Author(s): Mohammad Ibrahim Koshaa, Muhammad Jawid Hameedb, Ahmad Ahmadzai
Hamoun wetlands are the historical part of Afghanistan and Iran and has thousands of years of history. These lakes have a significant role in the development of agriculture, ranch, fish farming, environment and anti-air pollution. This area was one of the best settlements for animals and immigrant birds, which is currently destroyed due to lack of attention and mismanagement of riparian states. Literature indicates that Iran blames the Afghan side for lack of water allocation to Hamouns. However, Afghanistan refuses this allegation and claims that Iran is receiving much more water than the amount allocated in the Helmand water treaty to meet the demands of the environment, domestic and agriculture. Yet Iran is diverting the water to the artificial wells. Additionally, hundreds of water pumps are installed in the Iran side of transboundary waters and are utilized for irrigation and domestic purposes. This paper focus on the current legal situation of Hamouns wetland and analyses the international water law, equitable reasonable use of transboundary waters and the Helmand water treaty between Afghanistan and Iran. To come up with the peaceful settlement of the dispute, conflict over water, and assist in recognizing the blame side of states. Finally, to encourage the riparian state to maintain the world culture inherent from conflict to cooperation and resolving socio-economic problems and challenges.