Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

Analysis Public Policy of Defence Strategy

Lukman Yudho Prakoso, Universitas Pertahanan

Suhirwan, Universitas Pertahanan

Kasih prihantoro, Universitas Pertahanan

Tri Legionosuko, Universitas Pertahanan

Rianto, Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Trisakti

Gazali Salim, Universitas Borneo

Yusriadi Yusriadi, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Administrasi Puangrimaggalatung

Keywords:

Defence, Strategy, Shipping Channel, Policy, Indonesia

Abstract

The maritime defence pillar in support of the global vision of the Maritime Axis is an indispensable foundation for Indonesia as it is exposed to the dynamics of international development, regional and national strategic environment, and the threats to the environment. This study will analyze the defence strategy against the current state of the APTS, analyse the current conditions and formulate the best defence strategy. Furthermore, the research used is a descriptive qualitative phenomenology. Défense Policy Implementation Theory states that policy implementation can be adequately achieved, influenced by inclusive, interactive, transparent, controllable, and affordable (IITCA). The results showed that the performance of the APTS used is currently very limited due to sedimentation, which affects the channel width and depth. Another inhibiting factor is the presence of illegal residents' structures along the channel. In addition, the existence of the Suramadu Bridge also becomes a barrier for large ships through the channel. The APTS is not a priority for the standardization of authorized companies because it takes economic factors into account. It is crucial for the existence of the 2nd Indonesian Armada Base in Surabaya. The Indonesian Navy's most prominent armed force is on this base. The Surabaya West Shipping Channel (APBS) is very busy, and therefore, the Indonesian Navy ships encountered some challenges entering and leaving the ground. APTS in its current condition can only be bypassed by small boats, with a maximum of 2,000 tons. In conclusion, the lack of optimal implementation of the defence strategy is associated with the presence of APTS is not ideal. Therefore, the system formulated is that the Indonesian Ministry of Defence is striving for the President to issue policy discretion to prioritize the normalization of APTS by using existing national resources.

Introduction

Law Number 34 of 2004 Article 9 letter (a) states that the task of the Navy is to carry out the duties of the Navy in the defence sector. And letter (b) says that the Indonesian Navy is tasked with enforcing the law and maintaining security in the marine area of national jurisdiction following the provisions of federal law and ratified international law. Following this primary task, to carry out its duties properly, the Navy must create a deterrence effect and carry out sea control to prevent the use of the sea (sea denial) by other parties that harm the Indonesian side.

Therefore, enough defence equipment is needed and under operational requirements that are by Indonesia's geographical conditions (Prakoso et al., 2020). The Naval Base has an essential role as a place for marine power development to the area of operation or "deployment forces position" and as a "Home Base," which has the 5-R criteria, namely: Rest, Refresh, Refuel, Repair and Replenishment. In the presence of operations at sea, base also has an essential role in implementing efficiency and effectiveness of operations using base tactic as a regional security base point (Suharyo, 2017).

For the Indonesian Navy, base is an element of the Integrated Fleet Weapon System (SSAT) as the spearhead in supporting operational units to achieve a task. As a component of SSAT, bases must be prepared carefully and precisely in support of the active duties of elements of the Indonesian Navy that have strategic value. Therefore, it must always carry out capacity building, strength development, and support for base facilities in an integrated and sustainable manner. It must prepare the base carefully and precisely in support of the operational tasks of the elements of the Indonesian Navy (Suhirwan et al., 2020). The preparation of command needs to be continuously pursued to support the Navy title's operational effectiveness, surface ships, and submarines.

These efforts include calculations in determining the base's location carefully by considering the direction and magnitude of the threat. Thus, we can prioritize the strategic location of the submarine base that needs to be prepared, including consideration of integrated logistical support so that the submarine can be projected into conflict areas quickly. Thus, it can increase the mobility and endurance of fleet operations. Increasing the mobility of these strategic elements will undoubtedly have a high deterrence impact on the opponent. Apart from considering the direction and magnitude of the threat, other aspects that it must feel for the base's location are geographical conditions, hydro-oceanography, and the availability of logistical support, infrastructure, and infrastructure in the area/location to be selected.

The function of the base is not only as a place for the development of sea power to the area of operation, and the ground must be arranged in such a way as to be able to contribute optimally to the final resistance field arrangement. Must be able to give logistical and strategic meanings to operational units. The ideal base must have a good port-channel and pool, supply facilities (fuel, water, foodstuffs, and other logistical supplies), docking, warehousing, adequate maintenance, and repair facilities (Risahdi et al., 2020).

Problem Formulation

The acts of terrorism and radicalism that occurred in Indonesia especially those involving students were of particular concern in this study, because students are the generation that determines the future of the nation in time, so that in this study the formulation of the problem presented is how to implement government policies on defense Which countries are currently implemented in universities especially those in urban areas?

Theory and Method used

In this study the theory used is the theory of implementation of public policy according to George Edward III there are four variables in public policy namely Communication, Resources, attitudes, and bureaucratic structures (Edward, 1980) The type of research used is descriptive qualitative phenomenology.

Discussion

According to the results of the 2017 National Intelligence Agency (BIN) survey, 39 (thirty-nine) percent of students have been exposed to radical movements, there are 15 (fifteen) provinces that have now become BIN's attention and continue to receive attention. Of the 15 (fifteen) provinces there are three universities which are the main concern because they are the basis for the spread of radicalism. The phenomenon of radical teaching among students utilizes psychological innocence in students who are still in the process of finding identity (Rivai, 2018). BIN gave an example that Bahrun Naim was a young man who began to engage with radical activities while studying at Sebelas Maret University in Surakarta (Madrohim & Prakoso, 2021)

Judging from the legislation, the obligation to defend the country can be traced to the provisions of the 1945 Constitution and law number 3 of 2002 concerning national defense. In the 1945 Constitution Article 30 paragraph 1, it is affirmed that "each citizen has the right and obligation to participate in the defense and security efforts of the state". Whereas in paragraph 2 it is stated that "the defense and security efforts of the state are carried out through a system of defense and public security by the TNI and POLRI as the main force, and the people as supporting forces."

The concept stipulated in Article 30 is the concept of defense and state security. While the concept of defending the state is regulated in Article 27 paragraph 3 of the 1945 Constitution that "Every citizen has the right and obligation to participate in efforts to defend the state". Participating in the defense of the country is manifested in the implementation of national defense activities, as stated in Law No.3 of 2002 Article 9 paragraph (1) that "Every citizen has the right and obligation to participate in efforts to defend the state which is manifested in the implementation of national defense". Then in Republic of Indonesia Law number 3 of 2002 the section weighing letters (c) is affirmed among other things "in the implementation of national defense every citizen has the right and obligation to participate in efforts to defend the state ...".

Our problem now is how to manifest the participation of citizens in efforts to defend the country. According to Article 9 paragraph (2) Law number 3 of 2002 concerning National Defense, the participation of citizens in efforts to defend the country is carried out through:

a) Civic education.

b) Mandatory military basic training.

c) Devotion as an Indonesian National Army soldier voluntarily or compulsorily; and

d) Dedication in accordance with the profession.

Based on these provisions, students who take Citizenship Education subjects in schools can be said to have participated in the state's defense efforts. One of the study materials/materials that must be contained in the basic and secondary education curriculum and higher education is Citizenship Education (Article 37 paragraph (1) and (2) Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System). The problem that we want to explore is why can state defense efforts be carried out through civic education?

In the explanation of Article 37 paragraph (1) of the law, it is explained that citizenship education is intended to form students to become human beings who have a sense of nationality and love for the country. From the description above, the formation of a sense of nationality and love for the homeland of students can be fostered through citizenship education.

The concept of nationalism and love of homeland is closely related to the meaning of the country's defense efforts. Note the phrase “. In the spirit of his love to the United States of Indonesian Republic." in the definition of state defense efforts that have been disclosed above. The sentence of love for the unitary state of Indonesia is the realization of the concept of nationalism (a sense of nationality) and the love of the country (patriotism). Whereas love for the homeland and national awareness is a feature of awareness in defending the country. Darmawan (2004) asserts that the concept of state defense is a moral conception that is implemented in the attitudes, behavior and actions of citizens based on: love of the homeland, awareness of nation and state, belief in Pancasila as a state ideology, and willingness to sacrifice for the nation and state of Indonesia. Thus, in relation to defending the country, citizenship education is a vehicle to foster awareness of students participating in the defense of the state (Risahdi et al., 2020, Hussain, Hassan, Bakhsh & Abdullah, 2020).

In addition, we can see by tracing the juridical provisions of Article 9 paragraph 2 (letter a) of Law Number 3 of 2002 which states that "in citizenship education there is an understanding of the awareness of defending the country." This means that one way to gain an understanding of awareness of defending the state can be achieved by taking citizenship education.

Darmawan (2004) emphasizes that citizenship education, in addition to teaching citizens' rights and obligations, has included an understanding of the state's defense awareness for national defense. Then he stressed that the obligation to include citizenship education in the basic, secondary, and high education curriculum is a manifestation of the participation of citizens in efforts to defend the country in the context of the implementation of National Defense.

Thus, fostering awareness of defending the country through citizenship education is intended to foster and improve national defense efforts. Fajar (2004) asserts that Citizenship Education has the duty to instill national commitment, including developing democratic values and behavior and being responsible as Indonesian citizens.

Radicalism and terrorism in universities such as the results of research conducted by BIN is a big question, how has the implementation of state defense implemented in universities, the following are the results of research related to the implementation of defense in higher education from variable analysis of George Edward's public policy implementation theory III, the location of research in retrieving secondary data and primary data is carried out based on past bases of radicalism and terrorism movements, the locus covers Lampung Province in Bandar Lampung City and its surroundings, in West Java Province in the cities of Purwakarta and Bandung, in East Java in the City of Surabaya, in South Sulawesi in the City of Makassar and in the Jakarta Special Capital Region (DKI) as a Center of Gravity (COG) for terrorism:

Communication

Based on George Edward III, communication greatly determines the success of achieving the objectives of the implementation. Effective implementation occurs when decision makers already know what will be done. Communication is further divided into 3 determinants of successful policy implementation, including:

Transmission

Transmission is the main factor in terms of communication of implementing policies. According to Agustino, the distribution of good communication will result in a good implementation (Leo, 2008). There is often a problem in channeling communication that is misunderstanding, so that what is expected is distorted in the middle of the road.

Transmission on the implementation of the State Defense is carried out by the Ministry of Defense in this case represented by the Directorate General of Defense Potential to the regional government as the implementing policy then forwarded to the local government work unit through direct or verbal orders (Redita et al., 2020, Hussain & Hassan, 2020).

The results of the team's findings in the field found that almost all research locus occurred miscommunication and miscoordination of the implementation of State Defense in the regions. The causes of miscommunication and miscoordination are because the delivery of messages to the regions is done in a hurry then from the center to the regions not through appropriate procedures in the area.

Clarity

According to George Edward III, communication received by policy makers (street-level-bureaucrats) must be clear and not confusing or unambiguous. The implementation of the National Defense program in the regions from the results of interviews with several informants said that local governments need clarity related to this program, they need a legal umbrella for implementing the State Defense so that local governments can work optimally. The legal basis referred to here is the existence of derivative regulations from the Defense Law specifically regulating State Defense Kurniawan et al., 2018).

Consistency

According to George Edward III, the orders given in the implementation of a communication must be consistent and clear to be determined or executed. If the order given often changes, it can cause confusion for the implementer in the field. Therefore, consistency must also get attention in a communication. Consistency in the implementation of the State Defense in the regions has been going very well so far, the regional government is very consistent in supporting the State Defense program (Prihantoro et al., 2021).

Resource

Resources are important factors for the implementation of policies well, so that sufficient human resources (HR) are needed, and enhanced capabilities possessed by policy implementers. The resources here are divided into two, namely in the form of human (staff) and non-human resources (infrastructure facilities or advice).

Staff

Implementation of policy will not succeed without the support of qualified human resources, quality in this case is from education, experience, competence, and professionalism and besides quality is the quantity of the staff themselves who will implement the policy.

Human resources are very influential on the success of implementation, because without reliable human resources policy implementation will not run smoothly. The human resources (staff) referred to in terms of implementing the State Defense policy in the regions to prevent terrorism, especially being a foreign terrorist fighter, are the availability of official Martial Arts instructors or instructors from the Ministry of Defense (Suhirwan et al., 2020).

The findings in the field at the time of the interviews in several regions found that there was a shortage of teaching staff to provide materials for State Defense, teachers who had been using teachers from outside the Ministry of Defense so far, such as Kodam, Korem & Kodim. One example that was considered successful in overcoming the shortcomings of competent teaching staff was in Purwakarta Regency, where the Purwakarta Regent employed a former terrorist named Agus Marshal to teach at the ideology school formed by the Purwakarta Regent.

Facilities

Facilities are a very necessary factor in implementing a policy. Facilities here can mean in the form of buildings, educational materials, curriculum and so on. The facilities in implementing the National Defense policy in the regions as a result of the findings and interviews are the unavailability of special Martial Arts training centers for regions, so far, the participants deposited in Rindam in the area meanwhile the Ministry of Defense is currently only available in Bogor Rumpin Training Center which was just inaugurated in February 2017. In addition to the building facilities that are needed there is also a need for a basic Bela Negara curriculum that has standardized from the Ministry of Defense. This curriculum contains the types or subjects that should be given to participants especially in relation to this research for students to prevent becoming foreign terrorist fighters (Dipua et al., 2020).

Disposition

Disposition or attitude of implementing policies is an important factor in the approach to implementation or public policy. If the implementation of a policy wants to be effective, then the implementers of the policy must not only know what will be done but also must have the ability to implement it, so that in practice there is no bias (Lukman Yudho Prakoso et al., 2020).

The attitude of implementing the policy will be very influential in implementing the policy. From the findings in the field during interviews with informants such as the Head of the East Java Provincial Kesbangpol, Director of Student Affairs, Airlangga Regional Head of East Java supported the Bela Negara program, they saw the Bela Negara program very good and important to foster a sense of love for the country and fight terrorism (Prakoso & Aprilliyani, 2021).

In addition, the results of interviews with Unair's Student Director and Unila's Vice Chancellor III also supported that the State Defense be included in the education curriculum in higher education and there was a need to modify the delivery of materials for students to the State. From several informants, they said that they supported the State Defense for students not in a militaristic form, but could be in the form of public lectures, field work practices, museum visits, and other positive activities.

Bureaucratic Structure

Bureaucratic structure has a significant influence on policy implementation. This aspect of bureaucratic structure includes two things, namely mechanism and fragmentation Rifqi & Prakoso, 2020).

Mechanism

The mechanism meant in the bureaucratic structure of policy implementation is the existence of a Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) (Sartono, Prakoso & Sianturi, 2019). In relation to the implementation of the State Defense, what is needed now is a guideline for the implementation of the State Defense program, which is endorsed by the Ministry of Defense, besides that the Ministry of Defense must initiate the submission of a presidential decree regarding the implementation of regional defense (Listiyono et al., 2019).

This presidential decree is deemed necessary in the regions because the regions need a clear legal umbrella related to this State Defense, in addition to that, it is also necessary to regulate the mechanism for the inclusion of special Martial Arts material into the student curriculum. This is in accordance with the statement from Minister of Technology Research and Higher Education Muhammad Nasir that to prevent radicalism in the campus, the National Defense program for students will be implemented, this program is in the form of general education in which there are national insight material (Yulida, 2018; Hussain, Nguyen, Nguyen & Nguyen, 2021) to introduce back to students about the country of Indonesia.

Fragmentation

Fragmentation according to George Edward III is the division of responsibility for a policy area among organizational units. Responsibility for a policy area is often spread among various organizations; this responsibility can be in the form of socialization, training and services.

In the implementation of the National Defense in the regions, the results of data collection in Mataram, Lampung, Surabaya, Purwakarta, Bandung and Bogor found that coordination in the implementation of State Defense actually had gone well, as evidenced by the results of hearings with the Head of the East Java Province Kesbangpol which explained Kesbangpol East Java Province with the Representative of the Ministry of Defense (PPTP) in East Java has often coordinated and implemented the Martial Arts program in East Java, but one thing that has not been implemented is the entry of State Defense into universities in East Java, especially in Surabaya (Sartono, Prakoso & Suseto, 2019).

Conclusion

The conclusion of this study was faced with the results of the analysis of the implementation of state defense policies in higher education. It was found that the State Defense in higher education applied to the tertiary education curriculum, which was specifically in urban areas, was not enough to counteract radicalism and terrorism that entered universities. It was found that the stake holders related to defending the country did not have good communication, so that the utilization of resources was not optimal, communication that was not well established also had an impact on the attitude of implementing state defense in higher education. Communication problems between stakeholders also have an impact on the system that is still not well integrated, the bureaucratic structure related to the model of the national defense model through the civic education model currently being implemented at the beginning of the semester is also felt to be lacking so that the national defense model in universities must be reevaluated and together with other stake holders must have strong communication so that the phenomenon of higher education especially in urban areas is exposed to radicalism and terrorism can be overcome.

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