Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 4S
Munandi Saleh, Universitas Pasundan
Benyamin Harits, Universitas Pasundan
Iwan Satibi, Universitas Pasundan
Citation Information: Saleh, M., Harits, B., & Satibi, I. (2021). Capacity Building Strategies on Member of Local Legislative Council in Sukabumi City, West Java Province, Indonesia. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(S4), 1-16.
This research focuses on strategies to increase the capacity of DPRD members in Sukabumi City so that it is hoped that in the future, the DPRD as a public institution has adequate quality in carrying out its main tasks and functions as regional regulation makers, who set the budget and supervise the operation of the Regional Government. This study aims to determine, analyze, describe and reveal the capacity of DPRD members and strategies that can be taken to increase the capacity of DPRD members. This study uses the capacity theory proposed by Grindel and the strategy theory proposed by Osborne and Plastrik. The researcher used the descriptive analysis method with a case study approach. Data collection techniques were carried out through interviews, observations, literature studies and document studies, with the final result finding a strategy to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members in Sukabumi City. The results of this study: 1) that the capacity of DPRD members in Sukabumi City in carrying out the three functions is still weak, so there needs to be an effort to increase it by increasing capacity, 2) that to increase this capacity there needs to be a strategy that must be done, so that the capacity of DPRD members can remember in line with expectations.
Capacity Building, Capacity Building Strategy, Legislative Members.
Capacity building is one form of effort to expand stakeholder involvement directly or indirectly related to a policy (Kuhlicke et al., 2011; Weidner & Janicke, 2002; Mejia Acosta, 2013). Capacity building is needed in particular to develop essential skills, management and policies. This is intended to build the structure of cultural, social, political, economic and human resources (Williams, 2002; Morgan, 2006; Garavan, 2007). In the context of human resource development, attention is paid to the procurement or provision of professional and technical personnel. Activities carried out include training, giving salaries/wages, setting working conditions and environment and an appropriate recruitment system (Roodhooft & Van den Abbeele, 2006; Armstrong, 2020). Concerning organizational strengthening, the focus is on the management system to improve the performance of existing functions and tasks and micro-structure arrangements. In various academic drafts, capacity building can be in the form of human resource development. Capacity building can also take the form of strengthening the organization and management. Capacity development can also be built through the development of a network system or network. Capacity building can also be done by adjusting a conducive environment and can also be done by handing over the mandate and legal structure, physical capabilities, and program activities (Alaerts, 2008; Kuhl, 2009; Franks, 1999). Institutional development is an essential strategy so that an organization can: 1) develop a strategic plan aimed at making the organization have a clear vision; 2) formulate policies by taking into account the values of efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, responsiveness, fairness, participation, and sustainability; 3) designing the organization to ensure efficiency and effectiveness, a more appropriate level of decentralization and autonomy; 4) carry out managerial tasks to be more efficient, effective, flexible, adaptive, and more developed (Honadle, 1981; Imperial, 2005; Cruz et al., 2018). And network development, for example, is a strategy to increase the ability to cooperate or collaborate with external parties on the principle of mutual benefit.
Various forms of capacity development are a unified system in which one another is mutually influencing. This is related to the government's ability to provide inputs in the form of all required resources, processes (applying appropriate techniques and methods), feedback in the form of improving inputs and procedures, and aspects of environmental development (creation of situations and procedures). conducive conditions) (Jreisat, 2012; Dawes et al., 2009). Experience in several third world countries that have experienced a period such as South Africa, Latin America and Asia in general, especially the newly industrialized countries in East and Southeast Asia such as China, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, the early stages of development are permanently coloured by lack of substantial role of legislators. However, after the economy develops and the income per capita of the population increases, the people's awareness emerges, which is marked by a climate of political democracy. So slowly, the role of the legislative body must develop due to the demands of the community (Kinyondo, 2016; Nxele et al., 2014). The current phenomenon of DPRD as a legislative institution in the region still has a negative stigma because some bad practices carried out by members of the DPRD, both individually and institutionally, are a blurry portrait of democracy in the country. Harmful practices that members of the DPRD often exhibit include the commodification of Regional Regulations (PERDA) and excessive supervision. In addition, the DPRD, which is supposed to control the running of the government so that it is always following the aspirations of the people, not the other way around, destroys and conditions the executive to make deviations from the applicable regulations commit collusion in budgeting to benefit himself. Any activities that should be used to control the executive, on the contrary, is used as an opportunity to "blackmail" the executive so that the executive's attention becomes more focused on pampering DPRD members than the general public (Simabura, 2009; Saputra, 2014; Kurniawati, 2020).
Some time ago, several DPRD members from various regencies/cities or provinces became suspects or defendants in multiple cases that indicated corruption. This is very regrettable by all parties; the collective behaviour of council members is deviant and tends to violate the applicable legal rules. Although the rampant corruption in the DPRD is widely known by the public, very few law enforcement officers are being tried and followed up. This factor can trigger public dissatisfaction with the rule of law in our country. Political elites who are supposed to set an example and role model to the community actually commit actions that are not commendable, enrich themselves, and even violate the law collectively. Weak law enforcement can trigger collective corruption by the political elite, especially by members of the DPRD (Asmawi, 2014; Budiningsih & Lubis, 2019).
Supervision of regional regulations is precisely in the effort to implement regional rules. There is a conflict of interest between the people and the government or with the authorities. This happened in several areas, including in Sukabumi City, where the political dynamics in Sukabumi City seem to be dominated by the figure of Mayor Achmad Fahmi, who is aggressive in every conversation, news, and on social media. The government's political communication seems to be reduced to the form of direct communication aimed at the mayor, even though the existence of the DPRD as part of a political institution must also carry out its role in the implementation of political communication so that it can become a political bridge for the community. The duties and functions of the Sukabumi City DPRD as a legislative body seem dim and invisible, apart from the news and absent from public observation and discussion. Whereas as a political institution, the legislature has an essential function in front of the community (Wahyuningsih & Sakti, 2010). The budget function is discussing and giving approval, implementing and stipulating the Draft Regional Regulation on the Regional Revenue and Expenditure Budget (APBD) with the regional head. However, the practice of governance shows that in carrying out the budget function, DPRD members still experience obstacles such as lack of capacity and personal quality due to the educational background of DPRD members. There is no partiality to the community because prioritizing personal and group interests to discuss and provide recommendations to regional heads cannot be adequately done (Kartiwa, 2006; Andriani & Sudarsana, 2018). Concerning the implementation of the budget function, the control of DPRD members to the essential competencies needed in discussing the determination of the RAPBD is still inadequate. Most of the board members still have not mastered the basic principles of accounting, performance budgeting, budgeting techniques and benefits of budgeting and accountability principles. Therefore, budget discussions cannot be carried out to the level of in-depth analysis, especially studying the economic impact generated from the predetermined budget. On average, the attention of board members is focused on the amount of routine spending in the RAPBD (Kirihio, 2019). Furthermore, the DPRD is somewhat excessive in carrying out its supervisory/control functions. The supervision carried out so far has reached very complicated matters such as checking receipts, which should not be the case. The control exercised by members of the DPRD should only be controlled over policies. This means that the members of the DPRD of Sukabumi City oversee the procedures carried out by the Regional Government according to the original commitment plan that was previously mutually agreed upon. If the board exercises this kind of control, it will run out of time to keep an eye on it (Hermayanti, 2015).
According to Asmawi (2014), "the key to the success of local government administration is the ability of the DPRD to carry out its three-plus main functions: legislation, budgeting and supervision, plus simultaneous, proportional and sustainable representation". The success of the DPRD in carrying out its roles and functions is not only determined by the formal authority possessed by the DPRD institution but what is far more critical is the capacity and competence of each individual/personal member of the council. One form of capacity building is participating in orientation and deepening tasks through education and training, seminars, workshops, etc. The direction and deepening of the task are directed at getting to know and understand the implementation of the duties and functions of DPRD members, as elements of regional government administration, so that later it can run correctly and adequately and can demand the DPRD members to cooperate with Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) in achieving policies that he made (Dewi, 2012). The DPRD of Sukabumi City has not yet fully implemented its duties and functions. This is reinforced by the results of research from Wahyuningsih & Sakti (2010), which shows that the competencies that members of the council must possess in carrying out the legislative function include the ability to: a) mastery of making laws and regulations in the region or called Legal Drafting and b) understanding of the substance of the regulations legislation to be drafted based on an analysis of philosophical, juridical, and sociological aspects. However, in reality, this condition has not been met. For example, in the forums for discussing the Regional draft Regulation, the DPRD of Sukabumi City brings experts/academics/practitioners in law to discuss it. This arises because of the short grace period for appointing council members so that DPRD members are not provided with material on the main tasks of the Council, Law, and Public Knowledge. Based on the above background, the problem statement or problem statement in this study is that the capacity of DPRD members is not yet optimal; the lack suspects this of strengthening the capacity of DPRD members. So the purpose of this research is to find out, analyze, describe and reveal the capacity of DPRD members of the City of Sukabumi and strategies that can be carried out to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members of the City of Sukabumi.
The method used in this research is qualitative with a case study approach. Qualitative research methods, according to Sugiyono (2013), "that qualitative research methods are naturalistic because the investigation is carried out in natural conditions (natural settings); referred to as a qualitative method because the data collected and the analysis is more qualitative. The selection of a qualitative approach with the consideration of this research explores and gathers information and facts from the informants as they are, according to the views of the informants themselves by collecting data in the form of points that they reveal, according to the language and opinions of the informants (Sukmadinata, 2006). Therefore, researchers provide the most comprehensive opportunity for informants to disclose all informant information entirely and holistically. This study uses a qualitative method with a case study approach. According to Creswell (1998), a case study is a research strategy to carefully investigate a matter by collecting complete information using various data collection procedures, analyzing more intensively about something against an individual, group, or situation. Meanwhile, Rahardjo (2017) said the case study was conducted in a natural, holistic and in-depth setting. In carrying out an investigation or case study research, it will not be separated from the regular and continuous stages of the process. Several locations of qualitative research with a case study approach, according to Rahardjo (2017), include a selection of research themes and cases, formulation of research focus and problems, data collection, data processing and analysis, theoretical dialogue, triangulation of research conclusions and research results. Qualitative research with a case study approach describes the phenomenon of the capacity of DPRD members in Sukabumi City.
Implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of the DPRD of Sukabumi City
This study examines and analyzes the implementation of strengthening the capacity of the DPRD Sukabumi City. The research and analysis of the performance of the capacity building of the DPRD of Sukabumi City are seen based on three levels, namely: the individual level with the parameters of the extent to which the individual's knowledge of his duties and responsibilities, individual skills, behaviour and motivations that arise from each individual; organizational level by looking at the organizational structure, decision-making processes, procedures and mechanisms, setting up facilities and infrastructure as well as organizational networks formed; and the system level by referring to the parameters of the framework as well as the rules and policies in the Sukabumi City DPRD.
1. Implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of the DPRD of Sukabumi City seen from the Individual Level group in humans seen from the parameters of knowledge, skills, behaviour and motivations needed. The implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of Members of the DPRD of Sukabumi City, among others, is carried out by:
1. Technical Guidance Activities
In each faction and secretariat of the DPRD often hold BIMTEK to increase knowledge, insight, etc. This activity is regularly scheduled for at least 3x a year, namely orientation and deepening of the duties of DPRD members in the form of technical guidance, where this program has been scheduled in the Banmus (Deliberation Body) and is finalized at the beginning of the Fiscal Year. Members of the Sukabumi City DPRD stated that technical guidance activities related to the capacity building had been carried out. DPRD members who are members of each faction always carry out training every year in technical guidance. Bimtek activities are carried out at the city and provincial levels and the central level.
Likewise, for the secretariat of the DPRD every year, Bimtek is also carried out. This is a form of togetherness where we no longer see the party but create a system to serve the community as a whole. In addition, the DPRD of Sukabumi City has carried out activities / technical guidance such as national insight guidance in collaboration with Lemhannas, technical advice related to new regulations from the government, technical guidance associated with DPRD and parties.
2. Other Training Activities
The DPRD members, in the framework of efforts to increase their capacity, also take part in the Bimtek as referred to in point an above. In addition, they also take turns in other activities such as attending seminars, workshops, and others organized by relevant agencies and institutions. Others have a concern about increasing the capacity of DPRD members.
2. Implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of the DPRD of Sukabumi City seen from the Organizational Level
The organization is a place or place for people to gather, work together rationally, systematically, and systematically, guided and controlled in utilizing resources in the form of money, materials, machines, methods and the environment, facilities and infrastructure, data. And so on that are used efficiently and effectively to achieve organizational goals (Sutrisno, 2019). The implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of the Sukabumi City DPRD is carried out, among others, by:
1. Comparative Study Activities
This activity is scheduled and budgeted by the Secretariat of the Council (Setwan) in comparative studies and technical guidance for human resource development. In each work plan, comparative study activities are scheduled, each commission carries out by visiting other institutions to increase capacity. For example, to see how regulations, programs, the workings of different institutions may be imitated to be applied in the Sukabumi City DPRD.
2. Recruiting professional expert staff
Recruit expert staff who are genuinely professional according to the needs of each PPTK. Every time there is a new program, policy or regulation, it usually brings professional expert staff. As a result, all Sukabumi City DPRD can understand the new schedule, guideline or regulation altogether, entirely and quickly.
3. Implementation of Strengthening the Capacity of the DPRD of Sukabumi City seen from the System Level.
The system is a component and elements that are combined into one to achieve specific goals, and the system is also a set of characteristics that form a collection of procedures or processing charts that seek a common goal or goal to complete a plan (Nawiyah, 2015; Irawan et al., 2017). In its implementation, the system is seen from the framework as well as the rules and policies. For example, the performance of Strengthening the Capacity of the Sukabumi City DPRD at the system level is carried out, among others, employing consultation and coordination meetings both with the Regional Head as well as with all faction heads and commissioners, especially when discussing the APBD, the formation of a regional regulation, both in planning for its preparation and socialization. This is done in every decision or restriction regarding the Regional Budget and Regional Regulation; a consultation and coordination meeting are held beforehand with the regional head, faction head, commission chairman, etc.
Capacity of Sukabumi City DPRD Members
The capacity of DPRD members in Sukabumi City can be seen from the three functions of DPRD, namely the legislative, budgetary and supervisory functions. The explanation regarding the main tasks and parts of the DPRD is as follows:
1. Legislative Function
The function of legislation is to accommodate the various interests of the parties (stakeholders) to determine how development in the region will be implemented (Rajab, 2016). Competencies that board members must possess in carrying out legislative functions include the ability to:
a. Mastery of making laws and regulations in the regions or called Legal Drafting;
b. Understanding the substance of the legislation to be compiled based on an analysis of philosophical, juridical, and sociological aspects. The function of legislation is essential in the following ways:
1) Determine the direction of development and governance in the regions;
2) The basis for formulating public policies in the areas;
3) As a social contract in the regions; and
4) Supporting the Establishment of Regional Apparatus and Organizational Structure of Regional Apparatus.
In addition, in carrying out this legislative function, the DPRD also plays a role as a policymaker and not a policy implementer in the regions. This means that there is a social contract based on fiduciary duty between the DPRD as a public official and the community as stakeholders. Thus, this fiduciary duty must be upheld in every process of the legislative function.
2. Budget Function
The budgeting function is the preparation and determination of regional revenue and expenditure budgets with the provincial government. In carrying out this function, the DPRD must be actively, proactively and non-reactively involved by becoming a legitimator in the APBD proposals submitted by the regional government. Therefore, this budgeting function needs to get full attention, given its importance as follows:
a. APBD is a function of fiscal policy (allocation function, distribution function, and stabilization function);.
b. APBD is a function of regional investment; and
c. APBD is a function of local government management (planning function, authorization function, supervisory function).
However, concerning implementing the budget function, the board members do not have to be able to master in detail in analyzing and preparing the budget. However, they must be able to read the direction of their regional development efforts. Board members should have the ability to make budget policy directions, and this should be taught frequently. Budgeting requires about 30% technical capability. Of the technical needs, the condition is still more or less 10% of the technical capabilities of the council members who control, which means that it is still inadequate. The ability to behave in ethical behaviour is also still low, so it requires the development of competence in ethics as a member of the board. Meanwhile, to understand the change in the budget system from line item Budgeting to Performance Budgeting, the Sukabumi City DPRD plans to conduct seminars and workshops to explore the process of preparing the APBD, which is related to the Regional Development Program (Properda). This shows that members of the DPRD Sukabumi City have not carried out the budget function optimally. In general, not all DPRD members understand the implementation of the budget function. Whereas in the context of clean, good governance, the role of DPRD must be realized in each process of preparing the APBD by upholding fiduciary duty. The universal principles of good governance in the context of GCG, namely the Tariff/RAFIT principles, are very appropriate if they can be applied in real terms in carrying out this budgeting function.
3. Supervision/Control Function
The supervisory function is one of the management functions to ensure the implementation of activities following the policies and plans that have been established and to ensure that goals can be achieved effectively and efficiently (Santoso, 2011). The ability of the Sukabumi City DPRD in carrying out supervision is quite good. The supervision carried out by members of the DPRD of Sukabumi City, among others, includes the work partners of DPRD commissions. This is in the form of a public hearing; if necessary, field visits can be made. The third function, namely the supervisory function that has been carried out by the Sukabumi City DPRD, is essential, both for the local government and the supervisory implementer. For local governments, the supervisory function is an early warning system to oversee activities to achieve goals and objectives. As for the supervisor, this supervisory function is a noble task to provide reviews and suggestions in corrective actions. In addition, supervision has the main objectives, among others:
a. Ensure that the local government runs according to the plan;
b. Ensuring the possibility of prompt and appropriate corrective action against found irregularities and irregularities;
c. Growing motivation, improvement, reduction, elimination of deviations; and
d. Ensuring that the performance of the local government is or has achieved the goals and targets that have been set.
Based on the results of the study, it is obtained an overview of how the strategy for strengthening the capacity of DPRD members as previously discussed is the capacity of DPRD members, which is then examined in line with what was stated in Grindle's theory (1997) that to strengthen capacity is a series of efforts to increase the ability to perform tasks effectively. Thus, efficient and responsive, it is necessary to focus on the dimensions of improving human resources, strengthening organizations and institutional reforms.
The theory of capacity building proposed by Grindle has revealed and described aspects that influence success in efforts to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members where capacity building is carried out at three levels, namely the individual level, organizational level and institutional reform level. Strengthening of human resources is carried out by procuring or providing professional and technical personnel by carrying out activities such as education and training (training), salary/wages, setting conditions and working environment and proper recruitment system. Based on the research results, it can be further stated that it must also be followed by the suitability of the benefits expected by policy implementers, action programs and beneficiaries. As displayed in the study results, it was found that there was a discrepancy between what was expected and the program for strengthening the capacity of the Sukabumi City DPRD. Therefore, the strengthening of human resources, which should be a principal thing to be carried out, especially in the beneficiary group, is a factor that influences the success of strengthening the capacity of members of the Sukabumi City DPRD, which Grindle conveyed.
This discrepancy has been stated in theory put forward by Korten, which says that a program will be successfully implemented if there is a match between the three elements of program implementation. First, the suitability between the program and the beneficiaries, namely the compatibility between what is offered by the program and what is needed by the target group (beneficiaries). Second, the compatibility between the program and the implementing organization, namely the compatibility between the tasks required by the program and the capabilities of the implementing organization. Third, the suitability between the beneficiary group and the implementing organization, namely the compatibility between the conditions decided by the organization to obtain program outputs and what the program target group can do (Akib 2012). In the research results, other aspects are not explicitly mentioned as part of the context of the capacity building program. Still, they influence capacity building, namely educational qualifications. Educational qualifications are very influential with the insight of DPRD members to carry out their primary duties and functions. Although practically the board members already have a good understanding of the various development programs that have been established, the integrity of the activity implementers must continue to be improved. Of course, many things can affect the integrity of the implementers of activities, as individuals need individual strengthening. That personal strengthening can be done through training and specific skills, training activities and technical guidance. However, these technical activities still cannot be carried out optimally due to the lack of awareness and commitment of DPRD members to improve performance quality. Many DPRD members do not attend these technical training and guidance activities (Kadarisman, 2013).
Therefore, it is necessary to shift the minimum restrictions on education from high school to S1 or Bachelor. In addition, the division of commissions and the assigned functions should be adjusted to the study program of the board members. For example, in carrying out the legislative process, members of the council with an educational background in the faculty of law seem more relevant in the discussion of draft regional laws and regulations, and so on.
Furthermore, based on the research results on strategies for strengthening the organizational level of the DPRD, there are still many DPRD members who do not attend or are not present in the DPRD capacity strengthening activity program. Therefore, DPRD as an organization must tighten the supervision of its members by imposing an action such as punishment when DPRD members violate or do not participate in activities without a clear or reasonable reason. In addition, council members as state officials are currently one of the parties most highlighted by the public. Therefore, the DPRD, in particular, is needed to become a fair institution in the rule of law in our country. Furthermore, political elites, especially DPRD members, must set an example and role model for the community by taking commendable actions, not enriching themselves, and not committing collective law violations. Therefore, in the DPRD institution, an Honorary Council Board (BKD) is needed.
The Honorary Board of the Council as an instrument of the council which has the task of monitoring and evaluating the discipline and compliance with the morals, code of ethics, and regulations of the DPRD to maintain the dignity, honour, image and credibility of the DPRD; examine allegations of violations committed by members of the DPRD against the rules of procedure and the DPRD's code of ethics; conduct investigations, verify- cations, and clarify complaints from the leadership and members of the DPRD and the public; report the decision of the BKD on the results of the investigation and verification in the plenary meeting of the DPRD. In carrying out its functions, the BKD will be more effective if recruited from outside the DPRD, for example, the judicial commission (Institution). This is done so that the existence of the BKD can further improve performance to control the discipline of council members so that council members can further optimize their functions to strengthen the role of DPRD and gain trust from the community.
In addition, to strengthen the capacity of the DPRD, it is also necessary to improve the level of the system or reform of institutions related to the professional approach of institutions. In carrying out an affair, the research results show that the professionalism of DPRD members is an important influence in strengthening the capacity of DPRD members in carrying out their functions. As people's representatives, DPRD members have many issues and problems that must be faced and resolved, especially in legislation, budgeting and control. The assumption is that strengthening the capacity of human resources can be done through training to improve the skills of DPRD members, but in fact, this sometimes becomes an obstacle that must be considered. Therefore, the aspect of professionalism by recruiting at least one expert for each DPRD member is something that must be added to the strategy for strengthening the capacity of DPRD members so that DPRD members can focus more on carrying out their duties with the help of experts and professionals of DPRD members can also be maintained. In addition, based on the research results, other aspects have not been specifically referred to as the program for strengthening the capacity of DPRD members. Still, they affect the effectiveness of the capacity building program, namely that it is found that habits or may have become a culture of DPRD members who have a reluctance to participate in The process of capacity building activities, one of which is the assumption that the capacity building program is free of charge and is not followed by accountability and supervision so that there is a culture of DPRD members that hinders the implementation of capacity building action programs, especially in the consistency of attendance and activity outcomes.
Strategy for Strengthening the Capacity Building Strategy for DPRD Members in Sukabumi City
In Grindle's theory (1997), within the framework of strengthening the capacity of DPRD members, when applied to three levels, it still raises problems, as happened in the Sukabumi City DPRD. The problem is the lack of awareness for DPRD members to understand their primary duties and functions more deeply. Therefore, researchers try to find the root of the problem so that the source of the problem is located beside the individual level, organizational level and value system level. Then there is one more level that must be raised, namely the level of behaviour. At the behaviour level, it appears that three groups have been carried out, but in general, the capacity of DPRD members is still in a less than optimal condition. This is because the behaviour of DPRD members to increase their power is still influenced by several problems, including excessive constituent demands, burdensome obligations of the parent organization, changes in patterns and lifestyles that tend to be hedonistic and even have the impression of being New Rich People (OKB), and others. Others, which ultimately shape the characteristics of DPRD members who quickly forget their promises, are not concerned if there are efforts to increase capacity formally, non-formally, and informally, and weak commitments as members of legislators who are representatives of the people. This behaviour is one of the causes that the capacity of DPRD members is still inadequate, which results in the less than optimal performance of DPRD members.
In the theory of Osborne & Plastrik (1997), to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members, five core strategies are needed, namely core strategy, consequence strategy, customer strategy, control strategy and cultural strategy; this is not a generic strategy that can be done without considering the natural conditions in an organization. Of course, scrutiny of the character of the problems in an organization must first be done before adopting the strategy. Consequence strategies are manifested by creating incentives in the form of consequences or resulting from performance. Based on the study results, this strategy cannot be applied in natural conditions in the DPRD of Sukabumi City. There are limitations and regulations in the legislation, so that this consequence strategy is not suitable for use in public organizations or government organizations. Based on the study results, the problem that became one of the factors inhibiting the capacity of the DPRD Sukabumi City was motivation. Suppose all actors involved in an organization have a solid motivation to participate in implementing and participating in all programs and activities planned and determined together. In that case, it will increase the effectiveness of member performance and the institution's quality. This motivation is the essential capital that must be continuously developed and appropriately maintained because this factor will be the basis of all the design activities carried out by an organization. Therefore, motivation can be the basis for the emergence of a strategy, namely a motivation strategy. Motivation strategy is a strategy or effort in strengthening capacity where all parties in the organization have motivation or impetus that can lead to a person's performance spirit to carry out and follow all activities that have been planned and determined together to fulfil the goals and functions of an organization. The urgency of this motivational strategy is understandable because this motivation is the beginning of success in various ways, including in carrying out the main tasks and functions as a member of the council whose actual output is aimed at the sovereignty of the people. The low motivation in carrying out the main functions and functions tends to result in a subordinate capacity as a member of the board.
Strengthening the capacity of DPRD members other than at the individual level, organizational level and system level as the theory presented by Grindle (1997), seems insufficient because, after research from these three levels, the DPRD capacity has still not increased, so it needs to be complemented by strengthening the behaviour level. or behaviour that is a novelty in perfecting Gridel's theory, so that capacity building for DPRD members can be improved, in:
1. Core Strategy
The core strategy to strengthen behaviour capacity is to clarify the detailed code of ethics for DPRD members. Thus, it will be able to minimize and at the same time translate the behaviour that must be carried out as a member of the Sukabumi City DPRD.
2. Consequence Strategy
A consequence strategy to strengthen the capacity of behaviour or behaviour is to create a form of consequence or performance produced by employees. These consequences can be in the form of positive consequences such as rewards or adverse effects in punishment.
3. Customer Strategy
The customer strategy at the behaviour level is carried out by increasing community satisfaction with the Sukabumi City DPRD as an institution that makes public policies. Increasing community satisfaction can be done by fulfilling political promises made during the election and realized when they become elected members. Community satisfaction will foster an attitude of trust in public officials to participate actively in the government system.
4. Control Strategy
Strategy control or control is to determine the location of decision-making power. The control strategy at the behaviour level shifts the form of control used from detailed rules and hierarchical commands to a shared system mission that creates accountability for performance.
5. Cultural Strategy
Cultural strategy in using approaches to reshape organizational cultures such as organizational habits and organizational thoughts. In this case, the artistic strategy in strengthening the behavioural capacity of the DPRD is to develop new practices within the organization and maintain these new behaviours so that organizational members can support new emotional bonds by building a shared mission to achieve organizational goals.
For a strategy to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members, as stated by Osborne & Plastrik (1997), to turn an organization into a good organization, 5 (five) strategies are needed, namely design, core, consequence strategy, customer strategy, control strategy and culture strategy. But in reality these five strategies are not enough because there is no intention or motivation to change for the better. Therefore, it is necessary to add a motivation or intention strategy that becomes a novelty in this study. Because the motivational strategy is the driving force that causes the expected behaviour towards the goals to be achieved, in this case, the motivational strategy to strengthen the capacity of DPRD members can be done by meeting the needs of DPRD members both physical needs and psychological needs, which include the following:
1. Motivation Strategy at Individual Level
The other side of the performance problem is motivation. Ideally, each member of the DPRD should have a strong motivation, both internal and external. This motivation can trigger DPRD members to improve performance so that the quality of DPRD members in terms of productivity, competence, performance and self-image can increase in a positive and better direction. Motivation strategies can be done by:
a. Cultivating Initiative
Cultivate initiatives that always provide constructive suggestions, have a strong will to complete work, work sincerely, develop an attitude of responsibility towards tasks, and put the public interest above personal interests. This initiative is very much needed to support the achievement of the goals of the DPRD institution because the ability to take the initiative on board members means that the resources owned by the organization are quality resources that can be relied on for essential things to do.
The effectiveness of the performance of DPRD members is based on a sense of responsibility that arises from within the members of the council concerned. However, the importance of responsibility that exists within each member must continue to be nurtured so that it will always live and continue to grow because along with developments that occur in the community, of course, it demands a sense of responsibility so that the primary duties and functions as members of the board can run as expected.
2. Motivation strategy at the organizational level
a. Creating a happy working atmosphere
Enjoyment at work is a culture that is very supportive of the effectiveness of the performance of the board members. The atmosphere of happy working has a positive impact that provides comfort to the board members in carrying out their duties. If the working atmosphere offers convenience, the members will sincerely carry out their responsibilities so that the performance of the DPRD members can increase. This motivation must be supported by good management from the DPRD itself. The DPRD institution must provide incentives to DPRD members such as rewards and so on so that the quality of the performance of DPRD members can also increase.
With good cooperation between all components of the DPRD, it is hoped that something new can be born that can change the institution's quality for the better. All DPRD components must work hand in hand in improving the quality of DPRD institutions. Cooperation carried out by both council members with colleagues, leaders, board equipment, local governments, and other stakeholders makes personal and interpersonal relationships more bonded and better so that conditions like this can trigger the work enthusiasm of members because of the conducive and psychological environment. Comfortable.
c. Motivation Strategy at System Level
The motivational strategy to strengthen the capacity of the system level can be done by increasing the discipline of the board members. The effectiveness of the performance of board members is supported by discipline. Discipline is the key to achieving success, both individual, organizational and system success. Improving this discipline can be done by making regulations that can foster discipline in working according to established procedures, being on time in completing work, and complying with various rules imposed by the organization. This can be realized by applying reward and punishment and a point system used for all DPRD members.
From the research above, it can be concluded that the strengthening of the capacity of the Sukabumi City DRPD is based on the Sukabumi City DPRD Motivation Strategy, which includes 1) The core strategy, among others, is to clarify in detail the details of the DPRD member's code of ethics. Thus, it will be able to minimize and at the same time translate the behaviour that must be carried out as a member of the Sukabumi City DPRD. 2) A consequence strategy to strengthen the capacity for behaviour or behaviour is to create a form of consequence or performance produced by employees. These consequences can be in the form of positive consequences such as rewards or negative consequences in punishment. 3) The customer strategy is carried out by increasing community satisfaction with the Sukabumi City DPRD as an institution that makes public policies. For example, increasing community satisfaction can be done by fulfilling political promises made during the election and realized when they become elected members. 4) The control strategy or control at the behaviour level shifts the form of control used from detailed rules and hierarchical commands to a shared mission of a system that creates performance accountability. 5) The cultural strategy in strengthening institutional capacity is to develop new habits in the organization and strengthen these new behaviours so that organizational members can support new emotional bonds by building a shared mission to achieve organizational goals. The motivation strategy is carried out by a) fostering the initiative of the board members and fostering a sense of responsibility for the board members in carrying out their duties and responsibilities; b) making regulations that can foster and improve discipline on board members; c) create a happy atmosphere at work and cooperation between all components of the DPRD. d) meet the needs of DPRD members, both physical and psychological needs.
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Received: 01-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-21-10458; Editor assigned: 04-Jan-2022; PreQC No. ASMJ-21-10458(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jan-2022, QC No. ASMJ-21-10458; Revised: 28-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. ASMJ-21-10458(R); Published: 01-Feb-2022