The purpose of this study are 1) To examine the economic opportunities, demographic conditions, accumulation of capital and culture owned by the poor in Bali Province 2) To examine perceptions about the availability of infrastructure in pockets of poverty in Bali Province 3) To analyze the role of economic opportunity, infrastructure, demographic condition and culture to the capital accumulation of poor people's in Bali Province 4) Analyze the role of economic opportunities, infrastructure, demographic conditions, culture and capital accumulation on the economic conditions of the poor in Bali Province 5) Analyzed the role of capital accumulation in mediating the influence of economic opportunity, infrastructure, demographic condition and culture on the economic condition of the poor in Bali Province. Design/Method/Approach: This research was conducted in all regencies/cities in Bali Province with 30 respondents in each regency/a total of 270 respondents. The sampling technique used is accidental sampling, with observation data collection methods, interviews and in-depth interviews. Data analysis technique used is Path Analysis. Findings: The results of the research indicate that 1) The general economic opportunities held by poor people in the research area are in low condition; the demographic condition of respondents in general has an average number of dependents/children exceeded the government expected; the accumulation of capital owned by respondents is relatively low, the culture possessed by the poor in this research is positive culture 2) In general the condition of infrastructure availability in research in adequate condition. Infrastructure assessed, among others, availability of roads, markets, water and electricity facilities and health facilities 3) Economic opportunities and availability of infrastructure have a positive and significant impact on capital accumulation, which means that the higher the economic opportunity and the availability of infrastructure, the higher the accumulation of capital owned by the poor and vice versa. Cultural and demographic variables have no significant effect on capital accumulation 4) Positive culture variables have a significant positive effect on the economic condition of the poor and also the variable of capital accumulation have positive and significant effect to the economic condition of the poor. The other three variables are the availability of infrastructure, economic opportunities anddemographic variables have no significant effect on the economic condition of the poor 5) Capital accumulation variables fully mediate the influence of economic opportunities and infrastructure availability on the economic conditions of the poor, while the other two variables, cultural and demographic variables are not mediated by the accumulation of capital in influencing the economic conditions of the poor. Originality: This is the one of few studies the Role of Economic Opportunities, Infrastructure, Demographic and Cultural Conditions against Capital Accumulation and Poverty, especially in Bali Province, Indonesia.