Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)


Voting Methods: Challenges, Modern Tendencies and Experience Globally

Author(s): Ivan Pankevych, Iryna Sofinska, Mykola Kobyletskyi & Nataliya Paslavska

In this article, we would concentrate mainly on applying modern technologies in the electoral process worldwide. Fair and free elections are supposed to be a “prerequisite” of democracy, a necessary element to secure foundational constitutional values and international legal norms. Voting is an essential tool (both mechanism and instrument) for any democratic government globally. It is the most crucial factor which makes government not only from the people but also for the people and by the people. Despite the digitalization of several vital aspects of modern life, elections are still primarily conducted offline, on paper. Even today, in 2021, the paper ballot has been used for voting in most countries worldwide, where voters mark their choice on the paper and put it in the ballot box. At the end of any elections (local, regional, national), the votes are counted, and the results are declared. Usually, voters have to be present at the polling station to vote (this makes the entire process very time-consuming and expensive). In modern life, scholars, politicians, and security experts talk about applying blockchain-based voting, digital identity, cloud communities, crypto-voting, etc. Some argue that blockchain technologies might revitalize voting, while others are still convinced that blockchain-based voting could threaten democracy (fundamental constitutional values). Here, we’ll try to point out pros and contras, analyze strong and weak sides, as well as opportunities and challenges, compare few types of voting already in use in different countries. Digital voting (e-voting) in a digital age is vital in the global movement toward (allows to shift to) digitalizing democracy. Blockchainbased voting is a global digital instrument in the toolkit that can counter the risks of traditional voting and e-voting processes. Block chain-based voting guarantees safety and security of a balanced constitutional order by promoting self-governance, enhancing civic participation (developing participative democracy), and controlling how electoral processes operate.

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