Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 2S

A Framework of Servant Leadership Impact on Job Performance: The Mediation Role of Employee Happiness in UAE Healthcare Sector

Alahbabi, A.M.F.M, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Robani Anidah,Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Samer Ali Al-shami, Institute of Technology Management and Entrepreneurship


Servant Leadership, Employee Happiness, Job Performance, United Arab Emirates (UAE)


Servant leadership influences the behaviors of human resources by increasing the happiness of employees and fostering their performance. Moreover, this leadership style focuses on the needs of individuals, and serves followers to fulfill these needs. People who accept servant leadership experience higher levels of satisfaction, trust, creativity, recognition and independence in their work. Today, many organizations in the healthcare sector are facing various challenges associated with human resources. One of these challenges is the absence of a strategy to make employees happy at the workplace. Another challenge is finding the appropriate leadership style, which enhance job performance. Hence, the issue of happiness at the workplace needs to be properly conceptualized so that to understand the role of leadership from different perspective. Accordingly, this study developed a conceptual framework that constructs employee happiness as a mediator between servant leadership and job performance. The methodology adopted in this study is quantitative, whereas the survey has been conducted in Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA). The Population represents the employees and administrative staff. The result reveals that the empirical data has a satisfactory degree of fit with the conceptual framework. The findings of this study contributed to the body of knowledge in servant leadership and happiness at the workplace. Moreover, it shows that the performance of human resources in healthcare institutions can be improved if the organizations adopted servant leadership style.


Today, organizations are more focusing on developing the performance of human resources and make them happy at the workplace (Shao & Skarlicki, 2014) while an inspiring leader who promotes the spirit of creativity and innovation among employees and serve the employees at all levels become a necessity for any organization (Zhang et al., 2014). In the same context, leadership plays a critical role in driving employee engagement in an organization. In addition, employee happiness does not happen with a source of influence. It is the role of leadership that makes employees engaged in the work and satisfied (Shaikh, 2015). Servant leadership seems to affect the lives of employees outside the organizations to which they are affiliated. It was concluded that employees' perceptions of servant leadership practices and the support of employers and co-workers had a positive impact on the employee's family life, which makes employee happy at the end (Rodríguez et al., 2018).

Engaged and happy workers are a crucial ingredient for the success of a business. When employees feel good and care about their jobs, there’s a great chance the company will make more money, and there will be less people walking out the door. Unfortunately, some reports in recent years showed that employee engagement in the UAE remain very low, and this could be one of the reasons of low employee happiness. According to Gallup, analytics firms in 2017, about eight in ten UAE workers (85% of the population) are “not engaged” or “actively disengaged” in their work, meaning the overwhelming majority are not psychologically committed to their jobs and are less likely to become more productive. Gallup’s “State of the Global Workplace” report, which covers 155 countries, showed that only 16 per cent of employees across the UAE are connected to their work.

A recent study by (Asma, 2018) investigated the level of happiness among employees in UAE and leadership influence planning in government organizations in implementing a strategy for long-term impacts on happiness levels in UAE. The findings of Asma’s study emphasized the necessity of correlating HRM practices, rules and systems with strategic planning that focuses on employee happiness as the greatest purpose of an organization. The findings emphasize the power of three factors related to employees’ feelings towards work. One of these factors is leadership style that is found to be a strong influential on building a strong, positive and happy workplace in UAE. (Asma, 2018) stated there is a lack of empirical evidences on employee happiness in UAE. Hence, further investigation in servant leadership influence is necessary to provide robust evidence on its role in public service organizations.

Leaders in healthcare sector are often absent from organizational developments in practice despite evidence on the foundational role of first line management to facilitate changes (Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2018). The current climate in many healthcare organizations does not align with the idea of servant leadership, as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf, when he originally introduced the concept of servant leadership (Jack et al., 2014). While (Greenleaf, 1977) the founder of servant leadership concept argued that true leadership is essentially synonymous with service and great leaders are identified by the service they perform for individuals and society. Servant leadership behaviors appear to be what healthcare organizations need to lead effectively their organizations in today’s challenging times (Trastek, 2014; Li, 2014; Oostra, 2016). In the healthcare sector, the creation of value is measured by the outcomes achieved, not the volume of services delivered. Shifting focus to the quality in the healthcare delivery system therefore, remains the central challenge (Porter, 2010). Hence, the most fundamentally basic and critical responsibility for leaders in healthcare institutions is to understand their patients and provide the best care possible (Jack et al., 2018). While the World Health Report lists unmotivated healthcare workers as one of the top ten leading causes of inefficiencies of health care system (World Health Organization, 2019).

Today, many organizations in the healthcare sector are facing various challenges associated with human resources. One of these challenges is the absence of a strategy to make employees happy at the workplace. Another challenge is finding the appropriate leadership style, which enhance job performance. Based on these claims, this study assumes that a successful implementation for UAE national guide for happiness, which was launched in 2018, there is a need for servant leadership practices that strongly relevant to servant leadership behaviors. Therefore, this study brings attention to the expected role played by servant leadership in healthcare organizations, whereas managers in these organizations need to realize the importance of practicing its behaviors in the work environment in line with the modern trends in UAE workplace. Moreover, it is not clear enough how well managers in government sector consciously practicing servant leadership behaviors. As well as, it's vital role in supporting happiness of employees, and their performance improvement, specifically in the UAE. Thereby, this study will discuss all these issues and attempt to understand how these variables are linked to each other.

Research Methodology

This study applied quantitative methods to examine the relationships between the variables, as well as the model fit of the conceptual framework (Debra, 2015). The Population of this study represents the employees and administrative staff working in Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA). The total number of population in SEHA=18,759. The survey covered all the departments in SEHA. A self-administered questionnaire is used in this research to collect empirical data from the respondents in the survey. This questionnaire is designed specifically to be completed by a respondent without intervention of the researchers (e.g. an interviewer). Structural Equation Modeling SEM is used to examine the mediation role of employee happiness as well as the hypotheses between servant leadership, employee happiness, and job performance.

Servant Leadership

Servant leadership has been established and developed in the 1970’s by (Robert, 1970). Since that time, there have been extensive studies conducted upon different aspects of it since earlier development of this concept. In addition, the existence of the trust towards leader and job satisfaction relationship has been widely examined and researched in the past because of its obvious importance on the performance of workforce. This is becoming an increasingly common management style because of its intuitive nature. Servant leadership shows the primary motivation of the leaders and their role in serving others. Companies and non-profit organizations are undergoing a rapid transition from a conservative, traditional, autocratic and hierarchical management model to a service management that is encouraged to make contact with others. The leadership discipline is compared to a larger river that feeds water with other small streams because the leader has a deep meaning and passion for others. According to Robert Greenleaf one of the main founders of this concept, stated that servant leadership is evolving rapidly and many companies have recently experienced unprecedented growth in the interest and practice of servant leadership (Greenleaf). The service leader first serves others and helps them to grow, improve and progress (Van Dierendonck & Patterson, 2010).

Servant leadership directly and indirectly influences the behaviors of the followers within the organization to achieve the desired goals at the personal and organizational level. People who accept servant leadership experience higher levels of satisfaction, trust, creativity, recognition and independence in their work. The servant manager focuses on the individualized level of work; this approach is that each unit has the same meaning as creating transparency and loyalty in the workplace. Without the use of stationary power and power, desired goals can be achieved through servant leadership (Sunil, 2018). The previous arguments show that servant leadership is also about giving directions to followers in the organization. A servant leader knows very well where to take the organization and the people in it (Greenleaf, 1977). After close reading of the available literature, this study summarized the main characteristics of servant leadership and formed a preliminary model of servant leadership (Van Dierendonck & Heeren, 2006). The insights from the literature as put forward in the preliminary measurement model of servant leadership based on the following five components:

Empowerment: A motivational concept focused on enabling people and encouraging personal development (Conger, 2000). The servant leader’s belief in the intrinsic value of each individual is the central issue in empowerment; it is all about recognition, acknowledgment, and the realization of each person’s abilities and what the person can still learn (Greenleaf, 1998; Dirk & Inge, 2011).

Accountability: It is holding people accountable for performance they can control. This makes accountability a mechanism by which responsibility for outcomes is given to individuals and teams (Konczak et al., 2000).

? Authenticity: It is closely related to expressing the ‘true self’, expressing oneself in ways that are consistent with inner thoughts and feelings (Harter, 2002). Authenticity is about being true to oneself, accurately representing privately and publicly internal states, intentions, and commitments (Peterson & Seligman, 2004).

? Interpersonal acceptance: (George, 2000) suggests that interpersonal acceptance is one of the main components of servant leadership which reflects the ability of the leader to understand and experience the feelings of others, understand where people come from and the ability to let go of perceived wrongdoings and not carry a grudge into other situations (McCullough et al., 2000).

? Stewardship: It is the willingness to take responsibility for the larger institution and go for service instead of control and self-interest (Block, 1993). Leaders should not only act as caretakers, but also act as role models (Hernandez, 2008). Servant leadership in Healthcare Sector

Nowadays, health systems are generally acknowledged complex social systems. Consequently, scholars, academics, practitioners, and policy-makers are exploring how to adopt a complexity perspective in health policy and system research. While leadership and complexity has been studied extensively outside health, the implications of complexity theories for the study of leadership in healthcare have received limited attention (Zakaria et al., 2018).

In this section, the contribution and significance of servant leadership in service organizations is explained, especially in healthcare sector, to identify why this study selected servant leadership approach to measure its influence on employee happiness and performance.

As mentioned earlier, the concept of servant leadership receives a growing interest in management discipline. It is important to discuss servant leadership in the healthcare sector from various perspectives. Many people go into healthcare for diverse reasons that have to do with serving others, which is a big aim why healthcare is such a natural fit for servant leadership. eading hospitals not only have more content employees, but also patients happier who are cared for more personally and thoroughly (Lisa, 2019; Ibrahimi & Nourian, 2020). There are many other examples that illustrate the power of and pressing need for servant leadership in healthcare. (Trastek et al., 2014; Yancer, 2012) suggested that servant leadership in healthcare organizations is very successful. Some scholars claimed that servant leaders have strong influence on patients, hospital staff that is essential to help patient to heal and staff to perform better (Lisa, 2019; Hosseini, 2021). While (Vanderpy, 2012) pointed out that, a servant leader has a direct impact on hospital’s ability to innovate. (Liden et al., 2014) found that when leaders demonstrated servant leadership, followers’ perceptions of leaders improved resulting in a stronger serving culture. In the same domain. Likewise, (Fayez, 2018) argued that organizations that provide healthcare have a complex system, comprising of many stakeholders including hospitals, different clinics, primary health care centers and the management of these facilities/institutions required special characteristics that are mostly found in servant leaders.

Trastek et al., (2014) concluded that the current health care system is broken and unsustainable. Patients desire the highest quality care, and it needs to cost less. To regain public trust, the health care system must change and adapt to the current needs of patients. The diverse group of stakeholders in the health care system creates challenges for improving the value of care. Health care providers are in the best position to determine effective ways of improving the value of care. (Trastek et al., 2014) claimed that servant leadership is the best model for health care organizations because it focuses on the strength of the team, developing trust and serving the needs of patients. As servant leaders is very cooperative to make changes in the organization and in the provider-patient relationship to improve the value of care for patients. The hospitals would be different if the servant leadership concept was developed and adopted. Working under a servant leadership philosophy would change the game for everyone involved. Servant leaders create the conditions for teach (Dennis, 2017). In the same context, (Jack et al., 2014) claimed that servant leadership in today’s healthcare settings provides a unique avenue through which to assess leadership behaviors and the relationship to employee satisfaction and healthcare patient, satisfaction measures. They aimed to determine the degree that leaders in community hospitals were perceived as servant leaders and the level of employee satisfaction at these rural community hospitals. The finding of their study revealed that servant leadership and employee satisfaction are strongly correlated (Jack et al., 2014). Furthermore, the traits of servant leadership align with the professional and ethical duties of healthcare providers when delivering the high-value care patients deserve while developing stronger team bonding through service to peers (Dennis, 2017). When employees perceive that their supervisors are committed to service, empowerment, and a shared vision, they are more likely to see the organization as one that embraces servant leadership (Beck, 2014).

Table-1 showing the significant practices of servant leadership, which entitle this approach to suite healthcare organizations.

Table 1
Servant Leadership Practices in Healthcare Sector
Author/s Practices and traits
Fayez, 2018 The characteristics of servant leadership are quite relevant and applicable to the context of healthcare.
Parris & Peachey, 2013 Servant leadership had its origin in the medical, health care, and policy fields used primarily to make clinical and policy decisions.
Dennis, 2017 Servant leadership behaviors influenced job satisfaction and retention of medical staff.
Trastek et al., 2014 Servant leadership,focusedontrustand empowerment, demonstrated better provider-patient relationships
Liden et al., 2014 There is a positive relationship between servant leadership and a serving culture in healthcare organizations.
Kjeld & Sofia, 2017 Servant leadership is a promising leadership models that can contribute to the delivery of patient-centered, high-value healthcare.
Sigrún, 2014 Servant leadership among hospital managers is important for staff satisfaction.
Ozyilmaz & Cicek, 2015 Servant leaders revealed establish a favorable individual and organizational result such as better corporate citizenship behavior in the healthcare sector.
Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2018 Servant leaders attaching in practice and having a sincere follower and servant focus through continuous involvement and interconnecting values, goals and the development of healthcare processes.
Jack et al., 2014 Servant leaders provides a unique path to establish employee satisfaction in healthcare industry
Patmchak, 2015 Servant leaders understand the importance of work value as part of a team work.

Employee Happiness

Happiness among employees at a workplace is highly regarded by the organizational top management as one of the fundamental sources of positive organizational outcomes. However, rather than as the major source of business success, happiness at workplace has always been seen as a small potential contributor towards positive organizational outcomes. Nowadays, happiness at the work is important and relevant due to the demand of uncertain economic challenges and increased global organizational competition (Noranee et al., 2018).

There are several aspects that make employees happy at the workplace, such as organizational climate; interpersonal and social relationships, work participation, team cooperation, incentives, social rewards, cognitive growth, self-reliance and intrinsic and instrumental rewards: extrinsic outcomes, hierarchy, structure, all these factors make employees happy in the form of satisfaction and commitment to their organization (Wang et al., 2013). In addition, it has been shown that the organizational climate for cooperation and innovation is linked to employee engagement and happiness to do their work (Wang et al., 2013). While (Malik, 2013) found other determinants of happiness at work such as job performance, organizational culture, organizational trust, job satisfaction, managerial behavior and individual characteristics.

The backgrounds of happiness at work include both organizational and professional characteristics. Some scholars suggested other factor that contributes to employee happiness, such as organizational virtuosity, work integrity, trust, and compassion have been identified as important factors contributing to employee happiness in the workplace (Angner et al., 2011; Demir & Tyrell, 2011; Mohanty, 2009; Tadic & Oerlemans, 2013; Phathara-on et al., 2014; & Suwaidi, 2019). In conclusion employee happiness constructs include: employment status, income, friendship, and work activities. These constructs are assumed a strong influential to employee happiness in government organizations in UAE, which in turn their reflected positively on their performance as shown in Table-2.

Table 2
Constructs of Employee Happiness
Category Findings Reference
Employment status Full-time employment contributes to employee’s happiness positively. Ohtake (2012)
Unemployment brings unhappiness to people Nikolova and Graham (2014)
Voluntary part-time employees are happier than full-time employees are. Knabe & Ratzel (2010)
Individuals’ personal income affects their happiness. Angner, et al., (2011)
Positive friendship at the workplace
influences employee happiness
Campbell (2013)
Work Activities Specific work activities are positively associated with happiness Hashim & Zaharim (2013)
Individuals are happy when they perceive that their job duties are significant Tadic, et al., (2013)
Individuals are happy when they perceive
that their job duties are significant
Golparvar & Abedini (2014)
Employee income Individuals’ personal income affects their happiness Demir & Davidson (2013) Angner, et al., (2011)
Campbell (2013)
Employee friendship Positive friendship at the workplace influences employee happiness Naff (2012)
Bader, et al., (2013) Snow (2013)

Job Performance

Employees, regardless of the nature of business, are one of the key resources of a company. At a time when competition for the best specialists is often stronger than efforts to obtain the client, the ability to manage successfully relationships with employees can decide on the long-term market advantage. Through the creation of a friendly, development-enabling environment that leads to employee engagement, employers can increase their chances of hiring and retaining valuable employees (Btazej, 2018). Job performance is a concept that is increasingly popular amongst scholars of management sciences, as job performance is vital to both individual and the organization. Job performance contributes to the overall betterment of the processes of the organization particularly in terms of efficiency and productivity (Abualoush et al., 2018).

Job performance has linkage to the activities and tasks employees carry out in effective and efficient manner, and it also dictates how much employees contribute to the organization and among the contributions of employees are output quantity, work attendance, and accommodating attitude (Abualoush et al., 2018). Job performance is one of the most focused and researched topics in organizational behavior (Lineo & Erdem, 2019). According to (Pandey, 2019), performance is “scalable actions, behaviors and results that interest or generate employees that are related to the organization’s goals and contribute to their achievement”. There are several factors affecting job performance, these factors are either organizational or personal. According to (Peng, 2014), job performance can be described as the amount of production an employee gives at the workplace, as well as the quality and quantity of achievements, or more often when an employee can perform tasks assigned to the workplace.

During the last two decades, increasing staff performance in public institutions has become one of the main concerns of governments in times of financial constraints, declining public revenues, and increasing demands for more and better public services (Singh & Desa, 2018; Rabindra & Kesari, 2016) surveyed 42 items that correspond to their proposed factors to group these nine factors. The developed items were then organized and group them in a conceptual model consist of three aspects.

Task performance: It shows how the employee maintain high standard of work. Task performance refers to the core technical behaviors and activities involved in the job.

Adaptive performance: It shows how an employee stay updated with new knowledge and skills in order to adapt quickly to changes in the work.

Contextual performance: Contextual performance is important because it represents type of behavior that is largely under the motivational control of individuals. It refers to behaviors that support the environment in which the technical core operates.

The above three components were selected as the best indicators of job performance and therefore were included in the empirical evaluation as the components used to measure job performance in UAE government organizations.

The Conceptual Framework

The review of literature shows that servant leadership has a direct and indirect effect on job performance, whereas as employee happiness could play a mediation role on this relationship. (Karl & Jon, 2016) claimed that servant leaders create a positive working environment which leads to increased employee engagement and participation in the work. This situation will lead to greater employee decision-making ability and result in more employees productive who have a higher level of performance. Some studies inveterate the role of servant leadership in increasing the happiness level of employees (Ozyilmaz & Cicek, 2015), and this association was umpired by fairness and spiritual environment (Chung et al., 2010). In addition, servant leadership has unique characteristics that make it closely linked to role modeling processes in organizations. For instance, as the ultimate goal of servant leadership is to cultivate followers to become servant leaders as well, servant leaders would naturally lead through role modeling and provide followers with opportunities to observe and imitate their values, attitudes and behaviors (Zhen et al., 2017; Bildari et al., 2020). Accordingly, the employees in the organization always consider the servant leader as a good model to follow, while good performance is what every leader seek from subordinates, thus in most cases servant leaders contribute to improve the performance of workforce. Other scholars found that that servant leadership influences the performance of employees. The characteristics of servant leader motivate the employees to imitate them in their work, where performance is one of the main factors every leader seeks to be at high level. (Wright, 2001; Ehrhart, 2004; Mullins, 2007; Walumbwa, 2010; Liden, 2014; Chung et al., 2010; Ding, 2012; Van Dierendonck, 2011; Zhen et al., 2017; Karl & Jon, 2016; Ozyilmaz & Cicek, 2015; Sousa & Dierendonck, 2015). Based on this assumption, this study assumed the following hypothesis statement:

Hypothesis 1: “Servant Leadership has a Significant Effect on Job Performance”

Moreover, it is assumed that happiness at the workplace must be related to several factors, one of these factors is the influence of leader (Dierendonck, 2011; Januwarsono, 2015). In other words, the style of leadership could influence the happiness of individuals either positively or negatively. In this study, the author aims to understand how servant leadership interacts with employee happiness, and does servant leadership has a significant effect on employee happiness. A study by (Othman et al., 2018) showed that leadership style is a considerable influential on employee happiness. In this regard, servant leadership is effective on many variables. As servant leadership has clear connection with individuals feeling and gladness, it has countless consequence on their satisfaction (Weiss, 2014). In other words, the characteristics of servant leader makes every individual happier and more satisfied with his/her work (Lounsbury, 2004; Dierendonck, 2011; Baah & Amoako, 2011; Januwarsono, 2015; Wang & Hackett, 2016; Othman et al., 2018). Based on this assumption, this study assumed the following hypothesis statement:

Hypothesis 2: “Servant Leadership has a Significant Effect on Employee Happiness”

In the same context, several studies showed a strong connection between employee happiness and their performance. When an individual feels happy, then he/she will have strong motivation to afford best performance for his/her organization. (Fisher, 2010) argues for the matching of employee personal strengths with job content but notes the paucity of empirical research available to evaluate the benefits of such an approach for happiness, she recommended that adopt high performance work practices could be achieved if making employees happier at the workplace. The United Nations Assembly recognizes the need for the systematic measurement and analysis of happiness to aid sustainable development. Consequently, there is expected to be a link between happiness of people in general and happiness at work. How happy employees are in their lives and in their job are directly linked to how well employees perform their jobs (Asma, 2018). Unhappy employees can affect the performance of a company not only through lower productivity, but also through an increased show of discontent (Rice, 2013). In the same context, (Kevin, 2017) aimed to know how the presence of happiness in the workplace affects employee engagement that leads to organizational success. Thus, and servant leadership affect employee happiness and employee happiness influence job performance (Boehm & Lyubomirsky, 2008; Edmunds & Pryce-Jones, 2008; Fisher, 2010; Saenghiran, 2014; Clement et al., 2019; McGregor, 2015; Lopez-Cabarcos et al., 2015; Baek-Kyoo & Insuk, 2017; Khaled, 2019). Therefore, this study assumes that both employee happiness and job performance are correlated to each other. Based on this assumption, this study claimed the following hypothesis statement:

Hypothesis 3: “Employee Happiness has a Significant Effect on Job Performance”

It is evident that servant leadership and employee happiness, as well as job performance are correlated in a one conceptual model as shown in Figure.1. In this study employee happiness is assumed to mediate the direct relationship between servant leadership and job performance. This mediation is assumed to be partial and significant. This conceptual model is examined in the empirical part of this study through quantitative methods and survey in the ministry of health in UAE.

Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework of Study

Results and Discussion

The results of this study are based on SEM analysis, which is used for evaluating the model fit of the conceptual model. Hence, the analysis aimed to examine how the variables that were identified in this study namely: servant leadership, employee happiness, and job performance are linked to each other, as well as the validity of the structural model developed from these variables. In addition to that, the mediation influence of employee happiness using latest theories in statistics has been conducted. Figure-2 shows the output structural model from AMOS software.

Figure 2: The Construct of Structural Model (Conceptual Framework)

In other words, the exact nature of direct and indirect relationships has been evaluated in this section. The early assessment of SEM output reveals that most fit indeces was satisfactory enough to consider the conceptual frameworkl fit with the empirical data. As shown in Figure 2, the magnitudes of fit-indices are matching the cut-off points for SEM standards. PCLOSE=1.00 (perfect non-significant), whereas RMSEA=0.035 (≤0.08) which indicates a high degree of data fit. Furthermore, CFI=0.914 (≥ 0.90), CMIN/DF=1.509 (≤ 3.00), TLI=0.910 (≥ 0.90). Evaluating the values of these fit-indices and compare them with the cut-off points of each index based on SEM standards (Li-tze & Peter, 1999; Daire et al., 2008; Dexin et al., 2019) indicates that the empirical data has a satisfactory degree of fit with the structural model (conceptual framework).

The next step is the path analysis. First, the the non-standardized regression weights are examined, the significance of direct association between the variables has been assessed. While the standardized regression weights (Beta) are used to recognize the strength of direct association between the variables. Table 2 indicates the significance level of non-standardized relationships between servant leadership, employee happiness, and job performance. The Critical Ratio (C.R) is used to judge on the significance of these relationships. The range -1.96 ≥ C.R ≥ 1.96 is the bases for considering a direct relationship significant (Hair et al., 2010). Reading the output data from AMOS software reveals that all relationships are significant (Sig. ≤ 0.05). However, the lowest C.R=2.918 has been identified between employee happiness and job performance, while the highest C.R=4.873 is found between servant leadership and employee happiness. Hence, all C.R values within the cut-off points. Accordingly, all estimates between servant leadership, employee happiness, and job performance are validated and justified to confirm significant statistical associations btween these three variables.

The strength of relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables have been assessed as well in order to make a comparitive conclusion which effect in the model is the larger and which one is the smaller. As shown in Table 3, 4 the highest regression weight (Beta=0.780) is found between servant leadership and employee happiness, while the lowest regression weight (Beta=0.504) is identified between servant leadership and job performance.

Table 3
Non-Standardized Regression Weights
Endogenous variable Effect Direction Exogenous Variable Estimates C.R Sig
Employee Happiness << Servant Leadership 0.879 4.873 0
Job Performance << Servant Leadership 0.855 2.662 0.008
Job Performance << Employee happiness 0.895 2.918 0.004
Table 4
Standardized Regression Weights
Endogenous variable   Exogenous Variable Beta
Employee happiness << Servant leadership 0.78
Job Performance << Servant leadership 0.504
Job Performance << Employee happiness 0.6

Based on the result it is concluded that Hypothesis 1, Hypothesis 2, and Hypothesis 3 are validated and not rejected. While, the opposites of these hypotheses are rejected (Null-Hypotheses). In other words, there are significant and positive correlations (direct effects) between the three constructs (servant leadership, employee happiness, and job performance) of the conceptual framework.


This study discussed the topic of servant leadership in healthcare organizations, and evaluated a framework constructed from employee happiness (mediator variable) and job performance (dependent variable). The result reveals that the empirical data has a satisfactory degree of fit with the conceptual framework. Servant leadership directly and indirectly influences the behaviors of the followers within the organization to achieve the desired goals at the personal and organizational level. People who accept servant leadership experience higher levels of satisfaction, trust, creativity, recognition and independence in their work. While employee happiness constructs include employment status, income, friendship, and work activities. These constructs are assumed a strong influential to employee happiness in government organizations in UAE, which in turn their reflected positively on their performance. This study contributed to the body of knowledge in servant leadership and happiness at the workplace. The outcome of this study will be reflected on the performance of human resources in healthcare institutions in UAE, particularly in the way of increasing happiness of staff. The result of this study is expected to bring many advantages to public health sector in UAE by understanding the role of employee happiness and servant leadership of the employees so that qualified leaders are selected efficiently to develop the performance of staff in healthcare industry.


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