Review Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S
Hina Saleem, University of the Punjab
Ahmed Muneeb Mehta, University of the Punjab
Rashid Jehangiri, University of the Punjab
Nisar Ahmad , University of the Punjab
Wafa Saghir, University of the Punjab
A great deal of study has been dedicated to “Workforce diversity”. Despite an increasing number of studies, few reliable conclusions have yet to be reached about the experiences and consequences of diversity. When we managed the ‘Employee Diversity’ effectively, it will encourage employees’ to add value to their organization. This research outlines and tests the employee’s commitment to the organization. Through this research, we are seeking a new way of opening the so-called “black box” amongst the diversity practices and the commitment of employees to the organization. The nature of this study design was basically “cross-sectional” and a “quantitative technique” was used for data analysis. The data was collected from different teachers who are currently working in the elementary schools of Lahore, Pakistan. The data was gathered with the help of a standardized questionnaire survey. For data collection “snowball sampling technique” was applied. The total sample size of this research is 300. The instrument was adapted from different authors. After examining the reliability, we checked the data normality and ran Pearson Correlation tests in order to determine the relationship between the two variables. From findings, it tells that the “diversity practices and Organizational Commitment of employees represents a moderate connection because the values obtained, lie within a statistically significant range”.
Workforce Diversity, Diversity- HR Practices, Diversity- Leadership, Diversity Climate, and Organization Commitment.
This era is full of extreme competition; diversity can be seen almost in every organization no matter what the size of the organization (big and small) or what the sector of the organization (private or public). The topic of diversity has now become so popular that it gains the center of attention (Schoen, 2020). Organizations now use diverse recruiting methods and techniques for the selection of employees who have different cultural backgrounds, ethics, and principles, etc. (Emily Nyanchama Ayega, 2018). The fundamental aim of every business (organization) is to survive in the economic landscape and the only solution to this problem is that their workforce should be committed and increase competitive advantage (Martina, 2020). According to one research, the first step to bring equality and fairness in the organization is to give women their rights (Schoen, 2020). Diversity is now considering an important part of the organization (Leon Jackson, 2019). Employees belonging to dissimilar backgrounds, cultures, ethics, principles, age, sexuality,languages, knowledge, education and abilities, etc. are known as workforce diversity in the organization (Waight, 2011).
It’s a critical task for the firm to fairly manage the employees of different behaviors. To fulfill the critical task, HR practices playing an important role in engaging the employees with the organization (Stephen, 2020). Diversity management practices bringing women, people of color, and members of other marginalized groups into the workplace, inclusion practices have sought to create equal access to decision-making, resources, and upward mobility opportunities for these individuals (Lynn M.Shore, 2018). In order to engage the employees of the organization, for this essential purpose “Leadership” plays an incredible role. The definition of leadership vary from person to person, different people have a different perspective regarding leadership. Leadership has the ability to encourage the employees and reshape their behaviors in order to achieve a common goal and also maintaining the organizational cultures by providing the guidelines to the employees. The next step to sustain the employees in the organization is to give them the proper working environment where they feel free. The diversity climate is that where employees and the supervisors work together by providing support to the employees, implementing fair thinking concept, providing equal opportunities to give their opinions (Chris Auld, 2015).
When employees feel comfortable in the organization only then they are committed to their organization. To bring the employees’ commitment, organizations should develop a diverse set of practices only then barriers will be removed (Schoen, 2020). The term Organizational Commitment can be defined as “the psychological bond exists among the employee and the organization, and that bond reduces the voluntary quitting of the organization” (Allen & Meyer, 1996). The concept of Commitment can be explained as an employee’s consistent behavior in the organization.
This research will provide a model that will help to clarify the bond between diversity practices and the employees’ commitment to the organization.
The Problem statement
In this explicit study, the matter to be examined is to spot how diversity practices influence organizational commitment among elementary school teachers’ in Lahore.
The Study Interrogations
This study aids to provide solutions to the following queries:
•What is the impact of diversity practices on the organizational commitment of elementary school teachers?
•To what extent diversity practices contribute to changing organizational commitment among elementary school teachers’ of Lahore, Pakistan.
Importance of this Study
•A limited number of researches on this topic so the findings and conclusions of this research will be beneficial the future
•This study will beneficial for the education sector in forming desired HRM strategies at the school level.
•It will be useful for elementary schools to check which guidelines and strategies must be executed in order to make their teachers happy and committed to the When their teachers’ are happy only then they will contribute the maximum to the organization.
•This research will likely serve as a torchbearer to the school heads in how to keep their teachers committed towards their organizations.
•This research is deemed to promote a friendly environment in the
Many studies have been done on the issue of diversity, but no one giving attention to the issue of how this diversity will affect employee attitudes and behaviors towards the organization. Diversity can be explained as a somewhat noteworthy difference that differentiates one individual or person from the other (Kreitz, 2008). According to Ms. Kim’s perspective, diversity in an organization is that creating a workplace culture that allows all individuals to convey their full potential, which is going to improve organizational performance (Norbash, 2020). Now in many organizations, diversity management replacing the concept of equal employment opportunities programs and affirmative action programs (Schoen, 2020). For the survival of the business, the organization must have to pay attention to its business strategy in order to bring creativity and innovation (Mukherjee, 2016).
Diversity HR Practices
Before this era, employees’ were struggling for a superior job but in this era, organizations are struggling to get the best employees’ in fewer resources and want to make them stay committed. The concept of Diverse HR practices is introduced in the organization not only to admit diversity in the organization but also to use the diverse workforce to achieve the organizational goals (Manoharan & Singal, 2017). Employees of the organization will be cared for and valued when they perform very well with their attitudes and behaviors. This concept is known as social exchange theory (Stephen, 2020).
A bad working environment known as workplace bullying has been found to have a negative impact on employees (Stephen, 2020). Diversity climate has been linked to positive business consequences which include employee retention, the satisfaction of customers, and sales performance (McKay, Avery, & Morris, 2011). According to the concept of the author, the diversity climate depends on two individual modules. Firstly, it will provide that kind of environment to the employees where they can liberally discuss their social behaviors and background. Secondly, it is based on the belief that this diverse workforce will bring value to the squad and the organization as well (Dwertmann, 2016).
Diversity-oriented leaders are those who accept the employees having diverse backgrounds, ethics, and principles and appreciate their contributions to the organization.
Employees see their managers as a role model for them (Kranabetter & Niessen, 2017). Leaders having diversity orientation lead employees’ of the organization by implementing fair goals for the workers’ of dissimilar backgrounds, and by implementing the example of caring about their workers’ work performance and by appreciating the contribution of employees’ notwithstanding their differences (Edmondson’s & Nembhard, 2006).
Organizational commitment was the main topic for research during the 1990s and different theories were developed during that time. Now it has become the most popular topic. Every organization wants to survive in the economic landscape and the only solution to this problem is that its workforce should be committed and increase competitive advantage (Martina, 2020). Different authors suggested that commitment is like give and take. Commitment does not only depend on the employee at work but it also includes the leader who will encourage or discourage the employee at work. Both the employee and the leader depend on each other. In 1984, Meyer and Allen suggested three-dimensions of organizational commitment (normative, continuance & affective ) described that these three dimensions of organizational commitment relate differently to different work behaviors.
The nature of this study design was basically “cross-sectional” and a “quantitative technique” was used for data analysis. The data was collected from different teachers who are currently working in the elementary schools of Lahore, Pakistan. The data was gathered with the help of a standardized questionnaire survey. For data collection “snowball sampling technique” was applied. The total sample size of this research was 300. The environment for the study was “natural and uncontrolled”.
5 point Likert scale was used to measure the opinion of employees. An instrument for the measurement of Diversity Practices was borrowed from different authors which are D’Netto, and Tang (2010), McKay, Avery and Morris (2008), Pugh et al.(2008), Fernandez, Cho, and Perry (2010), Nembhard and Edmondson(2006), and Dietz, Brief and Wiley (2008). An instrument for the measurement of Organizational Commitment was borrowed from Stephen and Stephen Jaros (2007), Mayer and Allen (1984).
To measure the scale reliability, the latest version of IMB-SPSS and the technique of
Cronbach’s Alpha were used.
Overall Scale Reliability
|Cronbach's Alpha||N of Items|
From Table 1, as the Cronbach’s Alpha value is .877 which is above 0.7 this means that the instrument is reliable.
Correlation Among The Dependent Variable And The Dimensions Of Independent Variable
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
H1: There is an association between the dimensions of Diversity practices (diversity-HR practices, diversity Leadership, and diversity climate) and Organizational Commitment.
H2: There is no association between the dimensions of Diversity practices (diversity-HR practices, diversity Leadership, and diversity climate) and Organizational Commitment.
From Table 2, as the value of Pearson Correlation for all dimensions of diversity practices (.304), (.328), and (.278). The level of significance for all dimensions of diversity practices is 0.000 which is less than 0.01, therefore Ho is rejected and H1 is accepted. All values of correlation are approx. equals to 0.3 which means that it shows a moderate and positive relationship.
Overall Regression between the Dependent Variable and the Independent Variable
|Model||RSquare||djuste d R2||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics||Durbin-Watson|
|R SquareChange||Change||f1||f2||Sig.F Change|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), Div_Cum|
|b. Dependent Variable: OC_CUM|
From Table 3, as the value of R is .378 this means that a moderate relationship occurs between the two variables. It also shows the R square value which is .143, this means that 14% change in the dependent variable because of the independent variable. The value of Durbin-Watson is 1.435 which is less than 2 which indicates a positive correlation between the two variables. The F value is 49.601 with a significant value that is .000 which is less than 0.01, therefore Ho is rejected and H1 is accepted.
Diversity in HR practices has shown a moderate and positive relationship with the Organizational Commitment. One study has shown that the greater the practices the greater will be the employee’s commitment to the organization (Schoen, 2020). One study has shown that HRM is positively associated with employees’ organizational commitment (Moshabaki, 2013).
Diversity in Climate has shown a moderate and positive relationship with the Organizational Commitment. Previous research has revealed that the environment where employees work not only makes the employees feel conformable with the organization but also it helps the organization to sustain their employees and reduces the turnover intentions organization (Madera, Dawson, & Neal, 2017).
Diversity in leadership has shown a moderate and positive relationship with Organizational Commitment which means that diversity in leadership plays an important part in engaging the employees towards their organization.
The result shows a “significant positive relationship between the two variables in the “Pearson Correlation. But climate value is less as compared to leadership and HR. the reason here might be that, employees need more justice in HR practices and Leadership rather than in climate. Diversity in HR practices and Leadership makes the employees’ committed to their organization rather than a climate. The result indicates that the dimensions of diversity practices display a positive moderate relationship with the organizational commitment rather than a strong relationship. The reasons for showing a moderate relationship could be lack of training, lack of networking programs, lack of giving importance to employees’ lack of fairness, lack of giving freedom to employees, lack of respect, lack of leadership qualities, and lack of giving opportunities to employees.
•The nature of this current research is “cross-sectional” but “longitudinal research study” can be applied in the upcoming
•In future research, the sample size can be much bigger than this sample
•The sample size of this study includes only elementary schools of Lahore. In the future, researchers can remove the geographical restriction by covering more cities.
•This research has involved only the elementary schools of Lahore, however in the future different sectors can be involved. For example “civil servants, hospitals, wapda and law enforcing agencies”.
•During the questionnaire survey, they were some employees’ who were not willing to fill the questionnaire because of their working
•During the questionnaire survey, they were some employees who were even biased when they were asked about diversity
•Different tests were applied in this study diversity practices have shown a moderate relationship with organizational commitment. Future research can investigate through the “qualitative study” to discover the high correlation between the variables.