Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 6
Bambang Eko Turisno, Universitas Diponegoro
R. Suharto, Universitas Diponegoro
Ery Agus Priyono, Universitas Diponegoro
Siti Mahmudah, Universitas Diponegoro
Siti Malikhatun Badriyah, Universitas Diponegoro
The purpose of the research is to identify and analyse the model of Coastal Area Arrangement to improve the welfare of the community through the legal perspective in central Java. The approach methods used are normative, descriptive research specifications analysis, analysis using qualitative analysis methods. The data used is secondary data. The data used are secondary data, which consists of data and information on the arrangement of coastal areas, improvement of community welfare, legal materials, and other supporting data. The results show that the arrangement and utilisation of the coast that provides increased community welfare in an environmentally sustainable environment is the Coastal Area Zoning Plan. Natural tourism, mangrove forest utilisation, and sustainable fisheries can take place within conservation zones. The development of the potential for self-reliance of people living in coastal areas is carried out by fostering and empowering the community to improve the community's welfare. Utilisation the potential of coastal areas to make coastal areas as tourist attractions and conservation land whose processing involves members of the community who increase their income. Villages that control coastal natural resources as tourist places can provide management to Village-owned enterprises so that environmental sustainability improves the welfare of the village community. The results of this study are expected to contribute to providing input for coastal communities and the Government, especially local governments as policymakers, to take development policies for sustainable and improve economic, social, and cultural benefits among the population.
Coastal Areas, Structuring, Community Welfare, Legal Perspective
In industrialisation, coastal areas are among the top priorities and development centre of industrial activities, tourism, agribusiness, agro-industry, transportation settlements and ports (Smith, 2000). A coastal area is a transitional area between land and sea, where bridges between land and territorial waters (oceans) have an essential role in society and development. Coastal areas with various ecosystems are interconnected and intertwined in one complex ecological system, a transitional area between land and marine ecosystems affected by changes in land and sea (Huda et al., 2018).
Coastal environmental resources are an area that has a considerable potential of resources and diversity of types (Savage et al., 2012). The people of Indonesia have utilised very diverse marine resources to improve and improve the economy. With different cultural and social backgrounds, the community has utilised or enjoyed the wealth of natural resources of coastal areas, which is one of the advantages of the community's needs (Neumann et al., 2017).
Naturally, the coastal potential in the area is utilised directly by the people who live in the area (Neumann et al., 2015). The importance of coastal zones and the need to protect such resources are essential to the country's economy and present a growing dilemma for many regions. Unique and economically valuable potential, coastal areas are faced with a high threat, threatened by sustainability (Alencar et al., 2020). Coastal areas that were vulnerable to change need to be protected through management to be utilised to meet the community's needs of life and livelihoods. Such utilisation is not done by exploitation or overuse of marine resources (Chen et al., 2020).
Various efforts are needed to ensure the sustainability of the ecological role carried out in coastal areas so that the utilisation of resources nature need to pay attention to aspects of environmental sustainability (Oláh et al., 2020). According to Article 65 (2) of Law Number 32 of 2009, everyone is entitled to obtain environmental education, access to information, access to participation, and access to justice in fulfilling the right to a good and healthy life. Policy on the design of environmental management of coastal areas is one of the essential aspects that are directly related to the socio-economic condition of the community following the potential and natural resources.
Beaches are becoming synonymous with tourism and predictions of climate change and sea-level rise (Jones & Phillips, 2009). Policies in management balance the utilisation rate of coastal resources for economic benefit without compromising the needs of future generations (Hilborn et al., 2001). Organising the arrangement of coastal water spaces to determine the direction of resource use in each planning unit to realise sustainable development that can combine economic, socio-cultural, environmental, and development equalisation pillars.
The condition of the biological diversity of coastal areas occurs due to human interaction in meeting the needs of life to the resources of coastal areas. Environmental management of coastal resources as an integral part of the economic and social aspects of the community is related to the ecological aspects of the region (Sukowati et al., 2020). Community participation in coastal area management in order to achieve justice, balance, and sustainability. Through community participation in the utilisation of coastal resources to improve the community's economy (Butt et al., 2018).
It is generally coastal and marine potential utilised by fishermen limited to the efforts to meet life needs. Utilising the potential of coastal areas in a big way to benefit economically to increase the economic growth of the people researches Muhamad Dio Fabianto and Pieter Th Berhitu showed not much has been done (Fabianto & Berhitu, 2014). Coastal utilisation for economic business on a large scale is only done in districts and cities located in coastal areas. In general, economic efforts to use coastal areas are engaged in the tourism sector. In many coastal areas, the activities of many users indicate increased tensions in the ecological conditions of the region.
The beaches of the United States are undergoing profound physical changes and some bitter legal and political disputes. A misinterpreted doctrine of public trust has evolved considerably in allowing the Government to control the coast, further reinforced by the doctrine of prescribing, dedication, and the habit of improving public access to beaches and even dry sand considered private property. Interpretation and judicial policy vary in different States. The challenge is for the State legislature to provide comprehensive legislation that would determine the public's right to access the Beach (Mangone, 2010).
The utilisation community and the region's utilisation and management of coastal areas partly do not meet the provisions of utilising natural resources sustainably and sustainably; this will affect the condition and sustainability of the coast and its environment. The cause of degradation of coastal conditions indirectly is also caused by the management of natural resources upstream that affect the estuary on the coast. Environmental sustainability and residential land use are the main determinants in reducing conflict in areas experiencing demographic, economic and climate pressures.
Researchers from Rostin said the partially implemented coastal development policy and top-down planning system did not meet the urgent needs and demands of coastal communities. The low ability of coastal communities to explore the potential of resources, research Nirzalin, shows community empowerment will be better to pay attention to the value system, the growth of institutions and development in the local community, and local resources and business units in the coastal community. Ecosystem restoration should involve the participation of the public, Government and private sector. To restore integrated coastal ecosystems, a forum or institution must realise the collaboration by considering priority programs that must be prioritised, ranging from mangroves, coral reefs, estuary to seaweed (Nirzalin, 2020).
Pepito R. Fernandez Jr.'s research on coastal resource management in the Philippines through two case studies on joint property resource management on Panay Island, Western Visayas, Philippines, reveals that the management and development of large marine ecosystems require essential conditions to succeed, such as the depiction and suitability of politically determined spaces with ecological realities; improved stakeholder management capabilities (information, resources, and skills); additional livelihood opportunities; enabling institutions and increased grassroots participation; and adequate supervision and coordination between and among concerned countries, civil society, and market organisations (profit-oriented). The need to use an integrative system approach to understanding and solving coastal problems has become apparent in recent decades (Fernandez et al., 2000).
This article identifies and analyses the Role Model of Coastal Area Structuring towards improving the community's welfare. The discussions outlined through legal perspectives include the Development and Arrangement of Coastal Areas and sustainable and coastal area arrangements for the community's welfare, especially in Central Java.
The approach method used is the normative approach method. This article identifies and examines the arrangement of coastal areas for the welfare of the community. Therefore the type of research specification is descriptive-analytical research, Bogdan and Taylor cited by Lexy J. Moleong, as a research procedure that produces descriptive data in written words (Moleong, 1989).
The data used in the research is secondary data. Secondary data is aggregated to support analysis related to coastal area structuring and community welfare. Data collection is the recording of events or things or information or characteristics of the population supporting or supporting the research (Hasan, 2002). Secondary data collection is carried out by conducting literature studies related to coastal areas and the community's welfare, especially in Central Java Indonesia. Data sources are obtained from books and recent studies from journals and other relevant sources of information, both legal materials in the form of primary legal materials and secondary legal materials and non-legal materials and other supporting data.
Data analysis is the process of organising and sorting data into patterns, categories, and units of basic description so that themes can be found and formulated as working hypotheses. Secondary data in the form of legal and non-legal materials and other supporting information obtained, processed and analysed through measures of description, evaluation, argumentation, and systematic—analysis using qualitative analysis, analysing the state of research objects through description, understanding or explanation. Analysis of circumstances that should follow a specific ideal condition, such conditions can be a standard set by a particular agency or legal basis or taken from a literature study. This analysis is used to assess how the condition should run, especially in Central Java, related to the arrangement of coastal areas utilised by the community and the community's welfare.
Integrated and Sustainable Development and Arrangement of Coastal Areas
Coastal Areas are transitional areas between land and marine ecosystems affected by changes in land and sea (Kurnianti et al., 2019). Coastal waters are seas bordering land covering waters as far as 12 (twelve) nautical miles measured from the coastline, waters connecting beaches and islands, estuaries, bays, shallow waters, brackish swamps, and lagoons (Obie, 2018).
The relatively rapid growth of coastal areas, the impact on the destruction of vulnerable resources, and the strategic role of coastal environments for coastal nations have encouraged to find solutions that the utilisation of coastal resources for development continues without causing damage to their resources. The development approach of sectoral use of the region does not achieve sustainable utilisation of coastal ecosystems (Dahuri, 2003).
Various problems arise in coastal areas, many caused by external factors and occur outside the coastal area itself (among others from the mainland) so that various activities carried out in the mainland either directly or indirectly will impact coastal areas. Proper management is needed in the upper land. Therefore, the management of coastal areas needs to be done in an integrated manner as an alternative to a better management approach. The management of coastal areas as specified in Article 55 Law Number 27 of 2007 is implemented in an integrated manner. Integrated Coastal Zone Management is justified as a tool to manage coastal resources and accommodate increasing pressures (Sorensen, 1993).
Integrated coastal area management process as a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented to allocate environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to realise conservation and use/utilisation of various coastal areas in a sustainable manner. Selected forms of coastal area management (looking at coastal resources and comprehensive resource utilisation are more than a single resource issue and integrating) many coastal resources and conflicting needs into a balanced decision-making process.
The uniqueness of coastal areas and the variety of existing resources hints at the importance of integrated regional management, with the following reasons: First, empirically, there is an ecological connection (functional relationship) both between ecosystems within coastal areas and between coastal areas with upper land and high seas. Changes that occur in a coastal ecosystem, sooner or later, will affect other ecosystems. Second, there are usually more than two kinds of natural resources and environmental services that can be developed for development purposes in a coastal area. Third, there is generally more than one community with different skills and pleasures of working; this is challenging to change the pleasure of working with a group of people who have radicalised work unity. Fourth, ecologically and economically, the utilisation of a coastal area monoculture is very vulnerable to internal or external changes that lead to business failure. Fifth, coastal areas, in general, are a shared resource that everyone can utilise. At the same time, every user of coastal resources is usually principled to maximise profits. Therefore, it is natural that pollution, over-exploitation of natural resources, and space use conflicts often occur in coastal areas (Masselink & Lazarus, 2019).
The purpose of the establishment of integrated coastal area management (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) or ICZM, among others to overcome the problems of coastal development that takes place today, in the future, and empower coastal communities (users of coastal areas or commonly called stakeholders) in order to enjoy the benefits obtained sustainably. ICZM is a coastal management concept that includes the role of the community, so it is expected that the community will also feel a responsibility to the coastal areas that become residential areas (Rosendo et al., 2018). The advantages of ICZM procurement are:
1. Provide opportunities for coastal communities to build resources sustainably.
2. It is possible to include considerations about the needs and aspirations of the community to natural resources and environmental services both now and in the future into development planning with the concept of participative encourage resource development and minimise the negative impact on coastal and marine ecosystems.
3. It assists local and central governments with a process that can foster economic development and improve the quality of community life.
4. The costs incurred on the ICZM approach are lower compared to the costs incurred using a sectoral approach.
In many countries, the regulation of activities and development in the marine environment has evolved from a boxed, fragmented, sectoral, and uncoordinated system into a more strategic, comprehensive, integrated, and transparent system—Integrate stakeholders' perceptions and preferences into ecosystem services in coastal area management (Turner & Essex, 2016). The basis of integrated management should be a clear articulation of common goals that address long-term needs and visions. Once settled, this common goal must be safely established to provide a backdrop for sectoral managers and which institutions conduct and coordinate their activities. Integrated Coastal Management (ICZM) is a process that ensures the balance between coastal demands related to socio-economic and environmental aspects. Around the world, coastal zones have strategic importance because of their aesthetic attributes. The ICZM policy is considered a way to improve the quality of life of people who depend on coastal zone resources and maintain existing biodiversity and ecosystems. It is also a guide to future joint actions of stakeholders that can be adopted to achieve ICZM goals.
Integrated planning and management of coastal areas understand that natural resources and coastal environmental services are carried out through a thorough assessment, planning goals and objectives, and planning and managing all utilisation activities to achieve optimal and sustainable development. Planning and management refer to the commitments of various parties. The role of the sustainable development principles of planners and policyholders is to transfer in management.
Planning and management are carried out continuously and dynamically, considering coastal area users' social, economic-cultural and community aspirations and possible conflicts of interest and benefit. Some planning techniques need to be developed innovatively to solve coastal environmental problems continually. Coastal planning and management strategies can be formulated with various related multi-parties, refer policies, and at different and related scales to integrate orientation. However, the remaining challenge is the effective integration of marine and terrestrial planning, as the tools and mechanisms needed for its achievement are slow to implement. Coastal policies and programs should always be evaluated and monitored to provide a measure of their success.
The concept of "integrated coastal management" is central to coastal zones and ocean areas under national jurisdiction in Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, adopted at UNCED in 1992. The ICM program in the Philippines implements various components that include community organising, participatory planning, alternative day-to-day development, public education, research, resource use arrangements, and policy development that address a range of marine conservation issues. Management to local Government, active involvement of local non-governmental organisations, strong support from national governments and academic and marine science research institutions, and the inclusion of donor-assisted marine conservation programs.
Coastal zone management in China has experienced a leap in development in coastal management, the evolution of marine activities, including coastal tourism and seen in the issues of the use of coastal resources and how administrative agencies respond to these coastal resource issues, especially when the country is moving from a globalised economy to a market economy, and from centralised Government to decentralised Government (Gu & Wong, 2008).
Many countries implement Integrated Coastal Management (ICM, also known as Integrated Coastal Area Management or ICZM) to promote sustainable coastal environmental sustainability, development, and protection. Research into the relationship between ICM and local government climate change preparedness was conducted in two developing countries, Mozambique and South Africa. The results show the need for closer integration between coastal management, disaster management and climate adaptation frameworks; the need for increased support for local governments from provincial and national governments; and greater clarity concerning the coastal management mandates of local governments especially in Mozambique.
The ICZM process in many countries has known difficulties due to gaps at different levels. ICZM in three countries is at different levels of progress regarding performance and a series of factors that impede or promote the ICZM process (Beeharry, 2014). Develop an integrated plan to determine optimal land-use suitability for future sustainable development in the coastal areas of Kuala Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia, based on different planning scenarios. By evaluating various scenarios, existing plans and guidelines, land availability and use, optimal suitability for coastal land use to sustainable development, only one optimal land fit map is proposed for sustainable development scenarios (Pourebrahim et al., 2011).
Its effective legal and enforcement frameworks promote the sustainability of integrated coastal management. Laws, regulations, ordinances and other legal instruments support the continued implementation of integrated coastal management programs if implemented or enforced (Eisma et al., 2005). In the Philippines, while many laws provide a policy and regulatory framework for integrated coastal management, they are not well-documented for various reasons. What influenced the field of law enforcement research was conducted Rose and Comrades In two locations in the Philippines: Mabini, Batangas and Bais Bay, Negros Oriental, showed that due to conflicting policies, confusion of roles, political interference, lack of interest in prosecuting cases, selective enforcement entirely, and informal enforcement mechanisms, law enforcement at the two sites mentioned above is weak (Eisma et al., 2005).
The management of marine space up to 12 miles is a matter for the Provincial Government. Provincial government affairs in the marine field include the management of marine space up to 12 miles, issuance of permits, and utilisation of marine space under 12 miles. In Coastal Area Management, the regional Government develops a coastal management plan. The Coastal Area Management Plan's proposed preparation is carried out by the District/City Government and the business world.
Sustainable Coastal Development
The intensity of development and the increase in a population gives rise to coastal ecosystems' support capacity to provide all-natural resources, and environmental services threatened to be damaged or decreased. (In some densely populated and industrial locations, natural resources have been under severe pressure that could jeopardise the sustainability of natural resources in coastal areas.
The Bangladesh coast, which consists of a complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system, has enormous resources fortunate development. In terms of development efforts, this Zone is among the most overlooked (Mathbor, 1997). The needs of coastal communities are often mentioned in the planning and implementing coastal management projects but are not well considered. In coastal systems, poor resource management is one of the leading causes of its degradation. As such, the impacts arising from climate change, including sea-level rise, have forced increased demand for sustainable coastal ecosystem science to inform management decisions (Ali et al., 2018).
Sectoral management of coastal areas that are essentially related to only one type of resource or ecosystem to meet specific (sectoral) objectives, cross-sectoral or cross-regional impacts is often overlooked. Sectoral management has a variety of impacts that can damage the environment and shut down other sectors. Many coastal areas are ecologically threatened by sustainable capacity through pollution, physical degradation of habitats, exploitation of natural resources, and land use (space) development conflicts.
Coastal ecosystems are dynamic ecosystems and have a wealth of diverse habitats and interact with each other between them. Coastal areas are also the most vulnerable ecosystems affected by human activities (Fudjaja et al., 2020). Generally, development activities, directly or indirectly, have a detrimental impact on coastal ecosystems.
The management of coastal areas is inseparable from the management of various human activities in the upper land. Therefore, the management of coastal areas that integrate aspects of the ecological interrelationship between upper and coastal lands is one solution to manage coastal resources sustainably. Development of coastal areas as a strategy of utilisation coastal natural ecosystems so that its functional capacity to provide benefits for human life is not damaged.
An activity is sustainable if the economic, ecological and socio-political development activities are sustainable (Hidayah et al., 2018). Economic sustainability means that a development activity must produce economic growth, capital maintenance, and efficient resource use and investments. Ecologically sustainability means that the activities in question must maintain the integrity of the ecosystem, maintain the environment's carrying capacity, and conserve natural resources, including biodiversity. It is expected that the utilisation of resources can be sustainable. Meanwhile, socially and politically sustainability requires that a development activity should be able to create equality of development outcomes, so unlucky mobility, social cohesion, community participation, community empowerment (democratisation), social identity, and institutional development.
The development of coastal areas that support the improvement of growth and development and preservation of the environment should be directed at achieving the following objectives:
1. Able to increase the synergy of economic and social activities in the region concerned, and at the same time able to minimise the environmental impact due to economic and social activities;
2. Improving efforts to preserve the environment of coastal areas and improving the ability to meet development needs through optimal utilisation of resources owned; and
3. We align the pattern of utilisation of coastal area space with the development of the “Wawasan Nusantara” conception.
Management must accommodate all the interests of coastal resource development actors, consisting of the Government, coastal communities, private/investors and non-governmental organisations that each have an interest in the utilisation of natural resources in coastal areas (Darmawan & Lingga, 2021). Relying on the economic assessment of each sector as if they stand alone is not enough to understand their role in the local community. Resource allocation decisions should be based on evaluations that consider interconnections between sectors and consider whether negotiated resource sharing can provide more excellent community benefits than excluding certain groups of users.
Significant efforts to improve the governing capabilities of coastal and marine areas in Europe and the world are currently underway. Marine sector businesses must formulate any reforms to an effective coastal environmental planning and management system. The Russian Federation, formerly the Soviet Union, the legislative bill on the management of coastal areas reflects efforts to find ways to interrupt various economic, environmental, and social interests in an extensive area, including relevant Russian laws in force. Industrialisation and rapid urbanisation, china's mainland beaches have witnessed an increase in the hand of sustainable development. Junlin Bao's research shows that land-use policies respond differently to environmental and socio-economic changes at different stages, with a dynamic shift from passiveness pons to active responses. During the 20th century, policy emphasis was placed on reclamation and industrial diversification, reflecting pressures from changing coastal environments and socio-economic situations, adjusting land-use policies more frequently. Population growth and changes in the physical environment are the two main driving forces for change. The National Environmental Policy for Sustainable Development of the Sea and Coast of Mexico was approved in 2011. ICZM in public administration is in the early stages of implementation. The development and approval of the Campeche Bay Sanitation Zone Integrated Management Program (PMIZC-BaCam) triggered the creation and implementation of a strategic response to coastal problems (Nava Fuentes et al., 2018).
The realisation of current and future sustainability goals depends on developing and implementing coherent strategies for managing dynamic ecosystems to maintain their ability to experience disruption while maintaining their services, functions, and control mechanisms.
Conservation is one way to realise sustainable development. Efforts to protect, conserve, and utilise coastal areas and small islands and their ecosystems to ensure the existence, availability, and sustainability of coastal resources and small islands while maintaining and improving the quality of value and diversity are carried out conservation of coastal areas. Conservation of natural resources is the management of natural resources to ensure their wise utilisation and continuity of availability while maintaining and improving their value and diversity. Integrated coastal zone management and sustainable development become an excellent collaboration when implemented under the rules(Meissarah & Shidiq, 2018).
Sustainable responsibility and management include international businesses to the local and coastal areas, residents, companies, private companies, private groups, advocacy groups, and governments. This partnership needs to be established to get sustainable benefits together.
Coastal Area Arrangement on Improving Community Welfare
The territory covers natural resources, artificial resources, human resources, and activities in the region or a spatial area. Space is a forum for the interaction of activities from third resources (Adisasmita, 2006).
Coastal areas as an ecosystem, each natural ecosystem has four essential functions for human life: (1) as a provider of life support services, (2) as a provider of comfort services, (3) as a provider of resources nature, and (4) as a recipient of waste. Based on the four functions of the above ecosystems, ecologically, three requirements can guarantee the achievement of sustainable coastal development, namely: (1) spatial harmony, (2) assimilation capacity, and (3) sustainable utilisation. Spatial harmony requires that it should not be entirely reserved for utilisation zones in one area of development but should also be allocated to preservation and conservation zones such as the coastal green lung. In this conservation zone, there are no permitted development activities, so it is necessary to engineer space utilisation techniques through the determination of functional boundaries following the potential resources and carrying capacity and ecological processes that take place as a whole in coastal ecosystems or zoning as determined by Article 1 (12) of Law Number 27 of 2007. The District/City Government draws up a detailed Zoning Plan in each specific Zone of coastal within its territory.
Coastal areas as a system cannot be separated from the area's development at large. Thus the arrangement of space as a cultivation area, protected area or specific areas remains a direction in the development of coastal areas so that the arrangement and utilisation of the space provide increased community welfare in a sustainable environment—the utilisation of the coastal area by the provincial and city governments based on the Coastal Zoning Plan. The Coastal Zoning Plan (RZWP) is the direction for utilising resources in the coastal area. The RZWP contains general use of the tourism zone, residential Zone, port zone, agricultural Zone, human Zone, mining zone, aquaculture zone, Industrial Zone and public infrastructure zone. National strategic area: security defence zone. Sea flow: shipping flow, fish migration flow, general means flow, underwater pipeline, and cable—conservation areas: marine conservation zones, coastal borders.
The District/City Government develops a detailed Zoning Plan in each Coastal Zone within its territory. RZWP Kabupaten/Kota contains Allocation of space in general utilisation area plan, Conservation Area plan, Specific National Strategic Area plan, and flow plan; the interrelationship between Coastal ecosystems Bioekoregion. Coastal Area Management Plan coordinates decision-making among various agencies/government agencies regarding using resources or development activities in the designated zones.
The Coastal Zoning Plan is aligned, aligned, and balanced with the Regional Spatial Plan (RTRW) of the provincial Government or the district/city government. The spatial plan of the province/district/city becomes a reference in the preparation of space utilisation / regional development; realising the balance of development within the region; determine the location of investments in the territory undertaken by the Government, the public, and the private sector; guidelines for the preparation of strategic spatial plans; and references in land administration. Besides, it is also the basis for controlling the utilisation of space in the arrangement/development of the region through the direction of zoning regulations, licensing directives, incentive and disincentive directives, and sanctions directives.
Coastal and oceanic areas worldwide provide food, transportation, recreation, and resources to a growing number of people each year. As demand for these resources increases, the potential for user conflict increases radically. This situation can be avoided or countered by proactively initiating dual-use planning. A multi-purpose zoning plan can only exist within a concrete management framework: marine and protected coastal areas provide only such a foundation.
In the Regional Regulation on Provincial Spatial Plan. Provincial Government, the District / City Government with a coastal border, must set a border directive for the Beach. Coastal borders are Certain Areas such as beaches that have essential benefits to maintain the sustainability of coastal functions. Determination of coastal borders by the Local Government is adapted to the characteristics of topography, biophysical, hydro-oceanographic coastal, economic, and cultural needs, and other provisions.
The determination of coastal borders is done to protect and maintain (Halim, 2020):
1. Sustainability of ecosystem functions and all resources in coastal areas and small islands;
2. People's lives in coastal areas and small islands from the threat of natural disasters;
3. Allocation of space for public access through the Beach; and
4. Allocation of space for waterways and waste. (Article 4 of Presidential Regulation No. 51 of 2016 concerning Coastal Border Boundaries of 2016 concerning Coastal Border Boundary)
Protection of coastal borders is carried out to protect coastal areas from activities that interfere with the sustainability of coastal functions. The use and utilisation of land on the coastal border should pay attention, the public interest and the sustainability of supporting capacity, sustainable development, ecosystem interrelationship, biodiversity, and sustainability of environmental functions.
Protection of coastal borders, especially the green coastline, a conservation zone, is not permitted for development activities. Coastal borders are included as Protected areas and part of local protected areas. The criteria of coastal borders are land along the shore that is proportional in width to the shape and condition and physical of the Beach at least 100 meters from the highest tide point to land.
Local Regulations do the determination of coastal borders. The Beach has been designated as a protected area with the determination of coastal borders; then, the area is prohibited from cultivation does not interfere with the function of protection. Beach conservation policy in Sidoarjo Regency is by setting the beach boundary, which determines that there is no human activity along the coast for open areas with sandy beaches. The condition of the Beach is stable, and the boundary line is set at least 100 meters for open areas with sandy beaches and beaches that are subject to erosion; no human activities are permitted. The beach conditions are stable with a 200-meter boundary for open areas with encroachment activity. The condition for a stable beach is that the boundary line is set at least 100 meters from the highest tide line. There is a tendency of erosion for open areas with encroachment activity, set line border 200 meters from the highest tidal coastline. For the mangrove wooded coastal area is set a boundary line 100 meters from the highest tide coastline.
The preservation and conservation zones in a development area are essential in maintaining various life support processes. Some development activities such as nature tourism and the utilisation of mangrove forests and fisheries in a continuous manner can occur in conservation zones. Depending on the natural conditions, optimal preservation and conservation zone in a development area should be between 30-50% of the total area. Any development activities (industrial, agricultural, fishery, settlement, and others) in the utilisation zone should be placed in a biophysically appropriate location, forming a harmonious mosaic.
Most coastal degradation is caused by anthropogenic actions, which threaten Ecosystem services. Marine protected areas are a solution to protect ecosystem services, such as fish stocks, although this can cause conflicts with fisheries and tourism. Research and tourism in Southeast Brazil interact with conservation. Non-conflicting use of ICE can be achieved by ensuring that the poor local benefit from more than one ES on an ongoing basis, but that requires alternatives such as adding value to ES ecosystem services) Moreover, paying for environmental services (Lopes, 2015).
Empowerment as an effort to improve the welfare of coastal communities
Integrated coastal management is the centre of coastal zones and ocean areas; coastal zone communities must be involved. Many countries, and particularly Bangladesh, will benefit significantly from greater community involvement in coastal development projects. Ecosystem restoration should involve the participation of the community, Government, and private sector. To restore integrated coastal ecosystems, a forum or institution must realise the collaboration by considering priority programs that must be prioritised, ranging from mangrove, coral reefs, estuary to seaweed. Local governments are harnessing the potential of coastal areas to boost the growth and economy of local communities.
Muhammad Mehedi Masud said that environmental knowledge for sustainable development, motivation to engage in management with community-based ecotourism (CBETM), the perceived economic impact of CBETM, the perceived social impact of CBETM and the perceived cultural impact of CBETM have a more significant influence on the intention to participate in CBETM. The point is that these factors lead to the realisation of positive intentions in managing CBETM and encourage community participation (Masud et al., 2017).
Tourism development is also used to reduce conflicts between conservation and development and increase community participation. Local support and capacity building before tourism development is essential to engage local communities. Local communities are often complex and heterogeneous, and tourism development must be tailored to their diverse needs.
Perceptions of the development of chia-chi wu and huei-min Tsai research tourism show it varies substantially between community actors and different sub-social-ecological systems (SES) due to their different experiences socio-ecological interactions. Therefore, tourism development in regional place-based management, such as in marine protected areas (MPA), should consider various perceptions of the subsystem on tourism development. Rather than considering all local communities as public units, capacity building should be adapted to the needs of community actors from various sub-SES. Besides, support from government agencies is critical to the success of community-based MPA policies.
Nature-based tourism or ecotourism can be encouraged in protected areas beach aims to achieve sustainability. Well-planned tourism provides economic and political incentives for management and conservation and can provide additional benefits to local communities and regional economies (Agardy, 1993). In the tourism model, the main driving force to explain tourism development is the reciprocal relationship between the various models of 'natural value', 'value of experience', and 'number of tourists.
Nature-based tourism or ecotourism can be encouraged in protected areas beach aims to achieve sustainability. Well-planned tourism provides economic and political incentives for management and conservation and can provide additional benefits to local communities and regional economies. Examples of nature-based tourism have been successfully integrated into multi-purpose planning in Quintana Roo, Mexico; Small Antilles; and Australia, among other areas.
Tourism can be an ally or threat to conservation. The expansion and diversification of tourism have an increased environmental impact on protected ecosystems (Canteiro, 2018). The traditional coastal aquaculture industry does not generate as much revenue as the new large-scale industries, but ignoring aquaculture fisheries' ecological and social impacts will not be sensible (Peter Chen et al., 2013).
Australia's professional fishing industry is often considered at odds with recreational fisheries and tourism in New South Wales. There is often a long way to close professional fishing areas, arguing that this will provide better economic benefits for local communities. Michelle Voyer's research and friends show a very interconnected and supportive relationship, with professional fishing providing a range of services that benefit tourism and recreational fishing.
Fisheries and tourism research by P. F.M. Lopes in Southeast Brazil shows interacting with conservation (Lopes, 2015). Fishers involved with coastal tourism has a better income than those who are only involved in fishing. Tourism in areas outside permitted can benefit fisheries and biodiversity conservation by allocating fishers to fish and attracting visitors to see wildlife. Non-conflicting ES (ecosystem services) can be achieved by ensuring that the poor local benefit from more than one ES on an ongoing basis, but that requires alternatives such as adding value to ICE and paying for environmental services.
Pepito R. Fernandez et al. conveyed the latest trend in coastal resource management in the Philippines through two case studies on joint property resource management in Panay Island, Western Visayas, Philippines (Fernandez et al., 2000). Studies reveal that the management and development of large marine ecosystems require critical conditions for success, such as the depiction and suitability of politically determined spaces with ecological realities; improved stakeholder management capabilities e.g., information, power, and skills; additional livelihood opportunities; enabling institutions and increased grassroots participation; and adequate supervision and coordination between and among concerned countries, civil society, and profit-oriented organisations. The achievements and difficulties surrounding creating a coastal governance system (CAGS) are examined in the process.
Agar socio-economic condition of coastal areas is improving; Sis one effort made in India where global NGOs are working together with local NGOs to improve India's socio-economic and environmental conditions. The focus is on achieving economic security by creating new avenues for jobs and using microcredit schemes as the forerunner of environmental protection activities. The difference in economic trends between coastal areas has been well managed and areas that have not succeeded. The crucial factors that determine are house prices; Recreational facilities; Shopping facilities, and Universities (Malomo, 2018).
The management of natural resources of coastal areas is carried out so that local communities are actively involved in managing natural resources in community participation in the utilisation of coastal resources to increase the social, economic, and cultural value of the community. Empowerment is carried out by providing supplies and knowledge to recognise the potential of available natural resources maximally and apply appropriate technology to increase yields and income. The empowerment approach is used because it is believed that the source of poverty and poverty is helplessness. Community empowerment is an economic development concept that summarises the social values of "people-centered, participatory, empowering, and sustainable" that emphasises more on the empowerment of manus by controlling their lives and resources, creating their home life resources, and directly they can pursue development as a welfare effort, which is the ultimate goal of "people centered development" (Korten, 1984). Community empowerment is a process to facilitate, encourage the community to place themselves professionally and become the main actors in utilising its strategic environment to achieve sustainability in the long run efforts to establish the community through the realisation of their potential capabilities (Theresia, 2015).
Community empowerment is the process of advancing, developing, and expanding the capabilities of the community. Society in the context of empowerment is not an object of development but as a subject that collectively determines how they will develop. Putting society in line with the state or public relations with the state is horizontal in partnerships. With the horizontal nature of the relationship, the position of society that was initially marginalised and powerless became more empowered, which at first the object of development became the subject of development. Putting society as the subject of development has raised the dignity and dignity of society as an active and creative being. People are people who live in coastal areas.
Community empowerment is more humanistic to build a society, get out of poverty, backwardness, and helplessness. The community to the lowest level of the community is given opportunities and authority in the management of development, including in the decision-making process since identifying problems and needs, planning, implementation, evaluation, and enjoying the results of development (Soetomo, 2011). The preparation of the Regional Government Coastal Area Management plan involves the community. The decision-making process should be given to the local community because the community at the local level that is affected most bears the consequences of implementing the decided development, including the risk of failure and the negative impacts.
According to Article 63 paragraph (3) of Law Number 1 of 2014, the Government and Regional Governments realise, foster and increase awareness and responsibility in decision making, management implementation, partnerships between communities, businesses and local governments, development and implementation of national policies in the environmental sector, development and implementation of preventive and proactive efforts to prevent a decrease in the carrying and carrying capacity of the Andreas Coast and Small Islands, development and development of environmentally friendly technology, provision and dissemination of environmental information, and awarding people who have contributed in the field of Coastal and Small Islands Management.
Community participation is strengthened and encouraged based on community initiatives in the management of coastal areas as regulated in Article 4 (a, c) of Law Number 27 of 2007; this is implemented to protect, conserve, rehabilitate, utilise and enrich Coastal and ecological Resources. It is hoped that a sustainable system can strengthen the participation of the community and government institutions and encourage community initiatives in managing coastal resources in order to achieve justice, balance and sustainability.
Well-planned tourism provides economic and political incentives for management and conservation and can provide additional benefits for the community. Tourism development can also be used to reduce conflicts between conservation and development and increase community participation. Community participation is strengthened, and community initiatives are encouraged in the management of coastal areas. Helplessness improves welfare for coastal communities and empowerment, especially by the Government and Local Government, by providing supplies and knowledge to recognise the potential of available natural resources better and by applying appropriate technology to increase the yield and income of coastal communities.
Empowerment of coastal communities and Village-owned Enterprises in improving the welfare of coastal communities
Empowerment of coastal communities as a matter of provincial Governors. Management of marine space up to 12 miles and utilisation of marine space under 12 miles, and empowerment of coastal communities in the Provincial Government's business (Alhayyan & Tarigan, 2018). Community Empowerment is an effort to provide facilities, encouragement or assistance to coastal communities so that they can make the best choice in utilising Coastal Resources and Small Islands sustainably.
Village community empowerment is the authority of the provincial Government (Pujiningsih, 2019). Village Community Empowerment is an effort to develop the independence and welfare of the community by improving knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviours, abilities, awareness, and utilising resources through the determination of policies, programs, activities, and mentoring by the essence of the problem and priority the needs of the village community (Badaruddin et al., 2020).
The Village is a unitary legal community with territorial boundaries authorised to regulate and manage government affairs Hambali, (2018), the interests of local communities based on community initiatives, rights of origin, and rights of tradition recognised and respected in the Unitary State system of the Republic of Indonesia (Hidayat et al., 2020). The Village is obliged to develop the empowerment of the village community (Maolani, 2019). Empowerment of rural communities to accelerate rural development through the deployment of infrastructure to empower the community and efforts to accelerate rural development through the provision of facilities and infrastructure to empower the community and efforts to accelerate practical and robust development (Wijoyo et al., 2018).
Community empowerment concerns two interrelated groups: the community as an empowered party and the caring party as the empowering party. Naturally, the coastal potential in the area is directly utilised by the community of four living in the area, which generally consists of fishers. Therefore, the key to the empowerment program of rural communities living in coastal areas is fishermen themselves by making fishermen as partners in the community empowerment program to foster motivation and accelerate the implementation of the objectives of the empowerment program. Natural resources are a guarantee for the lives of those who have a high dependence on natural resources. Coastal communities have a high dependence on natural resources.
The village government, provincial government opinion of and district/municipal government empower the village community for the economic progress of the village government. The empowerment of village communities living in coastal areas is directed to the empowerment of people related to the potential owned by the Village. It empowers the village community to build power by encouraging, motivating and raising awareness of its potential and strives to develop it. Community empowerment efforts to develop the potential of self-reliance exist in each area, especially people living in coastal areas.
The Local Government seeks to harness the potential of coastal areas to increase local indigenous income. Utilisation is done by making the coastal area a tourist attraction as done by the Pekalongan City Government. In addition to being a conservation area, mangrove forests are also a tourist attraction. Coastal areas in the tropics are increasingly being developed for tourism (Nitivattananon, 2019). The combination of natural features of beaches, coral reefs, warm ocean waters, and often a people-friendly culture offers a desirable destination for many tourists.
Although coastal tourism generates substantial economic benefits to the local and national economies, the exchange of such developments usually occurs, degrading the coastal environment. The development of the tourism industry can bring economic benefits to an area; it is essential to consider the long-term impact of industry on a particular location (Dvarskas, 2017). When the tourism industry relies on certain ecological circumstances, those considering various development options need to consider the long-term impact of increasing tourist numbers on the size of ecological design. The resilience of specific tourist sites to the changes brought about by the increase in tours is vital in determining their long-term sustainability.
The Karnataka government's red carpet welcomes investors to exploit the many advantages of the state's three coastal districts, raising environmental protection issues, access to natural resources by local communities and industrial impact assessments. Various aspects affect investors and influence the local population in the development process (Aswathappa, 2005).
Communities and community groups use coastal areas to maintain the balance of functions of the coastal area. Travellers who have higher marks for local environmental and welfare policies also prefer lower congestion rates in natural areas. Poor environmental planning and a lack of prescale socio-cultural problems are common causes. The town of Hikkaduwa and the marine reserve, Sri Lanka, is almost damaging to the coastal environment. Integrated coastal management in Sri Lanka through a community-based "Special Area Management" plan to ensure the sustainability of tourism and resources and policies on how to finance the implementation of planning by sharing locally collected profits and costs (Perera & de Vos, 2007).
The development of tourism objects is expected to positively impact the area both in the form of direct community involvement and indirect impacts on the surrounding community's economy, both natural resources and culture. The development of tourism leads to an increase in the community's income in tourist destinations, opening jobs, improving infrastructure/public facilities in tourist destinations that are among the Village's obligations, namely to improve the quality of life of the village community (Rohman, 2019).
The Government, Provincial Government, District/Municipal Government, and Village Government encourage the development of Village-owned Enterprises by prioritising Village-owned Enterprises in managing natural resources in the Village. The Village Government that controls coastal natural resources as a tourist attraction can manage village-owned enterprises. The management of tourist areas resulting from the efforts of Village-owned Enterprises is utilised in addition to business development and Village Development, village community empowerment, and the provision of assistance for the poor. Institutional development in coastal communities based on local resources will increase community participation to make decisions and control coastal resources. Community participation in maintaining natural and cultural resources is a significant contribution and can become a tourist attraction, and participatory community is the main base of sustainable tourism.
With the uniqueness of coastal areas and the variety of existing resources, the management of coastal areas is implemented in an integrated manner that provides opportunities for coastal communities to build resources sustainably that can foster economic development and improve the community's quality of life. The development of coastal areas in a sustainable manner is a strategy for utilising coastal natural ecosystems to function appropriately to benefit human life. Development of coastal areas so that the arrangement and utilisation of space provide increased community welfare in an environmentally sustainable environment is the Coastal Area Zoning Plan. Natural tourism, mangrove forest conservation and sustainable fisheries can take place within conservation zones. Zoning determines investments in the territory undertaken by the Government, the public, and the private sector. Protection of coastal borders is carried out to protect coastal areas from activities that interfere with the sustainability of coastal functions.
The development of potential independence of people living in coastal areas is carried out by fostering and empowering the community to improve the welfare of the Village. Utilisation of the potential of coastal areas to make the coastal area of mangrove forests a tourist attraction in addition to conservation land that is managed with a model of business partnership with farmers and members of the community. The Village that controls coastal natural resources as a tourist attraction can provide its management to village-owned enterprises that can increase village income and the welfare of the village community.
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