Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

Behavioural Intention in Consuming Culinary (Study on Tourism Industry in Solo - Indonesia)

Marjam Desma Rahadhini, University of Slamet Riyadi

Achmad Choerudin, University of Sebelas Maret

Dwi Hastjarja Kustijana B, University of Sebelas Maret


Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Behavioural Intention


Based on the economic and socio-cultural development, tourism is a strategic industry because it encourages the increasement of job vacancies, people’s income, society quality, the sense of patriotism towards the nation's cultural values, and it is also an instrument to preserve the environment. In 2000, World Tourism Organization (WTO) predicted that the global tourism industry would have an annual growth rate of more than 6%. This optimistic expectation brings the culinary development of a region to be turned into a tourism asset by combining it with other region potentials in Solo. Behavioural intention is an interesting issue to be investigated. Behavioral intention is the measurement on how strong a person’s intention in describing their acts and an intention to act will determine whether or not the behavior will be executed. Theoretically, the concept is still debateble in the previous studies. This is due to the diversity of problems, research observation objects, research methods, and variable observation that lead to the construct diversity. This condition provides the opportunity to develop a model that can explain a tourist’s behaviour towards the culinary tourism in Solo.


Tourism industrial development is one of the strategic methods in facing the global crisis because it provides many opportunities for the real sector and revives both local and international market (Martaleni, 2010). Tourism industry has both direct and indirect impacts on the national and local economy. As a part of the tourism industry, the culinary tourism business currently contributes 19.33% to the total income of the tourism industry, especially the income that comes from international tourist arrivals. Food and beverage sector is the second largest income contributor after accommodation where the later contributes up to 38.48% to the total income from the foreign tourists. The recent trend in the tourism industry is visitors do not merely visit tourism destinations due to recreation or refreshing purposes but also for others such as religious, culinary, or maritime purposes. This shift changes the tourist behavior and needs (Cracolici & Nijkamp, 2008). The study conducted by Cohen & Avieli (2004) showed that by enjoying local culinary, tourists will develop greater ties with their travel destination and behave not just as observers (Lopez-Guzman & Sanchez-Canizares, 2012).

The important issues of the tourist behavioural change and tourism trends are becoming a trigger to conduct market research on the tourist behavioural intention in visiting solo. According to the Indonesian Tourism Promotion Institution of Surakarta (ITPI-S), since 2013 a comprehensive study of the tourists’ characteristics, needs, and behaviour has never been conducted in Solo, whereas culinary development in this region can be turned into a tourism asset by combining it with other region potentials. In visiting a region, tourists usually look for regional specialities or uniqueness. In consuming a good or service, tourists usually depend on how, when, where, and why the goods/services are used (Assael, 1998). This research is located in Solo city, Central Java Province of Indonesia, with a research area in five the sub-district namely the Banjarsari sub-district, Jebres sub-district, Serengan sub-district, Pasar Kliwon sub-district and Laweyan sub-district, because the chosen five areas these are due respectively district has a unique culinary and diverse so it has the potential to make Solo city as a city rich culinary that is able to become power its own attraction for both local tourists, national and international. Depart from these factors Solo city is very support to be a destination culinary tourism with mapping from various regional specialties (Saeroji & Wijaya, 2017).

Behavioural intention becomes one of the important concepts in understanding the consumer behaviour because it reflects what people think and perceive. A positive consumer’s behaviour will develop preference in choosing the product (Tarkianen & Sundqvist, 2005). The approach that is often used in understanding the consumers’ behavioural intention is by observing their satisfaction and trust toward the product. The satisfaction and trust in a relational marketing context have a strong relationship (Sirdeshmukh, Singh & Sabol, 2002). Planned behaviour theory is a theory that measures one’s intention to perform certain behaviour. The Intention is considered able to see the motivational factors that influence the behaviour. According to this theory, people can behave according to their intention, only if they have a control on their own behaviour (Ajzen, 2002). This theory does not only emphasize on the human behaviour rationality, but also on the belief that the behavioural intention is under the control of the individual’s consciousness. In other words, behaviour does not only depend on one’s intention, but also depends on other factors which are not under individual consciousness, such as resource availability and opportunities to show the behaviour. According to Ajzen (2005), behavioural intention is a function of three determinants: personally, reflecting the social impact, and related to the control issues.

Furthermore, Zeithaml (1988) states that perceived value is the consumer valuation of the product usage based on perception of what is received and what is given. Perceived value will affect satisfaction if value or benefits received outweigh sacrifices incurred (Qin & Prybutok, 2009). Awareness of the product existence may help consumers in processing and organizing information, differentiating certain products from others, creating positive behaviours or feelings, and bringing up the intention to buy (Osselaer & Alba, 2000). The sustainability, strength, and maturity of a product are determined by the product’s ability to form the perceived value in the market (Ballester & Aleman, 2001). In addition, consumer satisfaction will give a positive impact on the intention to buy. The consumer satisfaction is formed by the attributes which attached to the product. The important attributes that forms the satisfaction are: attributes related to the product, attributes related to the service, and attributes related to the purchase (Dutka, 1995). Consumers’ perception of the product also affects satisfaction. Perception is related to the benefits received compared to the sacrifices incurred where it will later affect their satisfaction and behavioural intention (Qin & Prybutok, 2008). A satisfied consumer will have intention to buy (Kobylanski & Pawlowska, 2012; Ha & Jang, 2010). Consumers who repurchase tend to have a strong behavioural intention to review the purpose of reconsuming the product in the future (White & Yu, 2005). Based on those theories and empirical evidences, the efforts in improving behavioural intention should be created continuously in order to develop culinary tourism in Solo as an icon in attracting domestic and foreign tourists, hence allowing them to finally enjoy the regional specialties or uniqueness.

Literature Review

Perceived Value

Value is a strong relation of the consumer perception on the benefits received through the costs within the relation to the amount of money, time and effort. Zeithaml & Bitner (1996) defined perceived value as overall consumer assessment in regards to the product usage based on the perception of what has been obtained or received. Zeithaml & Bitner (1996) identified four definitions of the value, which are: value means a cheap price, value means everything inside the product, value means the quality received by the consumer in accordance with the price that has been paid, and value means everything obtained by the consumers through sacrifice. Meanwhile Parasuraman & Grewal (2000) stated that perceived value is a dynamic construct which consists of four values: acquisition value, transaction value, in-use value, and redemption value. Acquisition value is the benefits received from the monetary price given. Transaction value is a pleasure that consumers receive when transacting. In-use value is the usefulness given to consumers on the usage of the products and services. Meanwhile, redemption value is a residual benefit obtained at the time the product is not used anymore.

According to Lai (2004), perceived value is the overall consumer assessment of the product usage based on what is received and what is given by the consumers. Value shows the trade-off between the received and given components by the consumers, while perceived value is the gap of consumer total value and the consumer total cost (Lin, 2003). Perceived value is a value in the consumers thought about an object. With value, consumers can consider their purchasing process thoroughly (Kotler & Amstrong, 2012). When the consumers think about all the things related to the product, the value becomes a consideration in decision making, whether the customer will make a purchase or not. Perceived value becomes an important factor in considering the quality and the price (Ha & Jang, 2010; Teng & Chang, 2013).


According to Kotler (2010), satisfaction is a feeling of pleasure or disappointment over the result of comparing between product performance received and expectation. Meanwhile Yi (1990) stated that consumer satisfaction is the output of perception, evaluation and psychology reaction in a product or service consumption experience. Hunt (1991 in Saha & Zhao, 2005) also stated that satisfaction is the function of consumer trust that is maintained properly. Consumer satisfaction is determined by the fulfillment of the consumer expectation. Satisfaction is an instrument for a costumer to decide whether to continue the purchase or not. Satisfied consumers will be motivated to do a repurchase. The essence of satisfaction is related to a person’s feeling towards his or her experience before and after consuming the product. Thus, satisfaction can be understood as a pleased or disappointed feeling after comparing what is perceived and expected from the product usage (Kotler & Keller, 2010).

Satisfied or unsatisfied feelings can be seen from the consumer behaviour after consuming or using a product. Maintaining consumer satisfaction will maintain a good relationship with the consumer as well. According to Zeithaml & Bitner (2003), there are some factors that can affect the consumers: product and service aspect, consumer emotion aspect, product failure and success effect aspect, equality or fairness aspect, and environmental influence (other consumers, family, colleagues, and friends) aspect. Consumer satisfaction measurement is needed to know the determinant factors of consumer satisfaction of a product. Henning-Thurau et al., (2002) showed that the satisfaction indicators include: product satisfaction, satisfaction of service quality, and satisfaction of the product benefits. Satisfaction is enjoying all the services, having a pleasant shopping experience, and being satisfied with the shopping experience (Seiders et al., 2005; Ha & Jang, 2010; Ryu et al., 2010).

Behavioural Intention

Mowen (2012) defined behavioural intention as consumer intention to behave according to a certain way in order to own, dispose, and use a good or service. Thus, the consumers can form the intention to search for information, tell others about their experience regarding a product, buy a particular product or service, or dispose a product in a certain way. According to Peter & Olson (2008), behavioural intention is a proportion related to future action. Meanwhile, Schiffman & Kanuk (2010) stated that behavioural intention is the purchasing frequency or a total purchasing proportion by loyal consumers of a certain brand. Anderson and Mittal in Liestyana (2009) stated that behavioural intention is a result of the satisfaction process that can be classified into two groups: economic behaviour and social behaviour.

Intention is a sign of personal attempt on how much effort is planned to use in order to display the whole behaviour. Intention is assumed as a direct antecedent of behaviour and direct controlled and purposeful behaviour. Intention from behaviour can only appear if an individual can decide his desire to do or not to do. Howard, et al., (1998) defined behavioural intention as consumer intention to buy a product, while intention to purchase is an emerging behaviour as response to an object. Intention to purchase is also intention to repeat a purchase which shows consumer desire to repurchase (Assael, 1998). Behavioural intention encourages a purchase after the consumer assessment process towards a product. Consumers who intend to purchase will depend on conditions where satisfaction towards a product can be felt by consumers, and perceived value of the product is also good. Behavioural intention has a strong relation with perceived value (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2003; Ladhari, 2009).

Research Hypothesis

This research is started from the theoritical study that reviews some relevant theories, such as behavioural theory, perceived value, tourists’ satisfaction and tourist behavioural intention. This study adopted the theory of planned behaviour which is developed by Ajzen (2005). The main focus of the planned behaviour theory is the individual intention to do certain behaviour. Intention considers seeing and understanding some factors that influences the behaviour. Intention is an indicator of how much people want to try and how much effort is given by the individual in behaving. This research refers to previous research done by Ha & Jang (2010). In their research, the variables used are: perceived value, familiarity, satisfaction and behavioural intention. Perceived value is further divided into hedonic value and utilitarian value. The research conceptual framework describes the influence of perceived value to behavioural intentions mediated by satisfaction as illustrated in the Figure 1 below:

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of Research

Perceived value is the result or received benefits by a customer related to the total cost. The perceived value is the value of products that comply with the expectations of consumers when compared with the amount of money paid when purchasing a product (Alegre & Cladera, 2009). Zeithaml states that perceived value is consumer assessment in regards to the product benefit based on the perception of what is received and what is given. Sacrifice means nothing when a consumer is satisfied by the product until the perceived value while visiting is bigger than the issued sacrifice. Research by Qin, Prybutok & Zhao (2010) state that perceived value influences satisfaction. Based on those empirical studies, the first hypothesis can is:

H1: Perceived value significantly affects tourist satisfaction in consuming Solo culinary.

Intention might be realized in the form of behaviour, Peter & Olson (1999) define consumer behaviour as a dynamic interaction between influence and cognition. Consumers can form desire to search information, inform other people about his experience in regards to the product, buy a product or certain service, or dump a product with a certain manner. Perceived value explains consumer expectation that will generate satisfaction, which will finally show positive attitudes towards a product and influence behavioural intention in the future (Carperter, 2007). Perceived value plays an important role in making a purchasing decision. When consumers perceive high value from the consuming experience, then they tend to behave positively (Ryu, Han & Jang, 2010; Ha & Jang, 2010). Based on the empirical studies the second hypothesis is:

H2: Perceived value significantly affects the tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo.

Behavioural intention is a measurement of how strong someone’s intention will describe his or her behaviour (Miniard & Cohen, 1979). Consumer trust and satisfaction significantly and positively impact behavioural intention (Cronin et al., 2000; Olorunniwo et al., 2006; Ha & Jang, 2010). In addition, Kotler (2000); Zeithaml, Berry & Parasuraman (1990) state that customer satisfaction is a level of someone’s feeling after comparing perceived performance and his or her expectation. The studies by Parasuraman, et al., (1993); Coyne (1989) find that there are two levels of consumer expectation in regards to service quality: desired service and adequate service. Desired service is an expectation level which consumers expect to receive, while adequate service is a service level received by consumers. Therefore, service quality is positively related to favorable behavioural intention and negatively related to an unfavorable one. In addition, experiencing problems in service will affect the consumer’s whole perception towards service quality, which will further affect behavioural intention.

H3: Satisfaction significantly affects tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo.

According to Gunderson, et al., (1996) consumer satisfaction is an assessment of the product or service quality after consuming it. Consumer satisfaction is defined as overall satisfaction from their overall reaction about how satisfied or not satisfied they are towards the total product or service. Consumer satisfaction will positively affect their behaviour after purchase. According to Assael (1998), purchase intention is a customer’s desire to repurchase in the future. Customer satisfaction has a positive relationship with repurchase intention, and the potential to be a future income source, especially through repurchase, either through cross-selling and up-selling (Tjiptono, 2005). Customer satisfaction brings some benefits such as a harmonic relationship between company and its customers, creating a good foundation for repurchase, customer loyalty, and word-of-mouth recommendation. Customer satisfaction also strengthens behaviour towards brand and directs to purchasing of the same brand (Assael, 1995). Based on the empirical studies, the fourth hypothesis is:

H4: Consumer satisfaction mediates the effect of perceived value on the tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo.

Research Method

This research type is an explanatory research which aims to derive an explanation about the variables relationship through hypothesis and obtain the appropriate test in order to conclude a causal relationship among variables and choose the alternative for action. Sampling is the process of selecting a group of elements which serves as a representative of a population (Sekaran, 2011). This study uses non-probability sampling by method of purposive sampling which is based on a certain criteria, using conveniently, readily, and available considerations (Cooper & Schindler, 2003; Solimun, 2013). Samples are spread in five culinary places in Solo: Galabo, Pulabo, Ngarsopuro, Keprabon & Dapur Solo which amounts to 188 respondents. The respondents include consumers from local and global consumers. Solo city as a research destination because Solo city has potential in the culinary field, namely (1) tax revenue from the culinary sector in 2016 amounting to IDR 31 billion, so the contribution of region is high, (2) the local government develops a culinary tourism strategy in Solo city, (3) the promotion of culinary tourism is developed to support the tourism sector and public education, and (4) culinary in the Solo city is a cultural heritage and wealth the archipelago in food and drink sector which is enjoyed throughout the world (, 2018).

In terms of gender, the total respondents consist of 96 men (51.1%), and 92 women (48.9%). From the age aspect, 124 respondents (65.9%) are under 25 years old; 46 respondents (24.5%) are 26-40 years old and 18 respondents (9.6%) are 41-60 years old. Based on the respondents marital status, 131 are single (69.7%) and 57 married (30.3%). Based on the occupation aspect, 57 respondents (30.3%) are students, 10 respondents (5.3%) are government employees, 66 respondents (35.1%) are entrepreneurs and 55 respondents (29.3%) are private employees. From the educational aspect, 120 respondents (63.8%) are Senior High School graduaties, 17 respondents (9.0%) hold a diploma, 32 respondents (17%) hold a bachelor’s degree, and 19 respondents (10.1%) hold a master’s degree. Finally, based on the income aspect, 77 respondents (41%) earn 1-3 million rupiahs per month, followed by 62 respondents (33%) earn less than 1 million rupiahs per month, and 49 respondents (26%) earn more than 3 million rupiahs per month.

According to Lai (2004), perceived value is an overall consumer assessment towards a product’s benefit based on what they receive and give. Perceived value indicator is the value of the product offered, the consuming experience, and the value of the food offered, (serving, taste, menu variety, freshness, hygiene, and portion) (Alegre & Cladera, 2009; Ha & Jang, 2010; Teng & Chang, 2013). Satisfaction is a feeling of happiness or disappointment as a result of comparing between the received product usage and the expectation (Kotler, 2010). According to Ryu, Han & Jang (2010) indicators of satisfaction consist of happy feelings, satisfied feelings, and satisfaction of the consuming experience. Behavioural intention is defined as consumer desire to behave according to certain steps in order to have, dispose and use a product or service (Mowen in Encyclopedia, 2012). Miniard & Cohen (1979); Ha & Jang (2010) divide indicators of behavioural intention into repurchasing, sharing positive statements, and giving recommendations to others.

The method of variable measurement uses the itemized rating scale. The measurement method used is the likert scale. The scale is measured based on the opinions given by the respondents in choosing an answer from the questionnaire. The alternative answer is measured using the likert scale (seven points) from “strongly disagree” (score 1) up to “strongly agree” (score 7).
The validity test uses the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in order to validate the scale measurement. CFA is used to construct and control in specifying the indicators for each of the constructs. If the correlation coefficient score ≥ the overall indicator total score (r ≥ 0.3), the instrument is considered to be valid (Hair et al., 1998; Solimun, 2004). Furthermore, the Cronbach Alpha was used to test the reliability of the indicators. An instrument (of all indicators) is considered reliable if the coefficient α ≥ 0.6 (Sekaran, 2003). The data analysis uses the multivariate techniques of Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Amos. All statement items (indicator variables) used are valid and reliable, thus the data analysis can be continued.

Research Results

The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) indicates the overall fitness level of the model which is calculated from the residual square of the predicted model and then compared to the actual data. The overall goodness of fit measurements shows that the proposed research model in this study was accepted. Once the goodness of fit of the structural model estimated criteria is fulfilled, the next step is analyzing the structural relationships model (hypothesis testing). The results of the measurement model are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
The Result Of Goodness Of Fit
No Index Critical Value Result Notes
1 Chi-Square (c2) Nearly zero (0) 34.223 -
2 Probability level = 0.05 0.081 Good
3 CMIN/DF             = 3.00 1.426 Good
4 CFI = 0.95 0.978 Good
5 RMSEA = 0.08 0.048 Good
6 TLI = 0.95 0.967 Good
7 GFI = 0.90 0.96 Good
8 AGFI = 0.90 0.925 Good


Sem Analysis

Hypothesis Testing and the Path Coefficient of the Direct Effect

The test results(Table 2) show that from the three direct effects among tested variables: (1) perceived value variable has a significant effect on satisfaction, (2) perceived value variable has a significant effect on behavioural intention, and (3) satisfaction variable has a significant effect on behavioural intention.

Table 2
 The Path Coefficient Of The Direct Effect And Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis Direct Effect Coefficient Path CR P Result
H1 Perceived → Satisfaction 0.696 5.627* 0 Significant Accepted
H2 Perceived → Intention 0.446 2.294* 0.022 Significant Accepted
H3 Satisfaction → Intention 0.465 2.048* 0.041 Significant Accepted

The test results of perceived value effect on the tourist satisfaction in consuming culinary in Solo is proved with the estimation value of path coefficient of 0.696 which shows a positive sign. The positive sign of the path coefficient implies there is a relation between perceived value and tourist satisfaction in consuming culinary in Solo. This is proved by the value of the Critical Point (CR) at 5.627* and the probability value (p-value) at 0.000<α=0.05. The results of hypothesis testing (H1) proved that perceived value significantly and positively affects tourist satisfaction in consuming culinary in Solo. The test results of the perceived value effect on the tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo is proved with an estimation value of the path coefficient at 0.446 which shows a positive sign. The positive sign implies that there is a relationship between perceived value and tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo. This is proved by the value of the Critical Point (CR) at 2.294* and the probability value (p-value) at 0.022<α=0.05. The results of hypothesis testing (H2) proved that perceived value significantly and positively affects on tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo. The test results of the satisfaction effect on the tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo is proved with an estimation value of path coefficient at 0.465 which shows a positive sign. The positive sign implies that there is a relationship between satisfaction and tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo. This is proved by the value of the Critical Point (CR) at 2.048* and the probability value (p-value) at 0.041<α=0.05. The results of hypothesis testing (H3) proved that satisfaction significantly and positively affects tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo.

Hypothesis Testing and Path Coefficient of the Mediation Effect

The test results of the perceived value variables affecting behavioural intention with the involvement of satisfaction as a mediating variable show that the perceived value has a significant direct effect on behavioural intention and on satisfaction. To conclude the claim of the mediating variable, the behavioural intention variable was re-analyzed without involving the mediating variable in the model. The test results can be seen in Figure 2 below:

Figure 2:The Effect Of Perceived Value On Behavioural Intention With Satisfaction As A Mediating Variable

The test results show that the direct effect coefficient of perceived value on behavioural intention in Model 1 is 0.446. The estimation of Model 2 shows the indirect effect coefficient of perceived value on behavioural intention increases to 0.324 with a total effect of 0.770. The calculations show a partial mediation which implies that satisfaction mediates the effect of the perceived value on the behavioural intention. The test results support (H4) that satisfaction mediates the effect of perceived value on the tourist behavioural intention in consuming culinary in Solo.

Implications And Suggestions

The research findings show that consumers' assessment of what value they receive relative to what has been given has a significant contribution in increasing the tourists trust in consuming culinary in Solo. Therefore, it is important to pay more attention to the perceived value as it is needed to determine consumer trust. Consumer behaviour is dynamic, meaning that a change in needed to determine consumer trust. Consumer behaviour is dynamic, meaning that a change in times will affect consumer behaviour. Behaviour that occurs can be pleasant or unpleasant. Individuals have a value based on the society they live in, but it is modified by the value of another group on which they belong to and the individual's life situation or personality. The decision to act in a certain way, or an urge to perform an action, whether they are conscious of it or not, is caused by the perception of consumers in evaluating the products through their form of trust. It implies that consumers who intend to purchase will depend on the conditions in which the satisfaction and trust of the product can be perceived by consumers, and where the perceived value of the product is also good. This research results support the study by Young Hoon Kim et al., (2011) who believe that consumers are not only influenced by the perceived value but also influenced by satisfaction. Even the latter can be a factor that mediates perceived value in achieving behavioural intention.
The practical implication is that the results of this study can help the regional government and the culinary business in Solo to prioritize culinary uniqueness and distinctiveness in attracting tourists. The results of this study reveal the importance of satisfaction in shaping the behavioural intention of tourists, thus the culinary value perceived by tourists will increase in Solo. So, from the results of this study the local government obtained input (1) policies in the culinary sector in advancing for the development of regional tourism, (2) strategies in regional marketing, (3) increasing tourist visits, and (4) increasing regional income, and (5) making regional regulations on culinary management and development.


The perceived value can form the tourists overall assessment of the product or service benefits based on what they received and what they given. The results of the study indicate that the perceived sacrifice which consists of the entire cost of the good or service upon purchase will cause change in the tourist’s behavioural intention. This implies that when the consumers think of everything related to the product, the perceived value becomes one of the considerations in making the decision to purchase. Tourist satisfaction is based on the quality level of the provided products or services, and consumers’ expectations later affect tourist’s behavioural intention. The relationship between perceived value and tourist behavioural intention is mediated by tourist satisfaction. This illustrates that tourists who fulfill their level of expectation prior to and after purchasing will increase their commitment in repurchasing, may increase their number of purchase, variations of the brands they purchase, and so forth. For future researches, it is important to expand the object of the research by involving foreign tourists as the research samples and adding other variables that may affect tourist behavioural intention in doing a culinary tour in Solo.


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