Research Article: 2022 Vol: 26 Issue: 1
Ma. Kristina Graciella A. de Vela, University of Santo Tomas Graduate School
Rommel Pelayo, Al Itqan American School
Citation Information: De Vela, K.G.A., & Pelayo, R. (2022). An Exploration of the Supervisory Perceptions, Practices and Teachers’ Assessment of Needs: A Basis for The Formulation of Supervisory Strategies in School. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 26 (1), 1-15.
The study intends to explore the congruency between the supervisory perceptions and practice of the school leader and identify the needs of the teachers as a basis to formulate the supervisory strategy of the school. Three variables were studied carefully. These are the supervisory practices, supervisory perception and assessment of needs67 out of a total of 80 teachers participated in the survey of assessment of needs while one school principal was interviewed to obtain his perception, practices and the congruency of the two variables under study. The researcher used case study design where N=1 model was used for the two variables under study. Survey of needs revealed that teachers require to maximize the use of technology in the classroom, explore more about effective teaching strategies that work well in the classroom, collaboration in the lessons, implementation of the approaches to teaching and learning skills and content- subject specific training. Through coding strategies and linguistic discourse analysis, the researcher discovered collaboration, advertence, morale- boosting, presence, flexibilities, and accountabilities were the supervisory strategies used where situational leadership remain consistent as a theme between practices and perception of the leader in the school. Researcher recommends that school leaders and future researchers to study further the effects of these supervisory strategies on teachers’ and students’ performance, and staff satisfaction. Moreover, the school leaders may collect evidentiary support to determine the frequency and consistency of using the aforementioned supervisory strategies across the school and correlate them with factors such as teacher and student performance and staff satisfaction.
Supervisory Perceptions, Practices, Teachers’ Assessment of Needs.
A school's purpose in the twenty-first century is to provide pupils with the knowledge and confidence to succeed in their new environment (Driscoll, 2019). Teachers are challenged to make their students understand concepts meaningfully, provide a space where they can be further engaged in the lesson (Pelayo, 2021) and allow the students to transfer learning independently. The continuously changing settings bring about challenges to teachers every day. Most teachers have struggled to make children globally competitive. This can be attributed to the lack of contextualized knowledge of teaching techniques and ways to support teacher improvement (Kim et al., 2019). These increasing expectations require a regular support to teachers to successfully meet these ends.
Many schools are honed with these challenges, including schools in the Philippines and in Indonesia. A world-class education system is what the Indonesian government hopes to accomplish by 2025. There were reports that explained the country has a long way to go in education (Marzuki, 2020; Fachriansyah, 2020). The gap between Indonesian instructors' subject knowledge and employer demands is considerable, resulting in poor student learning outcomes (Rosser, 2018). Furthermore, the implementation of different curriculums in most international schools here in Indonesia, such as the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) curriculum and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IBDP), poses a challenge to teachers. Teachers are expected to uphold all the curriculum standards and to help the students face the rigorous assessments of both curricula. Hence, to solve these issues, teachers must improve their teaching performance.
The quality of teaching determines the success of students in school. Any school or educational institution exists to educate. Thus, teachers' performance should be improved ensure that curriculum standards are met (Makin et al., 2018). For this to be achieved, proper supervision must be given to them. Supervisors are expected to address their needs and supervise teachers appropriately. Hence, teachers will show improvement when they are guided by school leaders whose supervisory practices and perceptions remain congruent. Supervisory support can help teachers improve their teaching performance. Supervision's main goal is to help teachers improve the classroom teaching-learning process. It entails the stimulation, professional development, and growth of teachers. It is the process of consulting, sharing, and supporting teachers to help them improve their classroom performance. Additionally, it is considered discreet, positive, and forward-looking, primarily educational and developmental, and aimed to assist the individual in progressing (Behlol et al., 2011).
According to Hoque et al. (2020), supervision is meant to help teachers achieve autonomy in their classrooms. It varies depending on the student's age, personal traits and professional ability. The teacher's needs should guide the supervision strategy. To be effective, instructional supervision programs in schools must have defined objectives and offer information to teachers. To sustain teachers' professionalism, high-quality supervision should help them improve their practices (Makin et al., 2018) (Figure 1).
As such, a supervisory program based on the teachers' needs would address problems and help them enhance their teaching performance. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What are the needs of the teachers that are necessary for the development of the supervisory program?
2. What are the supervisory strategies being practiced by the school leaders?
3. What is the different supervisory perception of the school leaders?
4. How congruent are the supervisory practices with the supervisory perception of the school leaders?
5. What strategies should be added in the supervisory program to further enhance the teachers' performance?
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This part presents literature and studies that form the foundation of this paper. The subtopics explored include espoused theories and theories-in-use, supervisory approaches, and concepts of situational leadership.
Espoused Theories and Theories-in-Use
According to Argyris & Schon as addressed in Houchens & Keedy, humans use thousands of theories to explain their experiences, anticipate future events, and manage outcomes in many circumstances. They are based on a set of values, beliefs, and assumptions that influence an individual's view of the world and include assumptions about acceptable outcomes in various settings. If a person faces a certain event, they should take certain actions to explain, foresee, or influence the situation or outcome, based on their fundamental beliefs. This if-then formulation was named "theory of action" by Argyris and Schon.
Theories of practice, on the other hand, define processes, procedures, and specific approaches for resolving problems faced in practice. Argyris & Schon identified models for effective and inefficient community learning. For example, a deep established subconscious theory of action, how we say we behave to others or how we excuse our behavior to others, may contradict the stated theories of action. It exposes the underlying values, attitudes, and assumptions that define and explain leadership behaviors. Understanding strong school leadership is crucial.
Makin et al. (2018) claimed that competent supervisors must have certain skills to lead the organization successfully. These skills include knowledge, interpersonal skills, and technical skills. Supervisor programs should include an opportunity for supervisors to know the best instructional strategies that could be adopted successfully in the school, policies, and directions that would help align academic operations to the school’s vision. They must have a clear understanding of how an adult learns to be effective and efficient in developing their teachers competence. The ability to develop team should include having the adequate soft skills and technical know- how to be more effective. Supervisors must be proficient in values, systems, and strategic planning to guarantee the school's curriculum management goals are met (Figure 2).
Furthermore, Makin et al. (2018) found that instructional supervision helps develop teachers. Instructional supervision improves teacher performance. Thus, enhancing school instructional supervision is crucial to boosting teacher competence. Supervision is crucial in helping teachers improve their classroom practices.
While there may be ideal supervisor attitudes, there is no optimal leadership style, according to Hershey & Blanchard, 1996. Everyone should care about productivity and people management. A care for others can be shown in a variety of ways. Situational Leadership Model is based on the interaction between leaders and followers and serves as a framework for analyzing each circumstance according to the following criteria.
• The amount of advice and direction (task behavior) a leader provides
• The degree to which a leader provides socio-emotional support (relational behavior);
• The degree to which followers demonstrate readiness to accomplish a given activity, function, or purpose.
There are four leadership styles under the Situational Leadership Model of (Hershey & Blanchard, 1996). These four leadership styles can also be found in The Center for Leadership Studies &Training Industry (2020).
• Style 1: Telling, Directing, or Guiding - this is task- and work-specific approach. Individuals require direction and assistance from leaders who regularly evaluate their performance.
• Style 2: Selling, Coaching, or Explaining - this corresponds with followers who have little (if any) experience executing the work but are confident and motivated to learn from their leaders. Like style 1, this strategy relies on the leader's direct observations, which spark concentrated performance feedback conversations and greater discourse.
• Style 3: Participating, Facilitating, or Collaborating – this style corresponds to alignment. If the follower is developing, he or she may have exhibited task proficiency yet be hesitant to undertake it alone. If a follower is regressing, they are aware they can perform effectively but have lost commitment or motivation. In either case, the leader should ask open-ended questions to help the follower identify the source of the performance issue and find a solution.
• Style 4: Delegating, empowering, or monitoring - style 4 aims to increase task mastery and autonomy. This is for followers with extensive experience doing the task at or above expectation, coupled with intrinsic motivation that drives their continued commitment to excellence.
Determining performance depends on the task and the work environment, says The Center for Leadership Studies &Training Industry, Inc. (2017). Leaders who routinely assess their performance are required to guide and assist. Leadership strategies should evolve as people age and become more comfortable with their jobs, responsibilities, and duties. Inaction can significantly affect staff engagement and performance. Moreover, leadership style influences employee motivation. Adopting a situational leadership style boosts employee productivity (Ghazzawi et al., 2017).
Hence, supervision plays an important role in developing of teachers’ performance. The perception of supervisors is critical to improving supervision. The effectiveness of supervision is related to improving school learning quality (Fahmi et al., 2018 Moreover, the study of Mislang-Sison & Junio (2019) has proven that teaching performance and supervisory practices have a positive correlation. This is because supervisors influence teachers. The supervisory strategies implemented have a great influence on teachers’ teaching methods and practices. Identifying teachers’ needs is necessary for enhancing teachers’ performance (Martin & Atteh, 2021). Thus, the creation of a supervisory program must meet the requirements and expectations of teachers for it to be effective.
The mixed- method is used to explore the supervisory approaches, supervisory
practices and determine the teacher assessment of needs. Mixed method is an approach in exploring patterns and relationship that exists from the data (Shorten & Smith, 2017). The research used descriptive method in the quantitative aspects of the research. Descriptive method was used to determine the degree of the assessment of the teachers’ needs drawn from the survey. On the other hand, case study design is the qualitative component of this research which explore the supervisory practice and the supervisory perception of the selected school leader. The research was conducted in one private school in Jakarta, Indonesia which becomes the setting for this research article.
Samples and Respondents
There were 70 accessible teachers at the time of the study, 67 teachers participated in the teacher’s needs assessment. 3 teachers did not respond to the survey. The total participants met the minimum required number set at 59 a confidence level of 95% with +/-5% surveyed value. The computed value was obtained using the sample calculator from Creative Research Systems Survey Software. Teachers across the school from grades 7 to 12 across the discipline were selected. N=1 model was used to explain the structures of supervison’s consciousness, including the lived supervisory practices within the case study design parameter.
There were two main instruments used to address the problems under study. The teacher needs assessment questionnaire and the interview questions. The previous contains sixteen topics of needs ranging from various pedagogical competence to content-based training. : The survey was adopted from the plethora of survey tools available in the SoGo Survey internet- based platform where the researcher is currently subscribed. The items indicated in the survey comprised of questions that are required to identify the teachers’ needs, which fit to the nature of this research. Questions were reviewed and approved by the school Principal where the research was undertaken. The latter has seven interview questions that were formulated to draw out the supervisory perception and supervisory practices of the school leader. The interview questions were content validated by selected school leaders. These validators cross examine the alignment of the interview questions to the problems of this research and review the theoretical construct to which this research rest on. After which, the interview questions were tried out to middle school leaders to ascertain the clarity, cohesiveness and the order of the interview questions. Their feedbacks were collected to improve the delivery of the structured interview.
The electronic survey was sent to the teachers via school email under the school Principal’s permission. The survey sheet was locked in after the third day where data was generated and analyzed. After the data were analyzed, key results were used to formulate of the interview question which was then scheduled on the 10th day after the generation of the quantitative data. The interview was made virtual in consideration of the protocol being observed by the school at the time of the research. The interview recordings were transcribed and were subjected to linguistic analysis
The survey tool comprises of 5 Likert scale from 1 to 5. 1 is considered as least beneficial while 5 is mostly beneficial. Participants rated each item of the survey, which was then collected from the summary sheet. The degree of needs was computed using the general weighted average formula and the numerical computations were interpreted following the scales prepared by the researcher as shown below.
Moreover, coding was used to extract the codes and categories to determine the supervisory practices and perceptions as well as the analysis of their congruency which was made primarily arbitrary. The furtherance of the congruency analysis was made through the linguistic discourse that focused on the vocabulary, tone and structure of the sentences used by the school leader during the interview.
The researcher sought permission from the principal through email to conduct this research. After the approval, the online survey questionnaire was sent to the teachers email and each response were tallied. The email specified that their participation is voluntary and their personal information will be made anonymous. To ensure that the targeted participants answered the survey, the link was only sent to the participants through the school email, where the summary sheet confirmed the recipient from the same email domain. The email addresses were made confidential at the time of the data analysis and interpretation.
The percentage for each response was computed, and the weighted average for each criterion was computed as well.
This part presents the results which are then followed by further discussion. Caution should be taken when reading this part as the results cannot be generalized to other setting. The findings are under the views and opinions of the Principal who is primarily the driver of the leadership culture along with the other school leaders who became his right hand in molding the organization under study. The views were taken in the year later part of 2021 and any gap as a function of time is not covered in this study.
Assessment of Needs of Teachers
Assessment of needs of teachers is relevant in the formulation of the supervisory strategies along with the other variables under study. Table 1 shows the data collected from the survey. Results show that the most beneficial topic that interests the teachers is the maximized use of technology with a weighted average of 4.73 followed by effective teaching practices with a weighted average of 4.66. The requirement for school leaders and teachers at all levels to acquire digital skills has become even more pressing. Teachers all over the world were forced to immediately adjust and migrate to remote instruction because of the situation. The sudden shift to teaching lessons online has become a challenge to teachers. Hence, the need for effective professional development that would target the technological skills of a teacher is a must to aid the instructional needs of students (Table 2).
|Table 1 Interpretation Guide of the Teachers Assessment of Needs|
|Table 2 Assessment of Teacher’s Needs|
|Topics of Needs||Percentage Distribution (%)||Weighted Average||Interpretation|
|1. Content-Subject Specific||67.9||22.64||3.77||5.66||0||4.53||Most beneficial|
|2. Effective Teaching Practices||69.8||26.42||3.77||0||0||4.66||Most beneficial|
|3. Curriculum Mapping||50.9||26.42||15.09||5.66||1.89||4.19||Beneficial|
|4. Classroom Management Strategies||54.7||26.42||16.98||0||0||4.38||Most beneficial|
|5. Differentiated Instruction||56.6||32.08||7.55||1.89||1.89||4.4||Most beneficial|
|6. Collaborative Learning||64.2||20.75||9.43||0||0||4.58||Most beneficial|
|7. Student engagement and classroom climate||56.6||37.74||1.89||0||1.89||4.5||Most beneficial|
|8. Maximized use of technology in teaching||75.5||15.09||5.66||0||0||4.73||Most beneficial|
|9. Development and implementation of classroom
assessments aligned to the curriculum you are teaching
|10. Personal Professional Development (Stress
Management, Time Management…)
|11. Research skills||50.9||35.85||11.32||1.89||0||4.36||Most beneficial|
|12. Implementation of Approaches to Teaching and
Learning Skills (ATL) in the classroom
|13. Promotion of International Mindedness in the Classroom||43.4||39.62||11.32||1.89||0||4.29||Most beneficial|
|14. Integration of TOK Concepts in the Classroom||45.3||35.85||16.98||1.89||0||4.25||Most beneficial|
|15. Development of IB Learner Profile as a targeted value||37.7||41.51||16.98||0||0||4.22||Most beneficial|
|16. Development of Cambridge Learner Profile as a targeted
According to Raja & Nagasubramani (2018), technology is used in education in four ways: as part of the curriculum, as a method of delivery, assists with instruction, and as a tool to enhance the learning process. As a result of technology innovations, education has become participatory and proactive. : Teachers must learn to use current technologies in their classrooms. As a result, new technologies increase teacher training needs.
Another most beneficial topic that interests the integration is collaborative learning with a weighted average of 4.58. Learning at the time of pandemic has been a continuous challenge to students and teachers. Collaboration among students also shifted online, and the need to address on how this will be done is very timely. The study of Ansari & Khan (2020) showed that the use of technology could highly promote collaboration among students and teachers. Using online social media for collaborative learning, connection with mentors and peers improves student engagement, which enhances academic success. Empirically, social media communication devices help student’s access information and connect with others in real-time about sharing teaching resources. These advanced communication gadgets would also benefit children who are shy in front of peers, professors who want to collaborate globally, and pupils with disabilities.
The implementation of approaches to teaching and learning skills (ATL) in the classroom is another beneficial topic for teachers with weighted average of 4.54. This is linked to the other two topics that interests teachers. These are development of Cambridge Learner Profile as a targeted value, with a weighted average of 4.39, and the development of IB Learner Profile as a targeted value, with weighted average of 4.2. The school where this studies was conducted implements IBDP in the senior high school and the IGCSE Curriculum in the junior high school. The need to integrate ATL skills in teaching is a must. These skills, which are connected to IB Learner profile qualities, help students study and prepare for the Diploma Program. These ATL skills are as follows: thinking, communication, self- management, research, and social skills (Gillett, 2021). In addition, the development of the Cambridge and the IB Learner profile is a target for both curriculums thus teachers need to ensure that students demonstrated these student profiles.
Content- subject specific and the development and implementation of classroom assessments aligned to the curriculum you are teaching has a weighted average of 4.53. The IBDP and IGCSE curriculums both have external assessments, and teachers must align their assessments with that of the curriculum that they are teaching. This is also why the differentiated instruction gained a weighted average of 4.40, because differentiation will help aid in the smooth implementation of topics for these two curriculums.
Another most beneficial topic for teachers is student engagement and classroom climate with a weighted average of 4.50. Making students motivated at the time of online learning poses a big problem to teachers. Despite attempts on how to make lessons engaging, there are still some students who are not motivated to learn because of the online learning setup. The study of Chiu (2021) suggested two ways on how to make students more engaged in lessons especially during this time. First is for teachers to design and produce teaching- efficient videos, and second is to improve teachers’ digital communication skills.
Research skills, which is another most beneficial topics for teacher, has a weighted average of 4.36. One of the reasons why this topic is most beneficial to teachers is that this is still in align with the curriculum in which the school is implementing. Research culture among students is high because of the curriculum implemented thus, the need for teachers to enhance this skill is a must.
Curriculum mapping with a weighted average of 4.19 and Personal Professional Development (Stress Management, Time Management…) with 4.13 are the two topics that teachers said beneficial for them.
Supervisory Practices in School
Table 3 shows the categories derived from the interview with the school Principal on supervisory practices in school. From the transcribed statements, it can be gleaned that the Principal used phrases such as “depends on”, “likely to use”, “there’s no fit approach”, “I usually use”, and “gather their views”. Along with these, it was observed that the Principal structurally use dependent and independent clauses in the sentences as presented in table 3. Moreover, the Principal uttered some conversational markers such as “yeah” which signifies an agreement to the clauses presented in the statements. He was observed speaking spontaneously during the interview; he was also known nodding in many points during the interview, indicating his confidence in presenting his views about supervisory practices. This is confirmed through unstructured interview with some middle level administrators in school.
|Table 3 Codes Derived from the Interview with the School Principal on Supervisory Approaches in Practiced|
|Key Points Derived from the Interview||Categories|
• There's no one fit approach to supervising teachers. It depends on their experiences, the number of years in the teaching field at the same time the level of expertise.
• If you have new teachers whether new in the field or new (in) school, it’s (more) likely you will be applying directing as an approach.
• When you have new members of the middle administration then I would usually use coaching and supporting at the same time because you want them to feel that you are there for them at the same time you are giving them certain leverage or level of freedom for them to apply their ideas. This would give them the sense of responsibilityies (on their outcome).
• Delegating is (used) when you are trying to figure out whether a new member of your team is ready to move up to the next level so I usually use delegating to check if for example this coordinator is now ready to step up as let's say (of becoming) a Vice Principal. I used the same approach to all middle level administrators as they have been in the position for three years.
• In terms of supervisory strategy (I used in school), I would usually lay down the situation and observations and then gather their views (to solicit) best solution as agreed by the committee. Usually, we have committee to analyze the situation and then plan out for the action but yeah that's one advantage because most of the members of my leadership team are already experienced teachers so therefore delegating is usually the strategy that I use
As you can see in the table, the most applied strategy used for supervision is situational leadership. Throughout, leadership style influences staff productivity, directly impacting organizational performance. Effective leadership styles inspire individuals to achieve organizational goals, enhancing staff productivity. Situational leadership has lately been proven to be incredibly effective in motivating employees across industries (Ghazzawi et al., 2017).
Moreover, The Center for Leadership Studies &Training Industry (2017) lists six benefits of situational leadership:
• A model that may be used to influence people at all levels, from top to bottom to across the organization
• Performance is communicated in the same language.
• Accelerates and improves employee development
• A repeatable procedure that your leaders may utilize to influence the behavior of others successfully
• Makes use of job-specific knowledge to assist leaders in optimizing their influence-related effect
• Considers situations in which individuals are either developing or regressing
Supervisory Approaches as Perceived by School Leaders
Table 4 shows the different codes derived from the interview statements with the School Principal on perceived supervisory approaches. It has been observed from the transcribed statements the use of the following phrases such as “no fit approach to supervising teachers”, “consider personal differences (and) preferences”, “they are aware of what is happening”, “knowing the people you work with”, “make my subordinate feel my presence” and “always trying to address”. These statements indicate the intensity of the Principal to situate himself on the contexts of the people under his care. The sentences structures, similar with the analysis made in the previous table contains both dependent and independent clauses that describe the supervisory perceptions.
|Table 4 Categories Derived from the Interview with the School Principal on Perceived Supervisory Approaches|
|Key points derived from the interview||Categories|
• When I was looking at this four options, there's no one fit approach to supervising teachers. For me, it depends on their experiences, the number of years in the teaching field at the same time the level of expertise.
• They (school leaders) can consider personal differences (when selecting supervisory approaches), they can (also) consider preferences because wealways have to consider those things even though we're trying our best to be always objective.
• If my members can give me a bird's eye view of what is happening in the department what is happening in their jurisdiction, (then it shows that the school leader has the ability to manage his/her section well)
• If they are very much aware of what is happening in their department, it will be a lot easier for us to tackle concerns, discuss issues and come up (with) decisions that we know will not jeopardize students or department’s (performance
• Dealing with expatriate teachers is really different (challenging) considering that they are not with their families. Their support system isquite fragile and therefore knowing the people you work with as much as you can would really be very helpful in terms of supervision.
• They can consider preferences because we always have to consider thosethings even though we're trying our best to be always objective.
• But a personal approach should always be there and that’s quite a challenge for administrators like me because there is a very high demand of the paper or clerical works but (at) the same time, you really have to reach out.
• How to make my subordinates feel my presence and that's part of what I think is effective supervision.
• I am always trying to address on how to make my subordinates feel my presence and that's part of what I think is effective supervision.
From the coding process made on the statements related to the variable under study, five categories were derived. A deeper introspection of these categories is explained further as follows.
Situational Leadership: The interview conducted by the research revealed that situational leadership is also the perceived supervisory approach by the Principal. This only shows that the he supervises his teachers depending on what the situation is. He matches his supervision approaches based on the need of the current situation. Moreover, he also adjusts based on what type of teacher he is handling.
Advertence: It has been perceived from the interview that knowing your teachers background will provide a space to build trust. This is vital for effective supervision (Alward & Phelps, 2019). It is also perceived that ii is simpler to build trust when supervisors understand their teachers' concerns. Further to this, the Principal perceived that knowing people is essential for developing meaningful relationships. This is confirmed in the study that learning to relate to their employees on a human level requires understanding their emotions and perspectives (Wang, 2020).
Objectivity: According to SIGMA Assessment Systems, Inc. (2017), a strong leader makes judgments with objectivity. The Principal perceived that being objective is the ability to preserve realistic perspective and minimize personal prejudices. When presented with a circumstance or decision, objective he believed that supervisors must depend on facts or statistics rather than personal opinions and interpretations. Moreover, he perceived that a supervisor must constantly handle their subordinates fairly and uniformly. Employees will not trust their supervisors who do not make fact-based decisions.
Presence: In relation to being supportive as a supervisor, the Principal perceived that supervisor’s job is to create a stimulating environment for the employees. This is confirmed by the research of Knight (2017). He likewise perceived that knowing teachers is not the same as becoming their best friend .
Congruency between the Supervisory Practices and the Supervisory Perception of the School Leader
Referring to Table 3 and Table 4, there is a congruence between the principal’s Supervisory Strategies practiced in school and his perceived supervisory approach. It can be seen that the perceived supervisory perception, which is the Situational Leadership, is matched with that of the one implemented in the school. The principal has been consistent in implementing this strategy in supervising his teachers. Congruency between the supervisory perception and supervisory practices is effective according to The Center for Leadership Studies &Training Industry (2017). Specifically, when a supervisor’s practices match the teacher’s needs, the teachers will likely to have higher level of job satisfaction, meaningfulness of work, and enhanced work-family balance.
Table 5 shows the difference codes derived from the interview with the School Principal on Supervisory Strategies. These codes are collaboration, advertence, morale boosting, presence, and flexibilities and accountabilities. These are the supervisory strategies that can be added in the current supervisory program of the school.
|Table 5 Categories Derived from the Interview with the School Principal on Supervisory Strategies|
|Key points derived from the interview||Categories|
• Usually we have committee to analyze the situation and then plan out for the action
• Knowing the people, you work with as much as you can really be very helpful in terms of supervision.
• easier for us to tackle concerns, discuss issues and come up decisions that we know will not jeopardize students or will jeopardize the department at hand
• But a personal approach should always be there.
• Dealing with expatriate teachers is really different considering that theyare not with their families so their support system is quite fragile and therefore knowing the people you work with
• I am always trying to address on how to make my subordinates feel mypresence and that's part of what I think is effective supervision.
• You are giving them certain leverage or certain level of freedom in order for them to apply their ideas in order for them to think of approaches on how to handle things particularly if there are conflicts because giving them the opportunity to plan or strategize would also mean you aregiving them the sense of responsibility for the output or for the results of their whatever they're undertaking
|Flexibilities and Accountabilities|
Collaboration: According to an OECD analysis (Schleicher, 2018), collaboration improves teachers' self-efficacy and job happiness. Some collaborative strategies in the classroom include visiting other teachers' courses and giving input or teaching as a team in the same class. Deliberate professional development that allows teachers to learn with and from one other, both inside and between schools and universities, is also important to Darling- Hammond & Lieberman. Teachers working together can share ideas and materials, discuss issues, and support each other in challenging situations. As a result of peer support, teachers feel more capable of handling classroom issues. Moreover, teamwork must include two key components: idea sharing and classroom reflection (Çoban et al., 2020).
Advertence: Review of related literature revealed that getting to know your teachers will cultivate a community of trust, according to Alward & Phelps (2019). This will increase teachers' motivation. Also, motivating teachers is essential. As a result, teachers will feel more appreciated at work.
Morale Boosting: To create a positive influence, supervisors are expected to have high personal and interpersonal skills, be sensitive to everyone, and "inspire, empower, and motivate staff" (Wang, 2020). This will prevent teacher burnout. The self-motivated teacher is less likely to burnout (Abós et al., 2018). Similarly, feeling recognized at work boosts teachers' motivation, pleasure, and contentment. Personal expressions of gratitude outperform team-wide gratitude (Patil et al., 2018).
Presence: Making teachers feel like they are always available is a good supervisory strategy. Teachers are, like as normal beings, go through personal and professional struggles. A supervisor should always help a teacher whenever they go through a difficult personal situation. A simple assistance from the supervisor would be highly appreciated (Meador, 2019).
Flexibilities and Accountabilities: Allowing teachers to participate in school-level decision-making positively impacts their job satisfaction and self-efficacy, according to the OECD report (Schleicher, 2018). Likewise, teachers who can participate in decision-making feel that they are valued by the institution. This is also linked in having a community of trust in an institution. One of the major elements in the grand construct of trust is accountability (Alward & Phelps, 2019).
The three variables under study such as supervisory practices, supervisory perception and assessment of needs were the foundation in the formulation of supervisory strategies in the school under study. Through coding strategies and linguistic discourse analysis, the researcher explored that school leader used situational supervision that are reflected both in the leader’s perceptions and practices. The supervisory strategies such as collaboration, advertence, morale boosting, presence, flexibilities and accountabilities were built from the exploration of these variables. In the light of these findings, researcher recommends to the leaders of the school understudy to further investigate the effects of the supervisory strategies they implemented to their teachers’ & students’. They can further collect teacher and student performance data including satisfaction ratings as outcome variables to their supervisory strategies which could be subject for further school research. Moreover, the leaders of the school may collect evidentiary support to determine the frequency and consistency of the use of the aforementioned supervisory strategies across the school and correlate them with factors such as teacher and student performance and staff satisfaction. This will then ascertain the commitment of the school to the educational vision where Indonesia is rooting for since then.
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Received: 03-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AELJ-22-10742; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AELJ-22-10742 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2022, QC No. AELJ-22-10742; Revised: 21-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AELJ-22-10742 (R); Published: 28- Jan -2022