Author(s): Sarfraz Hussain, Alim Al Ayub Ahmed, Ardhariksa Zukhruf Kurniullah, Edwin Ramirez-Asis, Nabil Al-Awawdeh, Nasser Jamil Mohammed Al-Shamayleh, Felix Julca-Guerrero
Letters of Credit (Ls/C), the most common form of financing international commerce, have been a major source of worry for the whole international business world in recent years due to Ls/C fraud. Every year, the parties to the LS/C transaction lose billions of dollars due to fraud. A variety of reasons have led to the proliferation of such frauds. Many of them include the exclusive use of paper in international commerce, geographical distance in international trade, containerization, the usage of discounted Ls/C, and the absence of prosecution. Many academics and legal experts have been hesitant to interfere in Letter of Credit (Ls/C) transactions and have criticized local government regulations all around the globe. Allowing the courts to intervene with bankers' guarantees, according to government officials, may risk its integrity and make it more costly and ineffective than required. Due to a lack of regulation, recent research indicates that relevant organizations take certain measures to prevent Ls/C fraud, such as verifying the seller's reputation via well-known transportation services. Shipping, pre-shipment inspections, performance bonds, and electronic trade papers are all part of the process.