks and experiment with new approaches and technologies||4.04||.80|
|Talent management plays a critical role in supporting creativity and innovation by identifying, nurturing, and leveraging the skills||3.91||.89|
|Effective talent management can help organizations build a diverse and inclusive workforce that brings together individuals with a range of perspectives||4.01||.82|
|By prioritizing talent management practices that support creativity and innovation, organizations can ensure that they have the right people in the right roles||3.99||.85|
|Talent management can also support innovation by providing employees with opportunities for continuous learning and development||4.05||.88|
|Effective talent management practices can help organizations create a culture of experimentation and risk-taking||3.89||.95|
|Creativity and Innovation||3.97||.63|
|Effective leadership is critical to successful talent management, providing direction, vision, and inspiration to employees at all levels of the organization||3.74||.94|
|Leaders who prioritize talent management create a culture of learning and development, encouraging employees to acquire new skills||3.96||.92|
|Leaders who prioritize talent management also create a culture of accountability||3.81||.97|
|Effective leaders are able to identify and develop emerging talent within their organization||3.77||1.00|
|Leaders who prioritize talent management also create a culture of collaboration||3.79||1.05|
For each independent variable, we calculated VIF and Tolerance to check for multicollinearity. Specifically, these findings were made (Table 4):
|Recruitment and Selection||.537||1.864|
|Onboarding and Orientation||.563||1.777|
|Compensation and Benefits||.584||1.711|
There is no indication of multicollinearity, as shown by the fact that the VIF values are less than 10 and the Tolerance values are more than 0.10 (Gujarati & Porter,2009)
Talent Management in Promoting Creativity and Innovation among Workers in the Private Media Sector in the State of Kuwait: Mediating Role of Leadership. Before structural analysis can begin, the recommended research model must be validated using a set of indicators to verify it is relevant for this study, in this way (Table 5):
|Value Recommended||> 0.8||< 5||> 0.90||≤0.10||> 0.9||> 0.9|
|References||(Miles and Shevlin, 1998).||(Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007)||(Miles and Shevlin, 1998).||(MacCallum et al, 1996)||(Hu and Bentler, 1999).||(Hu and Bentler, 1999).|
|Value of Model||0.852||1.718||0.915||0.085||0.916||0.927|
According to the results in Table 6 below, all of the aforementioned indicators met both the minimum and maximum values required by the appropriate references, allowing us to test the following hypothesis:
|Hypotheses||Direct impact||Indirect impact||C.R.||P||result|
|Creativity And Innovation||<---||Leadership||0.245||2.520||.012||Accept|
|Creativity And Innovation||<---||Talent Management||0.544||0.136||4.464||***||Accept|
H1: Talent management has A Statistically Significant Influence On Creativity and Innovation Among Workers in the Private Media Sector in the State of Kuwait: This Hypothesis Is Accepted (C.R. = 4.464; P < 0.05; = 0.000). This Means That Talent Management Has A Statistically Significant Influence On Creativity And Innovation Among Workers In The Private Media Sector in the State of Kuwait.
H2: Talent management has a statistically significant influence on the leadership in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait: This hypothesis is accepted (C.R.=4.856; P < 0.05;=0.000). This means that talent management has a statistically significant influence on the leadership in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait
H3: Leadership has a statistically significant influence on creativity and innovation among workers in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait: This hypothesis is accepted (C.R =2.52; P<0.05;=0.012). This means that Leadership has a statistically significant influence on creativity and innovation among workers in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait
H4: Leadership mediates the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation among workers in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait: This hypothesis is accepted (C.R. = 4.464; P < 0.05; = 0.000) and the indirect effect is 0.136 which is significant at 0.05 level. This means that Leadership mediates the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation among workers in the private media sector in the state of Kuwait
Following chart summarizes the results Figure 2:
The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of leadership on the relationship between talent management and innovation/creativity. The study used a quantitative approach and collected data from (100) managers, leaders and employees within human resource department of privately owned media organizations including (Al-Qabas channel, Al-Rai channel, Kuwaiti Jazeerah, Marina FM and 99.7 FM, Al- Shahed FM, Al-Adalah FM, Al-Sabah Channel). The results indicated that leadership plays a significant role in the relationship between talent management and innovation. Leadership is a key factor that helps to create an environment that supports talent management and innovation. Other findings indicated the following:
Results of study indicated that talent management can support innovation and creativity by providing employees with the resources and support their need to develop and test new ideas, such as funding for research and development, access to cutting-edge technology, and support for prototyping and testing. This result matched what came along with Zhang et al (2019); Khan (2019); Widodo & Mawarto (2020) who argued that by prioritizing talent management practices that support creativity and innovation, organizations can position themselves as leaders in their industry, driving new ideas, products, and services that can transform their markets and create lasting value for their customers and stakeholders.
As for leadership mediation on the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation lies in the fact that leadership supports the organization with knowledge, and experiences that can drive growth and innovation, not to mention the role of leadership in setting clear expectations for the team through providing regular feedback and coaching to help employees reach their full potential. Such results matched what came along with Chang & Werther (2021) who argued that leadership has a significant role in supporting innovation and creativity through providing opportunities for teams to grow and take on new challenges and responsibilities, in addition to encouraging employees to work together and share knowledge and expertise in pursuit of common goals. Generally speaking, the mediation of leadership is apparent based on the fact that leaders who prioritize talent management are able to attract and retain top talent, creating a competitive advantage for their organization by building a workforce that is capable of driving growth and innovation. This also agreed with Hongal & Kinange (2020); AlOmari (2020) who noted that leaders who prioritize talent management are able to create a culture of innovation within their organization, encouraging employees to take risks and experiment with new ideas and approaches in pursuit of breakthrough innovations that can transform their markets and create lasting value for their stakeholders.
Leadership has been identified as a major mediator in relationship between talent management and innovation as leaders play an important role in setting the tone and direction for their organizations and in directing the efforts of their subordinates. As a result, their actions can either support or impede the development of talent management and innovation capabilities. In addition to that, there are three factors that can have an impact on the relationship between talent management and innovation: the individual, the organization, and the environment. The individual can be either supportive or inhibiting of the relationship between talent management and innovation. The organization can be supportive or inhibiting of the relationship between talent management and innovation. The environment can be supportive or inhibiting of the relationship between talent management and innovation.
Examining the mediating role of leadership on the relationship between talent management and innovation can have several practical implications for organizations. Firstly, it can help organizations to understand the importance of leadership in fostering innovation. By identifying the specific leadership behaviors that mediate the relationship between talent management and innovation, organizations can develop targeted leadership development programs to enhance these behaviors. Secondly, it can help organizations to optimize their talent management practices. By understanding how leadership impacts the relationship between talent management and innovation, organizations can identify areas where they need to improve their talent management practices to better support innovation. Thirdly, it can help organizations to develop more effective innovation strategies. By understanding the role of leadership in fostering innovation, organizations can develop innovation strategies that are aligned with their leadership capabilities and talent management practices.
The theoretical implication of examining the mediating role of leadership on the relationship between talent management and innovation is an interesting and important question. Such research helps to deepen our understanding of how leadership can help foster creative forms of talent management that leads to innovative outputs within an organization. A review of the current theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a link between leadership and innovation exists and that the presence of the leader has an effect on the innovation-producing capabilities of the organization or individual. Furthermore, research suggests that leadership serves as a mediator in the relationship between talent management and innovation, by fostering an environment that is conducive to creative solutions and improving access to resources and tools needed to develop creative solutions.
From a theoretical standpoint, understanding the role of leadership as a mediator between talent management and innovation allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the interplay between these variables and how the presence of leadership can shape the innovation potential of an organization. Further research is needed on the specifics of how different leadership styles contribute to successful innovation and how talent management processes, such as recruitment and selection, role of feedback, and development of individual capacities can be best used to support innovation within an overall strategy
Limitations of examining the mediating role of leadership on the relationship between talent management and innovation include the following:
1. Lack of comprehensive and objective data – The availability of comprehensive and objective data is critical to accurately determine the mediating role of leadership between talent management and innovation. However, in many cases there can be a lack of quality and consistency in the data available, leading to a biased or distorted view of the situation.
2. Due to the Kuwaiti government's restriction of the private media sector, the researcher was not able to obtain the total numbers of workers in Kuwaiti private media channels, and they did not have annual reports, and all of them work through internet lines and televised broadcasts.
Based on above results, discussion and conclusion; current study recommended:
- Develop a leadership training program that focuses on fostering a culture of creativity and innovation.
- Encourage leaders to explore emerging trends and technologies that can help drive innovation.
- Develop a talent management system that's aligned with your organization's strategic goals.
- Provide leaders with the necessary resources and support to succeed in their role as mediators between talent management and creativity and innovation.
- Create a supportive work environment that fosters collaboration and encourages experimentation.
Through the process of carrying out current study, researcher managed to develop some new ideas for future research that included:
- Explore the impact of different leadership styles (e.g., transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) on the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation.
- Investigate how leadership mediates the relationship between talent management and creativity and innovation, taking into account the broader organizational culture.
- Examining the impact of talent management practices such as talent acquisition and development practices that prioritize diversity and inclusion may foster greater creativity and innovation than practices that do not.
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Received: 02-May-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-13477; Editor assigned: 04-May-2023, PreQC No. AEJ-23-13477(PQ); Reviewed: 21-May-2023, QC No. AEJ-23-13477; Revised: 23-May-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-13477(R); Published: 25- May-2023