Author(s): Arif Hidayat, Saru Arifin
The movement of religious radicalization in Indonesia in its development began in the 1950s marked by the emergence of the Islamic DaruI Movement or the Indonesian Islamic Army (DI/TII) under Kartosoewirjo. The emergence of the 1970s then followed this movement. The 1980s Command Jihad movement, whose main actors were former members of the Kartosoewirjo DI /TII, Abdullah Sungkar, and Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, as Amirs of the Jamaah Islamiyah (JI) and the group continued to exist until 1998, the reform era in Indonesia to the present. The latest development of religion's radicalization is later formed by young groups who still have links with the previous generation's figures. The chain of religious radicalization movement is not a pure movement of jihad in the name of religion but also carries political and economic interests. Religious symbols are only used as a cover by them to realize particular interests. The government's response to the religious radicalization movement during Suharto’s regime used a military approach. Meanwhile, in the democratic era is law enforcement. This paper argues that the different approaches to radicalism and terrorism in the past and modern Indonesia affect its effectiveness to tackle these problems. In the past, Indonesian government viewed radicalism and terrorism as the crime against humanity and state as well. While in recent times Indonesia sees both radicalism and terrorism as threats to national security. These differences approach according to the situation and conditions in each era so that each approach is only effective in its era.