Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 4
Dahyar Daraba, Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri (IPDN)
Haedar Akib, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Said Saggaf, STIA Puangrimaggalatung, Sengkang
Andi Cahaya, STIA PRIMA Bone
Rudi Salam, Universitas Negeri Makassar
The partnership model of actors in public services based on gender perspectives is important to be studied and shared by the public in Indonesia, as the population by sex, workplace, and the nature of the work is not proportional. Law No. 39/1999 on Human Rights Article 49 affirms that women are entitled to vote, be elected, appointed in employment, occupation and profession, and obtain special protection in their work or profession on matters that threaten safety and or health. Similarly, reasons pertain to the reproductive function in which women are guaranteed and protected by law. This research aims to analyze and explain the partnership model in basic public service based on gender equality in Makassar City. Research type and approach is descriptive-qualitative. Research location in Makassar City 2015-2017. Primary data is obtained through observation and interviews with informants serving as public service providers and users of public services. The results of the study found that the implementation of basic public services (education, health and creative economy) in Makassar City shows the existence of proportional and professional actor partnership based on the sex of the service provider, the work unit and the type or nature of the work performed by the actor researched. Based on the result of this research analysis is constructed prototype of basic public service partnership model based on gender equality perspective. The prototype of this public service model is based on the involvement of six pillars of civil society as actors that act synergistically, ie government institutions, private institutions, local institutions in the community, persons in units of community empowerment, police and the press
Partnership, Public Service, Gender Equality, Synergy Actors Role.
Partnerships in public service-based or "biased" gender equality is one of the central issues in the effort to empower the potential of Human Resources (HR) that supports equitable access and improving the quality of basic public services in the district/city in Indonesia (Akib et al., 2015; Wiweko & Nugroho, 2015). This issue is important given that more than half of Indonesia's population is female, with diverse and tiered educational backgrounds, ranging from elementary, secondary, to higher education, and many women are also alumni of graduate programs. Therefore, the government issued a regulation that regulates gender equality, at least to minimize the occurrence of gender discrimination in governance, development, community empowerment and public services. Law No. 39/1999 on Human Rights (Republik Indonesia, 1999) article 48 states that, "Women are entitled to education and instruction in all types, levels and educational path...". The same regulation is also described in the Minister of Home Affairs Regulation (Permendagri) No. 15 of 2008 on Gender Mainstreaming in National Development (Presiden, 2000).
Achieving a model of public service with gender justice is certainly must be based on the application of principles of good governance. The characteristics as well as the principles of good governance according to United Nations Development Program (UNDP) include: participation, legal certainty, transparency, responsiveness, fairness, community-oriented, efficiency and effectiveness, accountability, vision far ahead (Graham et al., 2003; Mardiasmo, 2002; Presiden, 2000).
Data in Indonesia shows that there is still an imbalance between women and men seen from the number of employees who work in various organizations/agencies, especially in government agencies, namely: at the Central level the number of men by 65 percent and women only 35 percent. Meanwhile, at the regional level the number of men was 82.2 percent and women by 17.68 percent. The percentage of illiterate women workers is 26.8 percent, indicating that more than twice the percentage of illiterate male workers (Salman, 2005). The control of productive assets in the form of land, in urban areas is women 14.3 percent and men equal to 76.9 percent. In the periphery, women controlled 17.4 percent and men by 67.4 percent. In rural areas women account for 20.4 percent and males of 66.7 percent (Noerdin et al., 2006). Phenomenon and data in Makassar City show the same thing, for example Civil Servant/State Civil Apparatus in a section of Regional Secretariat is woman 93 person and men 141 people (Niswaty et al., 2015).
The assumption of this research is the level of quality of human development which is either in the same direction or linear with good governance quality. Similarly, it is assumed that good governance quality is linear with the quality of gender equality in the delivery of public services. Based on these assumptions and reflecting on the facts or data available, it can be stated that the State of Indonesia has failed to improve the quality of human development and one of the causes is "gender inequality" in basic public service delivery (Akib et al., 2015). The assumption is parallel to the good governance characteristic of UNDP which is characteristic of the "principle of equality and justice."
Based on the background of the proposed problem, this research article aims to analyze and explain the prototype of the partnership model in the implementation of basic public services (education, health and creative economic) based on gender equality perspective in Makassar City.
Role theory describes the social interaction in the terminology of actors who play by what is set in the organization by the culture. Based on this theory, then the role expectation is a shared understanding that leads us to behave in everyday life. According to this theory, when a person has a particular role, such as a lawyer, doctor, teacher, parent, child, woman, man, etc., it is expected that the person behaves according to his role. Why someone serves someone else in the office where he works, because he is the provider or provider of public service (provider). So, because the status is a service provider then it should serve the public service users (recipient) who need it. Behavior is determined by social roles within the organization, then a sociologist named Elder (1975) helps expand the use of role theory. The approach called "life-course" is defined as individual citizens have hope for each member to have certain behaviour according to categories of age and its role applicable in an organization in the society, including behaviour as a provider of public service based on gender equality perspective (Akib et al., 2015)
Gender Equality Based Public Service
Public service delivery is one of the important functions of the government in addition to the functions of distribution, regulation and protection (Sainsbury, 1996; Kabeer, 2005). This function is the actual realization of social contracts that society gives to the government in the context of Principal-Agent relationships (Broadbent et al., 1996). Under the framework, the government subsequently undertook the process of regulating the allocation of public resources by balancing the aspects of revenue and expenditure to maximize the provision of collective service needs.
Public service is also the domain of all good governance actors, government, market participants, and civil society with interest in improving the performance of public services. The government is concerned with efforts to improve public services, because if the government succeeds in improving public services it will be able to improve its legitimacy (Batley & Larbi, 2004; Hartley, 2005; Hartley & Allison, 2000). Improved public services can also reduce the cost of the bureaucracy, which in turn can improve the welfare of the users and the efficiency of market mechanisms.
Experts and researchers (Sainsbury, 1996; Inglehart & Norris, 2003; Kabeer, 2005) agree and argues that if a person has gender equality, then the person will know, live, and have an attachment to his potential, needs, opportunities, rights and obligations, to plan the right activities to develop his potential. By having an awareness of gender equality, one no longer has the view that men have a higher role than women.
Based on that explanation, every person, both women and men are born equal, thus they should have equal access to everything, including: education, health, economics, politics and other public services. Education is a basic human right, but most women do not consider education to be a basic right. Most of the women become the people whose rights are violated, whereas education is an attempt to free women from the shackles of poverty. Education is an investment, as illustrated by the statement that: Human capital has a very important role in the welfare of a country (Manuelli & Seshadri, 2014). The importance of involvement of women in the world of work is a reflection of the potential increase of Human Resources which aims to improve the lives and welfare of society (Rauf et al., 2015).
To achieve these conditions there are various models of public service management that can be used. The new public management model can be traced from the typology developed by Ferlie et al. (1995) and Ferlie (1996) namely:
Model efficiency drive
This model is an early model that emerged in the early 1980s by emphasizing the main concern that the public sector behaves as a private enterprise, regarding efficiency. Important themes in this model include improved financial management, financial savings or efficiency, strengthening budgeting functions, and creation of information systems and budgets (Wallin, 1994; Boland & Fowler, 2000). Also, the model focuses on the importance of increasing attention to the responsiveness of service delivery to consumers by providing an increasing role to the private sector or the market as a provider or service producer (Hood & Dixon, 2013; Royed, 1996; Wright, 2001).
This model emphasizes organizational flexibility and avoids standardization, develops flexible and varied service patterns, strengthens decentralization of activities and budget responsibilities to lower levels, shifts in management patterns from hierarchical systems to contracting-out systems, and top-level organization with the operational organization (Newman, 2000; Castles, 2001; Lee & Strang, 2006). This model takes into account the importance of networks with other organizations outside the government, emphasizing the creation of strategic alliances with other agencies outside the government as a new form of broader, more open and inclusive coordination.
Model in search of excellence
This model is a manifestation of the flow of human relations in management theory that gives attention to the importance of organizational culture (Aucoin, 1990; Parker & Bradley, 2000). This model pays special attention to the influence of values, culture, rituals, and symbols that can influence individual behaviour at work. This model is divided into two approaches, namely bottom-up and top down approaches (Cameron, 1994).
Model public service orientation
This model is public management oriented to public service (Parker & Bradley, 2000). This model reflects the alignment of ideas in private sector management into public sector management and the reinforcement of the role of public sector managers with high quality management in a more convincing manner that had previously been undermined by malpractice and patalogi.
The study was conducted in Makassar, Indonesia, in 2015-2017 using a descriptive-qualitative research approach. The primary data source is the head of the institution together with the organizer or the public service provider at the Makassar City Government Office, the Office of Education, the Office of the Health Office, and the Office of Women's Empowerment, and the informant as the recipient of the public service (Akib et al., 2015; Makassar, 2016). Informants include representatives of planners, executors and supervisors of public service delivery. Similarly, other informants consisting of employees in the Personnel Section, Economic Section, Regional Development Planning Board, and employees at the Regional Personnel Agency. The number of informants is not specified, but rather based on the saturation level of the given answer. The other primary data sources are female female employees as providers and users of public services on work units in education (schools & branch offices), in health (community health center, abbreviated as PUSKESMAS, Family Planning Service Post-Health Integrated, abbreviated as POSYANDU), and in the field of women's empowerment (joint business cooperatives abbreviated as KUBE, units of women/women creative business activities). In the meantime, secondary data is in the form of documents sourced from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) report and other publications sourced from related institutions. The data analysis technique used is following step "interactive model" (Miles et al., 2014) covering data collection stage, data condensation, data presentation, verification/conclusion.
The analysis of the implementation of basic public services in the field of education, health, and creative economy in Makassar City shows the reality of gender equality seen from the type/nature of work (duty) and place (unit) employment of female. Viewed from the type/nature of work selected and performed by women in public institutions (Makassar City Secretariat, Education Office, Health Office, Women's Empowerment Office), as the research locus, indicates the professionalism and proportionality of the number of employees (civil servants and honorary employees) based on their expertise and skills.
In the public sector of education, the proportion of the number of women is more than half the number of civil servants and honorary employees, both as teachers and educational personnel, starting at the level of early childhood education (PAUD), primary and secondary education, such as mechanical engineering and industrial engineering, where more teachers and education personnel are males. While at higher education level, the number of women is more as education staff (administrative staff) than as a lecturer. This data is supported by informants who generally state that the proportion of women working in education is based on the choice of form, type, and nature of the work that is being graduated while being tested for granting an employee. Similarly, after work, women feel happy when involved in various public service activities. Public service work is even considered by the "nature" of women. Similarly, the data on the number of students of female sex also tend to be more than the number of men at all levels of education, except in the type of high-level technical education. In other words, the realization of gender equality in education in Makassar City is viewed from the aspect of proportionality of the number and professionalism of the nature of the selected work.
In the public health sector in Makassar City, it is seen that the number of women more than men who work as paramedical workers (nurses, midwives, mantri, nurses, ambulance technicians), while as medical personnel (general practitioners, dentists) more men. Women are also more numerous than men who work as staff in the health administrative service, both in local public hospitals (RSUD) Daya (the only hospital owned by the Government of Makassar City, which was once only a Public Health Centre, abbreviated PUSKESMAS), as well as in a number of PUSKESMAS in every kelurahan in Makassar City. According to the informants' view that, in line with the increase in the number of labour demand in the health sector, the increase in service intensity at RSUD Daya and the intensity and extensity of services in each PUSKESMAS, the number of women choosing health professional education institutions also increased drastically. The consequence is that after graduating from medical school or graduating from college, they (the poachers) work in their field. This also happens along with the formation of work provided by the government, both the central government and the government of Makassar) each year is among others in the field of health and education. In other words, the realization of gender equality in the health sector in Makassar City is viewed from the aspect of proportionality of the number and professionalism of the nature of the selected work.
In the field of creative economic activities organized and coordinated under the auspices of the Office of Women's Empowerment in Makassar City, it appears that the participation rate of women is quite high, especially women housewives. The involvement of women in various creative economic activities or productive enterprises, judging by their educational background, is only up to the level of education or High School (Data on observations, 2015-2017). According to interviews with informants that, this is because the local culture adopted by the majority of citizens, especially the "older generation" domiciled in Makassar, Bugis and Makassar, still embraces "patriarchal culture." (Summary of interview results, 2017) This understanding of society and customs is based on the belief that as high as a school or a woman's education, the main task to be done is to take care of the household, take care of the husband, and take care of the child. In fact, it was also stated by some informants that, the husband's love for his wife's wife is determined by or based on the "stomach", in this case the wife's service "in the kitchen" (cooking), as well as the service "on the mattress" (serving husband-wife), and "in the well" (drawing or providing water for her husband's bath). Similarly, the form of the devotion of women is, to serve the parents (when still children/young), devoted to the husband (after marriage), and serve the children and grandchildren (after old age).
The views of the community are consistent with the opinion of Fakih (2006) that the formation of gender differences is caused by various matters, among others, being formed, socialized, strengthened, even constructed, both culturally and socio-culturally through religious teachings as well as by state institutions or local institutions local area). Finally, in the long term the socialization of gender equality (women) is regarded as God's provision-irreversible because of its biological theological nature, is considered a gender (gender) distinction, and is commonly regarded as already of male and female nature. In fact, as long as these traits can be exchanged, they are merely social constructs that reinforce nature. In other words, without denying the human nature of God's creation, we have seen the existence of gender equality in Makassar City, judging from the proportionality aspect of the number and professionalism of the nature of the work done by women.
In the aspect (activity) of the productive economy, women’s in Makassar City, especially Bugis tribe, since childhood to be educated to skilful for doing woman’s job. Therefore, there is no difficulty for a woman to earn a living. They can allocate their free time to take care of the household and earn a living. Women's empowerment program in Makassar City, especially assisted by Canadian Investment Treatment Agency (CIDA), is done to reduce poverty, so women can also earn a living for the family and support the increase of household income (conclusion of interview result and observation to the community of public service user).
According to Akib et al. (2015) and Efianingrum (2008) that, facing a situation where in society still found cultural values and practices that obstruct justice and gender equality need to socialize the concept of open education for the transformation of cosmopolitan and egalitarian new values, liberating and justice, not vice versa. To ensure the fulfillment of human rights and the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), there should be political will and concrete action from the government together with the community members for women to come together and obtain equal treatment with men.
The empowerment of women in Makassar City is similar with the activities undertaken by the Women's Study Center (PSW) of Makassar State University on Training to improve women's skills in several places, for example in Maros Regency, North Galesong Takalar District and others. Home industry-based skill training is done by making fish abon, making fertilizer from household waste, sewing school uniform, selei pineapple, nata decoco, and empowering the potential of the environment by planting medicinal plants (live pharmacies). Skills for women are related to the creative economic activity. The bottleneck is the classic problem of capital and marketing.
Based on the above research results can be stated that talking about public services from a gender perspective, the culture of people in Makassar does not distinguish women from men. The only thing that still lacks is how to improve the quantity and quality of process, output and outcome. Women are State/regional assets and in their hands family life quality is determined.
There is another interesting side in the city of Makassar about gender equality programs in public services in health. This program is appropriate because it is one of the priority agenda of Makassar City government in providing "public space" which will be integrated with the office where women work, such as exclusive public sphere for breastfeeding and child care. With the provision of such public spaces, women can still fulfill their primary duties as determinants of family life quality and can also fulfill their obligations as employees or employees. They are no longer late in the office or have to return home to breastfeed their children, feeling tired by going back and forth on the road, and so the job remains effective, as well as reducing traffic congestion. On the other hand, regarding children, the quality of life of children is maintained. Especially in daycare place placed professional officers with educational background and experience by the institution of Early Childhood Education (PAUD) or nutritionist, so that from the toddler children have received a quality education and quality health services.
On the economic aspect, the female entrepreneurship spirit in Makassar City is quite high, both when the women study in educational institutions, especially vocational education (Jufri et al., 2018), as well as in college (Syam et al., 2018). In other words, the entrepreneurial spirit of women based on creativity and innovation (Dharma & Akib, 2009) has been built early on. According to the informant's view, there is no problem for women to earn a living, because what is more important is that women's income should not only be devoted to sociality, but also to positive things for improving the quality of human resources. In fact, the phenomenon seen in all Organizations of Regional Apparatus (OPD) in Makassar City today is that women have also been given equal opportunity with men to occupy strategic positions in the bureaucracy.
The appreciation of creative-productive activities undertaken by women is supported by various elements, so that women can create the same with men. Programs considered by informants to support the existence and gender equality of women in the public service bureaucracy and the segment of community life in Makassar City are the synergy of the functions and roles of local institutions ie Empowerment Units, Government Institutions, Private Institutions and Socio-Cultural Societies.
The empowerment unit in Makassar is an important institution that serves as a vehicle for women to participate in various programs. This empowerment unit has four levels, ie individual, household, urban neighborhood and urban environment. The role of this institution is very important because it determines the priority level of each level of women's empowerment activities. The program is implemented on an individual level, alley or village level, sub-district level and Makassar City level. An important and interesting program that has been proclaimed and implemented by the Makassar government is "Garden Lorong Program." In this garden aisle, productive business activities are conducted through institutional vehicle involving women and housewives, among others, Lorong Usaha Program (BULO), View Garbage View program (LISA), Apartment Lorong (APPARONG), and so on.
The Government of Makassar City supports the establishment of the legal legality of women's empowerment program for the smooth running of every program implemented, at home, in the office and in the halls around Makassar. This legal basis inspires and motivates women and housewives to engage in "educated" and "healthy" productive business activities. The National Program for Women Empowerment (PN2P) has also become a pioneer in every region, especially in Makassar, so that any complaint intended to promote this national program by the government allocates financing as a sense of responsibility to the community, including women.
In the aspect of financing productive business activities for women, the central government and the government of Makassar City have provided funds to finance programs, projects, activities in each unit. Women's empowerment is not only at the level of program implementation which is the government's attention, but also the formulation of the action program policy is also noticed by the local government. Similarly, women's empowerment programs are not just physical programs, but also education, health and creative economy programs. The basic philosophy and essential objectives of all such programs of empowerment and gender equality are clear, as the informant expressed that:
"Behind strong men there is also a stronger woman."
Therefore, the orientation of the introduction of women's empowerment programs based on gender equality remains a common concern and as one of the priority agenda of human development in Makassar City.
At the sub-district and sub-district levels, the role of government institutions serves as a protector as well as an advisor to guide the community, and to cooperate with business people, religious leaders, NGOs and citizens in involving women in their activities. At the level of government of Makassar City, the function and role of government bureaucracy are to support the sustainability of the program (conclusion of interview result).
The private sector in question is a non-governmental institution that collaborates or provides financial and material support to the community in the form of awareness of women's empowerment programs. Institutions that often implement cooperation are NGO (Non Governmental Organization), Group of Entrepreneur of Concern Ummat, HIPMI (Association of Young Indonesian Entrepreneur), a financial institution (banks and non-bank), and big and small companies that operate, Makassar (KIMA).
Local Institutions in the Community
In this process of women empowerment, individual actors and institutions that are heavily involved are citizens of Makassar City. Society is the closest and most intimate and dignified human beings, in the sense of cultivation, power and women's initiative is recognized by fellow citizens of the city. Based on the results of observations and interviews understood that the people of Makassar City look at women who should be protected, cherished, because women are hali and menelah, not men. The expression of the sense of protection is expressed institutionally, so there is a hospital named "Sayang Ibu”/Mother Love." The related organizations that involve women in Makassar City are, among others, Family Welfare Education (PKK), Rukun Tetangga (RT), Rukun Residents (RW), Municipal Governments, POSYANDU, especially at the level of alley and kelurahan.
In addition to the role of the actors (person-individuals or individuals) mentioned above, in the implementation of public services in Makassar, the function and role of the press (the vehicle for dissemination) and the police (the vehicle for the creation of security and order) in a synergistic (collaborative partnership). Through the role of individual and institutional actors, all women empowerment programs are implemented efficiently, effectively, economically (3-E) and sustainably.
Based on the results of the analysis and explanation of the elements of civil society and referring to the views of experts cited in the literature review, it can be stated that the central and global issues (Inglehart & Norris, 2003)on gender equality (gender of men and women) in the millennium (Kabeer, 2005) in accordance with the views (Faqih & Jaradat, 2015) on the moderating effects of gender differences and individualism-collectivism at the individual level. Similarly supports the views of experts, among others, Sainsbury, (1996); Andreassen, (1994); Parker & Bradley, (2000); Lee & Strang, (2006); Pettigrew et al. (1997) on the significance of multi-actor roles involved in the delivery of public services through an effective and sustainable program of gender equality-based empowerment. Thus, visualization of Figure 1 on "prototype of public service model based on gender equality" is supported by the actor's role (civil society pillar).
In Figure 1, it can be seen synergy (collaborative partnership) the role of actors (six pillars of civil society) in the implementation of basic public services with gender equality perspective (male-female). The synergy of the function and role of this institution if implemented proportionally and professionally can serve as an effective vehicle for every civil society (person-individual-individual-individual-institutional, public, private, people, pers, police, abbreviated 6-P) element in partnership. Similarly, the synergy of actors can support institutional strengthening and arrangement as well as an accelerator of creating a model of public service delivery based on gender equality on the one hand, and as a locus for the realization of gender equality in the public service. In other words, constructed a synergistic "partnership prototype 6-P model" (collaborative partnership) based on gender equality in the delivery of public services.
The prototype of public service delivery model in Makassar City is seen through synergy (collaborative partnership) the role of actors (six pillars of civil society), namely: person (individual-institutional), public, private, people, press, police) in the implementation of basic public services gender equality. The synergy of the function and role of this institution is carried out in a proportional and professional manner has been used as an effective vehicle for every civil society element (person, public, private, people, press, police an d abbreviated 6-P) partner. Similarly, the synergy of actors has supported institutional strengthening and arrangement, and as an accelerator for the creation of a model of public service delivery based on gender equality on the one hand, and as a locus for the realization of gender equality in public services. In other words, the prototype of a 6-P partnership model based on gender equality in the delivery of public services is constructed.
In order to realize the effective and sustainable implementation of basic public services based on gender equality in the current third millennium era, it is necessary to arrange and institutionalize public service models that synergize the functions and roles of six pillars of civil society: (1) individuals, individually and institutionalized; (2) Government Institutions; (3) Private Institutions; (4) Local Institutions in the Community; (5) Press as a vehicle for dissemination; (6) Police, as a vehicle to ensure order, order and sustainability of women's empowerment program. The synergy of the tasks and functions of the entity are carried out according to the prototype of a collaborative partnership model in the delivery of gender-based public services.