Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)


Criminal Counterfeiting the Spread of Religious Extremism among Youth in Kazakhstan

Author(s): Aigul M. Kalguzhinova, Botagoz A. Amanzholova, Aigul T. Zhumasheva, Karina E. Adylkan

The article is devoted to the analysis of the anti-extremist criminal legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The authors examined the regulation of extremist crimes under the Criminal Codes of the RSFSR of 1922, 1926, the Criminal Code of the Kazakh SSR in 1959, and the Criminal Codes of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1997 and 2014. The current state of domestic criminal law is characterized by an increase in the criminal potential in the fight against extremism, which is a reaction to the complication of this form of crime. The object of the study is the effectiveness of countering extremist crime based on the analysis of official statistics for the period 2008-2019. Moreover, the analysis of time series for 2008-2014 and 2015-2019 was carried out separately, because different criminal laws were in force during these periods (Criminal Code of 1997 and Criminal Code of 2014), and different methodologies for recording indicators were also used. Extremist organizations marked; a list of religious literature and information materials recognized as extremist and prohibited from importation, publication and distribution on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is concluded that it is difficult to single out criminal law norms from the legislative list of extremist crimes that stipulate responsibility for manifestations of religious extremism. The normative defines three main forms of manifestation of extremism: political, national and religious. Meanwhile, at the practical level, the listed forms of extremism are separated rather weakly, since they never really appear in a «pure» form. Extremism among adolescents and young people is characterized by fanaticism, unquestioning execution of all orders, low professionalism and the absence of a long experience in extremist activity. The most promising and practically significant is the prevention of the activities of international terrorist and extremist groups that contribute to the radicalization, recruitment, mobilization of youth into terrorist and extremist groups, as well as the further spread of extremist ideology.

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