Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 5
Agung Wahyu Handaru, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Marsellisa Nindito, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Saparuddin Mukhtar, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Umi Mardiyati, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Beach attraction of Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing is relatively unsatisfactory based on visitor testimonies. Although the natural scenery in both locations is enjoyable, poor tourism management lowers the sum of visitor, especially overseas tourists. Close observation and intensive interviews with local people, government officer, and beach visitor have revealed that there are at least two major problems related to low visitor number. First, low quality of basic tourism infrastructure, and second, lack of intended and programmed attraction that can improved beach potentials. Afterward, qualitative data triangulation has concluded that beach attraction in both locations can be divided into three models: water-based sport, sand-based recreational sport, and festival.
Beach Attraction, Beach Tourism, Recreational Sport.
In the last twenty years, beach attraction has been popular topic and widely discussed among tourism management scholars. Seminal contributions from many scholars have been examined the correlation between beach attractions and tourism area life cycle (Butler, 1980; Haywood, 1986; Agarwal, 1997). They mentioned that beach attraction may vary from one cycle to another. Furthermore, every cycle of tourism area can be measured by several indicators such as the stay period in particular location, dispersion and characteristic of tourist (Haywood, 1986). Meanwhile, Olorunfemi & Emmanuel (2013) found that attractions for tourist within beach area are including sports facilities (basketball and tennis court, swimming pool), restaurant, supermarket, exhibition hall, and children playground. However, they did not explain what attraction that suitable to be applied in sea front area. Study of Zhang & Wang (2013) has explored weather and ocean condition as importance considerations for tourist to visit and to enjoy beach. They mentioned some elements of ocean condition like water condition, water temperature, and wave height as “attractors” for tourist to come and enjoy beach. Nevertheless, they did not mentioned about marine-based event that intentionally created to amuse beach visitors. More comprehensive study of marine-based attraction can be found in Tunstall & Penning-Rowsell (1998). They have managed several surveys on English beach and revealed that every beach has specific “key attractor”. They found that most tourists love to visit beach with beautiful natural setting; which is quiet and offers peaceful environment. Nevertheless, they did not mentioned how to build appealing marine-based attraction for beach visitors. Interesting study on marine based attraction can be found in Katselidis et al. (2013). They specifically studied about turtles as beach attraction. They found that turtle breeding spot can be very interesting for beach visitor. Furthermore, they discovered that thousands of beach visitors are coming from abroad to see this rare turtle nesting event. Meanwhile, Giddy & Webb (2016) highlighted the role of healthy environment as important tourist attraction. They argued that good environment motivates tourist to visit specific location. Still, specific attractions in beach area are unclear.interesting for beach visitor. Furthermore, they discovered that thousands of beach visitors are coming from abroad to see this rare turtle nesting event. Meanwhile, Giddy & Webb (2016) highlighted the role of healthy environment as important tourist attraction. They argued that good environment motivates tourist to visit specific location. Still, specific attractions in beach area are unclear.
Beach attraction in various locations mostly related with physical attraction such as accommodation and leisure facilities (Bujosa et al., 2015). Some scholars agreed that beach attraction is a complex combination of physical and non-physical aspect that strongly associated to particular beach (Chen & Bau, 2016). Study of Carneiro & Eusébio (2015) explained that beach attraction can increase resident’s quality of life. This happened because beach attraction creates interaction between residents and visitors. Unfortunately, specific aspect of beach attraction that associated with particular beach was not being discussed. Beach attraction is also discussed from socio-economic angle. Studies of Semeoshenkova et al. (2017), Chen & Teng (2016) promote that beach quality and attraction such as beach cleanliness and safety can positively increase tourism sustainability. Similar to them, Isabel et al. (2011) mentioned that beach attraction is crucial to raise local economic growth. Nevertheless, they did not declared about specific beach attraction that suitable for tropical beach. Some researchers have examined the efficiency of beach tourism destination. They argued that efficiency scores strongly related to the performance of particular tourist destination. Still, beach attractions designs are less discussed and more focus on efficiency model for each location. The important role of promotion and positioning program of tourism destination also intensely discussed (Mendes et al., 2011). They found that this program, such as cultural exhibition, can help tourism destination to advance positive response from global tourists. Beach attraction is also related with climate change issues (Moreno & Amelung, 2009; Perch-Nielsen, 2010). Tourists are most likely to visit relatively high temperature beaches like those in Mediterranean and Asian countries. But then again the practices of beach attractions are still less discussed. Moreover, Phillips & House (2009) have examined some different priorities in terms of beach attractions. For some tourists high waves are main attractions, but not for family tourists. Even so, clear explanation about beach attractions design is still undefined.
Different from earlier researches, this study has examined alternative model of beach attraction especially in Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing. In general, the qualities of scenery in both locations are wonderful, but there are no overseas tourists ever recorded in the last two years. According to previous evidences, the need to understand intensely about definite beach attraction motivated this study and also become the aim of research. This aim is important to deepen and enrich the tourism and strategic management literature. The present study is focus to expose beach attraction design retrieved from natural resources and demographic aspects of Bangka Island by using qualitative method. To achieve these goals, this paper is organized as follows. First, literature review and conceptual background are clarified. Then, the method used to manage qualitative information is explained. Next, the results of qualitative data analysis are presented. The paper closes with the discussion of findings together with interpretation of result, description of beach attraction design, and advices for future research.
Some well-known researchers have made a significant contribution to the strategic management literature. Centobelli et al. (2016a: 2016b) have analyzed numerous papers to highlight a research gap which is also adopted in this research. The need to display a comprehensive literature review is crucial to management research (Easterby-Smith et al., 2012). Similar to Easterby-Smith et al. (2012), Thorpe et al. (2005) describe the importance of systematic review and detailed explanation of literature in management research as presented below.
Beach Attraction in Tourism Management
Tourism management positions tourist attraction as important features to develop destination competitiveness. Appealing attraction in specific destination offered by two main characteristics, first, attraction of natural resources; and second is man-made attraction. Both attraction are widely discussed in tourism management studies but the arrangement of tourist attraction for different location is always been a great trial (Martínez-Sala et al., 2017). Every tourism destination in various locations has its own uniqueness and therefore the need of tourism management is essential. Empirically, beach has unique attraction to offers. In general, beach can offers three attractions in one package: sea, sun, and sand (Grofelnik, 2017; Kim & Cho, 2014). But then, beach as tourist destination must be supported by tourism infrastructure which is relatively expensive and involved government concern. Some successful beach attractions have been made in various locations in the world such as Florida, Kuta and Hawaii (Penn et al., 2016). Some scholars agreed that the strongest beach attraction is its natural condition. Beautiful and unique natural beach conditions are very important to attract tourists both local and global. Some to mention of natural beach resources are sea water condition, sand quality, relatively modest temperature, waves, sea animals, and availability of coral and reefs.
Appealing beach attraction is also supported by the quality of recreational sports. Tourists are not only enjoying the natural scenery of the beach, but also liking water-based and sand-based recreational sports. Some recreational sports which commonly offered in beach areas are snorkeling, surfing, jet skiing, fishing, scuba diving, parasailing, banana boating, beach volley, beach soccer, running, and playing kites.
Beach Attraction and Sustainability Agenda
Tourism sustainability in particular destination strongly fostered by its appealing attraction (Lee et al., 2017). In this case, most of famous beaches in the world have a series of attractive packages that tourist can enjoy. In tourism sustainability studies, pleasing attractions will lead to financial performance and help specific destination to strengthen its competitiveness. Sustainability of particular tourism destination is a complex combination of several arrangements (Cho et al., 2014). Some to mention are including natural resources, supporting facilities, primary infrastructure, demographic condition, and man-made attractions.
Natural Resources as Primary Beach Attraction
Primary beach attraction is its natural condition (Zadel, 2016; Ryglová et al., 2017). Natural resources of certain beach such as sea water cleanliness, quality of sand, sea animal occurrence, temperature, wave height, coral and reefs existence, quietness, and beach slope are very attractive for many tourists. Nevertheless, some scholars claimed that natural resources are difficult to maintain because of several reasons (Katselidis et al., 2013). First, global climate issues which can increase beach and sea water temperature. This can disturb sea animal movement and occurrence. Furthermore, climate change issues can alter wave height and wind speed that might be viewed as unpleasant condition by beach visitors. Second, the more visitors are coming, the more litter are occurring. Tourists are likely to littering and this generate serious problem to the sustainability of natural resources (Laitamaki et al., 2016).
Demographic Aspect as Unique Attraction
For some beach destinations, demographic features of local residents are becoming unique attraction for tourists (Carneiro & Eusébio, 2015). In the case of Kuta Beach in Bali, tourists are enjoying not only the scenery and natural condition of the beach, but also the unique local culture and spiritual atmosphere. Combination of natural beach resources and demographic elements positively creates unique attraction that difficult to imitate. Some of demographic elements that can support destination sustainability are unique local culture, peaceful and spiritual ambience, social arrangement, and resident’s hospitality.
We collaborate with sixty beach visitors to discover some important features of beach attractions in two different location named Batu Kapur Beach and Batu Belimbing Beach. These two locations are relatively strong in natural resources but poor in tourism management arrangement. We also distributed questionnaire and managed several interviews with local residents, government officers, and local business owners with total thirty samples. Afterward, qualitative information is combined and we undergone some data reduction. Relevant information regarding beach attraction than displayed and being analyze for drawing of conclusion. Samples and source triangulation, such as video and photo analysis, were used to confirm final conclusion related to beach attraction model.
Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing Beach are located in Toboali, South Bangka region (Figure 1). These locations are 126 kilometers away from Depati Amir Airport, or 2 hours and thirty minutes’ drive. Depati Amir Airport is located in Central Bangka region and only one hour flight from Soekarno- Hatta International airport in Jakarta.
Main road from airport to Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing Beach is drivable both in asphalt quality and length. Nevertheless, road sign and road safety features are insufficient. The road is mostly straight without curves and hills. There are many interesting things to see on the right and left side of the main road. Some areas are planted by white pepper, the iconic herbs from Bangka province, and other sides are traditional houses and coconut tree plantations. The nearest city from the beach is Toboali as showed below(Figure 2):
The scenery of Batu Kapur Beach and Batu Belimbing Beach is beautiful. Both locations are gifted with unique huge granite stones attraction. Some expert explained that these huge stones are created from Triassic era or Dinosaur era. The granite stones in both locations are portrayed below (Figure 3):
Big granite stones can be seen also in Batu Belimbing Beach. Uniquely, some stones are look like star fruit, which is “belimbing” in Indonesia language. Some of stones are portrayed below (Figure 4):
Both locations have pleasing sand quality. The sand is light brown and white; relatively clean with very few stones and empty shells. Beach slope is very comfortable for bathing or doing beach sports. The sea water is brown with comfort temperature. The waves near oceanfront in both locations are relatively calm and low. This might be unpleasant for some surfing enthusiasts and other extreme water sport lovers.
Tourism Infrastructure and Attraction
Batu Kapur Beach and Batu Belimbing Beach have relatively similar condition in terms of basic and tourism infrastructure. Specifically, infrastructures and attractions in two locations are explained below (Table 1):
|Table 1: Tourism Infrastructure And Attractions|
|Batu Kapur Beach||Batu Belimbing Beach||Notes|
|Hotel and accommodation||There is no starred hotel or family resort in location. The nearest Hostels located in Toboali, 1 kilometer from beach. Hostel quality is standard, no AC.||Similar with Batu Kapur, no starred hotel operates in location. The nearest hotel also in Toboali city.||Both locations are potential to have nice hotel or family resort. The scenery will be the selling point|
|Recreational activity||Mostly only sightseeing and taking photos. Enjoying wonderful scenery, adoring fine sand, waves, climate and wind. No intended recreational activities are presented.||Tourist can enjoy the huge stones attraction, taking photos or videos. Mostly enjoying beautiful scenery, sand, waves, and quite environment.||Recreational activity should be created and managed professionally.|
|Restaurant and food stall||Only simple food kiosk, built by bamboo and thin plywood. Selling simple food such as instant noodle, traditional snacks, drinks, coffee and tea. There are two coconut stalls. No seafood restaurant near location.||Only small food kiosks by bamboo structure. Selling simple food and drinks including local coffee and tea. Local coffee is delicious. There are some coconut stalls and no seafood restaurant near beach.||Seafood restaurant will be profitable. Food stalls should be managed and improved in terms of menu and building design|
|Medical service||No medical service in location. The nearest hospital is in Toboali city||No medical service in location. The nearest hospital is in Toboali city||Medical service is poorly managed in both locations|
|ATM||No ATM in location. Tourists must preparing cash to make transaction. No credit or debit card transaction are possible||No ATM in location. Tourists must preparing cash to do transaction. No credit or debit card transaction are possible||Tourists are having trouble due to the absence of ATM|
|Shopping retail||No shopping retail or supermarket in location.||No shopping retail or supermarket in location||Tourists are having trouble due to the absence of retails|
|Water system||Clean water system is poorly managed in location. Water supply is limited, inadequate to serve hundreds of tourist or more.||Clean water system is poorly managed. Water supply is limited, inadequate to serve hundreds of tourist or more.||Water system is one of critical problems in both location|
|Electricity||Lamps are mostly dim in the evening. No road lamp in location. Beach is very dark after sunset||Electricity is limited. Local residents use low watt lamp for daily use. Location is mostly dim in the evening||Electricity might be insufficient for large business|
|Restrooms and lavatory||Below standard; poor condition. Built semi-permanently with thin plywood and simple wood structure. Water supply is limited. Insufficient for large scale tourism||Poor condition and dirty. Water supply is limited. Very limited lamps and electricity. Built by thin plywood and bamboo structure. Insufficient for large scale tourism||Restrooms and lavatories are poorly managed by local residents|
|Children playground||Available but limited. Only few swings and slidings. No games available. Children can play sand||Available but also limited. Insufficient for many children if any.||Children playground is poorly built|
|Cellular service||National cellular provider is available. The quality of signal reception is decent.||The quality of cellular reception in good. No problem occurred with SMS and calls||Still, some of the time the signal is dropped|
|Waste management||Not available. Trash is collected by local resident||Not available. Garbage and trash is collected and buried or burn by local people.||Very poor condition|
|Main road||6 meters total in length. Relatively in good condition. Mostly straight, no hills.
The traffic is very low.
|6 meters in length. Relatively in good condition. Mostly straight, no hills. The traffic is very low, enjoyable to drive.||Tourist can enjoy the road|
|Country side road||3 meters total in length. No traffic, good condition and enjoyable to drive||3 meters total in length. No traffic, good condition and enjoyable to drive.||The road is enjoyable for tourist.|
|Public transportation||Available. There are some local transportation including bus, rental car, and taxi.||Available. Tourist can use public bus and rental car. Nevertheless, the quality is uncomfortable.||Average quality|
|Ticketing and parking lot||Not available. Local people rule the location. Tourist can park freely. Pay the parking fee to local people||Not available. Local people rule the location. Tourist can park freely. Pay the parking fee to local people||Poor ticketing and parking management|
|Security||No formal security staff available. But in general the location is safe.||No formal security staff available, but the location is pretty safe||Need improvement|
|Local Culture||Local culture is mixed with Islamic views. Including no alcohol, polite grooming, and only offers halal food.||Local culture is mixed with Islamic views. Including no alcohol, polite grooming, and only offers halal food||Friendly and polite culture are presented by local people|
|Promotion program||Managed by tourism office in Bangka Province||Managed by tourism office in Bangka Province||Available online. But the promotion is less aggressive.|
|City layout||Houses and retails are located alongside the main road. Typical of small city layout in Indonesia||Houses and retails are located alongside the main road. Typical of small city layout in Indonesia||City layout is acceptable.|
|Internet network||Internet network is available depends on the quality of cellular reception. Only in smartphone or laptop with additional internet modem||Internet network is available depends on the quality of cellular reception.||Average quality of internet|
|Green environment||Mostly coconut trees in location. Lack of green area. Trees and plants are scattered and untidy||Mostly coconut trees in location. Very hot at noon, lack of green areas. Trees and plants are growing untidy||Poor environment management|
|Animal||No specific or unique animal in location.||No animal attraction in location||No animal attraction in both location|
|Festival||Festival named Toboali on Fire (ToF). Organized by Toboali government office. Conducted every year in July. First launched in 2015||Toboali on Fire (ToF)||Only once a year. ToF is culinary festival; handycraft, culture and art exhibition.|
|Beach Attraction: Recreational Sports|
|Snorkeling||Underwater view is limited. No underwater attraction is presence.||Not supported. Underwater view is limited. No underwater attraction can be enjoyed.||Lack of underwater attractions|
|Scuba diving||No underwater attraction can be enjoyed||No underwater attraction available||Lack of underwater attractions|
|Boating||Not available at the moment. Fortunately, the wave and wind speed are supported.||Not available. If any, will be enjoyable for tourist. The scenery, wind speed, and waves are pleasing.||Promising attraction.|
|Water skiing||Not available at the moment. Conveniently, water condition is acceptable||Not available. Water and wind condition are pleasing for this activity||Promising attraction.|
|Canoeing||Not available at the moment. Conveniently, water condition is suitable||Not available at the moment. Conveniently, water condition is suitable for this sport||Possible to perform|
|Surfing||Not available at the moment. Wave height unsupported.||Not available at the moment. Wave height unsupported||Difficult to perform|
|Sailing||Not available at the moment. Conveniently, water condition is suitable||Not available at the moment, but water condition is suitable||Promising attraction.|
|Jet skiing||Not available at the moment. Conveniently, water condition is suitable||Not available at the moment. water condition is suitable||Promising attraction.|
|Fishing||Not available at the moment. Wind and water condition are enjoyable. Nevertheless, fishes are in deep water.||Not available at the moment, fishes are in deep water.||Possible to perform|
|Parasailing||Not available at the moment. Wind speed is pleasing for this sport.||Not available at the moment. Wind speed is supported||Promising attraction|
|Flying board||Not available at the moment. No significant obstacle to this sport||Not available at the moment. The beach is ready for this sport.||Promising attraction|
|Sea walking||Not available at the moment. Lack of underwater attraction||Not available at the moment. No coral and underwater scenery||Difficult to perform|
|Glass bottom boating||Not available at the moment. No coral and underwater scenery||Not available at the moment. No coral and underwater scenery.||Difficult to perform|
|Beach Volley||Not available at the moment. Easy to perform. Sand condition is supported||Not available at the moment. Easy to perform. Sand quality is supported||The sand is enjoyable. Promising attraction|
|Run/marathon||Not available at the moment. Jogging track not available||Not available at the moment.||Easy to managed.
|Beach Soccer||Not available at the moment. Enjoyable to perform. Sand quality is good.||Not available at the moment. Easy to perform. Sand quality is acceptable.||The sand is enjoyable. Promising attraction|
|Biking||Rental bike not available||Rental bike not available||Easy to perform, promising attraction.|
|Swimming||Enjoyable||Enjoyable||Sea water and wave are safe.|
Like many other beaches in Indonesia, Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing beach have strong potential to become favorite tourism destination. Classic problem in both locations is divided into two main aspects. First, poor quality of tourism infrastructure. As explained earlier, several basic infrastructures in tourism management is ignored and abandoned. This happened because both beach is managed unprofessionally by local people. Lack of attention to the quality of tourism infrastructure is also caused by insufficiency of private investment. Secondly, the absence of beach-based and water-based attraction. Tourist can only enjoy the natural scenery which might be bored for some people. Tourist must be occupied with various activities and events during their visit. The relatively low quality of tourism infrastructure and attractions are weakening the competitiveness of both locations and troubling the sum of visitors. Although the quality of natural scenery in both locations is delightful, the application of professional tourism management is crucial. Therefore, this study is formulating beach attraction model based on activities as presented below (Table 2). According to Table 2, some attractions and services are strongly recommended to be planned in Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing beach are presented.
|Table 2: Proposed Upcoming Beach Attraction Model|
|Activity||Batu Kapur Beach||Batu Belimbing
|Example of Needs||Preferably
|Swimming||Applicable||Applicable||Lifeguard, surveillance tower, signs, sound system||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Beach volley||Applicable||Applicable||Sport equipment||All season|
|Beach soccer||Applicable||Applicable||Sport equipment||All season|
|Running||Applicable||Applicable||Jogging track, signs||All season|
|Biking||Applicable||Applicable||Rental bikes, bike stations, bike parking lot||All season|
|Playing kites||Applicable||Applicable||Kite equipment||All season|
|Fishing||Applicable||Applicable||Fishing boat, fishing equipment rental, fishing port||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Boating (banana boat, donut boat etc.)||Applicable||Applicable||Rental boat, boat dock||All season|
|Canoeing||Applicable||Applicable||Rental canoe and equipment||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Sailing||Applicable||Applicable||Rental boat and equipment||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Jet skiing||Applicable||Applicable||Jet ski rental and equipment, jet ski dock||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Parasailing||Applicable||Applicable||Parasailing station and rental, equipment and boat||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Flying board||Applicable||Applicable||Flying board rental and equipment||August until October ; end of January until June|
|Photography||Applicable||Applicable||Photo shoot areas, signs||All season|
|Shopping||Applicable||Applicable||Retails, kiosk, food stalls, ATM, money changer||All season|
|Festival||Applicable||Applicable||Culture, culinary, handicraft, art, fashion||Twice a year|
According to existing condition of Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach, Jet-Ski is applicable. This water sport is popular and has been offered in several famous beaches. Most of jet-ski rentals have several tour packages for parties of three or less. Rental cost is 20 to 50 USD depends on watercraft. Jet-ski is attractive and creating memorable experience for tourist since it combines adventure, pleasant scenery, and fun as well. Jet-ski only need simple arrangement at sea front and relatively cleans for beach environment.
Wind speed and calm waves in Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach are ideal for Parasailing. This recreational sport offers flying sensation for tourist. Parasailing is towed behind a speedboat with big parachute. This attraction is rented and can be arrange in tandem. This sport is fun, attractive, and relatively cheap. Average rental cost is 25 USD including insurance. Parasailing only need simple arrangement by the beach and relatively clean for environment.
This recreational sport is fun and also great for adrenaline seeker. This sport truly uses a yellow, banana-like boat with no engine; it is towed by speedboat. One banana boat is enough for three to ten tourists. Banana boat might be the cheapest water sport; rental cost is only 6 USD per person. Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach are ideal for banana boating. Banana boat is environmental friendly and relatively safe to play.
Relatively new in water sport, flyboard is unique and attractive. Flyboard supplies underfoot propulsion to drive a flyboard into the air or hydro flying. Tourist or rider can experience fly up to 15 meters or 49 ft. in the air. Some flyboard riders can also make acrobatic move and it’s very interesting to watch. Rental cost for fly boarding is 40 USD. Calm waves in Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach are ideal for fly boarding.
Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach are enjoyable for biking. Road quality is acceptable, but there is no particular track for riding bike. Bike station is relatively easy to build, and rental cost for biking is 2 USD for six hours. Biking is fun, relaxing, and safe for all family members.
Family Resort and Cottage
Batu Kapur and Belimbing beach are enjoyable for sightseeing and relaxing. Therefore, family resort and beach cottages will be potential attraction especially for family or group tourist. Family resort and cottage are more appropriate and open than hotel room to enjoy beach scenery and its natural environment.
Seafood restaurant is suitably built near the beach. Freshness of seafood supplies is guaranteed, and all visitors can enjoy several attraction in one location; good food, scenery, and natural environment.
The present study discovered the upcoming model of beach attraction in Batu Kapur and Batu Belimbing beach. Direct information from close observation and intensive interviews is processed and presented as qualitative result. This study has proposed upcoming model of beach attraction in both locations as follows: first, water-based attraction; second, sand-based recreational sport, and third, tourist accommodation. Similar research in the future is needed to explore more attractions that can enrich beach potential. Some suggestions are including attraction of unique sea animals and specific underwater scenery.