Author(s): Mykhailo Kelman, Mykola Nesprava, Antonina Tokarska, Viktoriia Vovk, Yevhen Skrypa
Description: The article analyzes the thoughts of Great Christian Teachers of the 4th century-Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Gregory the Theologian and Gregory of Nyssa, regarding the essential foundations of such philosophical categories as good and evil. The Subject of the Study: The subject is philosophical categories of good and evil in the works of Christian saints. Methodology: The research is based on the historical and philosophical and conceptual and comparative analysis of available sources on this issue (the works of Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Gregory the Theologian and Gregory of Nyssa), performed by using hermeneutic, dialectical and comparative-comparative methods. The Results of the Study: The author’s state that the ontology of good developed in the works of the Great Teachers is based on the Christian synergistic world view. They also describe the essential features of good and evil contained in the interpretations of the Great Saints. Practical Implications: The authors emphasize that the Christian ontology of good and evil as ethical categories cannot be understood without the awareness of faith in Salvation and the future eternal life. The understanding of anthropodicy’s nature is revealed on the basis of this statement. Value/Originality: It is proved that the highest manifestation of charity is peacemaking as the demonstration of love and mercy, which is extremely important for a philosophical understanding of the prospects of Ukraine’s exit from the current acute socio-political crisis.