Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 2

Educational Entrepreneurship Policy Challenges and Recommendations for Pakistani Universities

Muhammad Tanveer, Prince Sultan University

Haider Ali, The Royal Commission Jubail and Yanbu

Ikram Ul Haq, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences


In many illustrations, entrepreneurship has been conceived of finance and business projects and defined from several angles. It covers the region's physical, cultural, and technological facets. From the near past, entrepreneurship has gained widespread popularity and acknowledgment as a profession and research study. A related growth in the value of business schooling was also observed with the growing popularity of entrepreneurship. Business education in Pakistan is still a foreign practice. It was not before approximately 12 or 13 years that Pakistan's commission for Higher Education (HEC) recognized the relevance with the increasing footprints worldwide and found its inclusion in higher education. Economists see entrepreneurship as a mixture of ingenuity and risk-taking. Substantial growth levels and opportunities provided to all segments of the population and the deprived are reached when such behavior flourishes.

In Pakistan, the invasive role of the government in the economy seriously limits competition and risk-taking. When business wins were defined by security and promotion measures, the enterprise was transferred to pursuing government funds from those early days of organizing. The national economic policy also proposes to promote growth through a market-oriented approach in which the government regulates international trade through substantial neglect. Even this sector utilizes many of the needy or offers them chances for entrepreneurship. Undergraduate and postgraduate programs in Business Administration are limited to one or two subjects. This study aims to determine the potential role that entrepreneurship-related studies would impart in Pakistan's economic growth. In terms of economic growth, the opportunities for employment in entrepreneurship are considered more influential. Because of the procedure, the study indicates integrating entrepreneurship development from higher education as just a single specialized area since it seems to have great potential to modernize Pakistan's industry.


University Education, Education Policy, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurship.


The research aims to conduct academia's role to develop strong entrepreneurs in the Pakistan education sector. As a developing country, we are much more down in the list of young entrepreneurs that might be considered as a failure to our education system. The research consisted of literature views and studies of several research papers to test the hypothesis that, “In Pakistan, the Education curricula are not up to the mark to develop successful Business entrepreneurs”. We are imposed at school from our reception classes to take direction without any response or face punitive repercussions. Our society's education system is developed to suit workplace culture rather than make us a strong contender of entrepreneurship continual eight hours every day with frequent breaks and two off days with a lot of homework. It is surely enough to convert young adults to enter the job market as an employee. The educational sector transmitting knowledge and human capital are providing community experimentation, knowledge innovation, and entrepreneurship skills to society (Audretsch et al., 2014; Breznitz & Feldman, 2012; Link & Welsh 2013; Carree et al., 2014).

Economists see entrepreneurship as a mixture of creativity and risk-taking. High growth levels are reached when such behavior thrives and opportunities offered to society as a whole, including the disadvantaged. From either the policy's start stages, as defense and subsidy programs decide industry leaders, entrepreneurship has been transformed into political favors. Our neighbor country China increasingly manufacturing products, offering services to its community through university research and encouraging researchers to discover, explore and innovate (Gross, 2013; Huang et al., 2013).

According to Tanveer et al. (2018) universities need to implement performance management systems and procedures to improve individuals' performance and align individual goals and objectives for the betterment.

The emphasis on managing education and its curriculum needs to be moved from the simple production of employee minds to the creation and advancement of entrepreneurs for the effective exploitation of human resources in search of development. Universities are contributing to economic growth and fostering entrepreneurial activities (Cunningham et al. 2019.) In Pakistan, high-class country policies have always been biased. We propose integrating entrepreneurship education as a single standing discipline in the business curriculum for all of this. Such advancement, in turn, would lead to company-creators who would provide growth in the economy with continuity and prosperity and take Pakistan into the forefront of developing nations. Researchers are hopeful that entrepreneurship education will produce positive social and economic results provided a tremendous youth capacity. Entrepreneurship is a source of knowledge to coordinate and motivate entrepreneurial activities by setting rules and norms (Colombo et al., 2019). Employment education was most widely thought of as economics and market entrepreneurship in a field. In this context, they provide business experiences and economic, social, cultural and science aspects of the sector. This paper focuses on business training policies, using this level of understanding, and on prevailing problems in Pakistani colleges and their approaches. Moreover, in the academic environment in Pakistan, this paper appears to consider the discrepancy between profiles of educational entrepreneurs.

Literature Review

While there is an academic discussion regarding the freedom of entrepreneurship as a discipline, it is generally agreed that businesses can be acquired and accepted as a discipline and as a field of study by the academic disciplines. Entrepreneurship was widely quoted as saying that “Entrepreneurship does much of what you learn from it is all wrong”. This viewpoint may appear inside, or away from, in profit and non-profit organizations and in commercial or non-business activities and in administrative activities with the purpose of establishing innovative thoughts. It is also accepted that innovating skills will diminish the risk of breakage in new company activities. The objective model of entrepreneurial education by including an additional dimension of entrepreneurial awareness into the concept of business innovations was given. He argued that better experience would bring forward more rational a business career perceptions and would make it more realistic if the ambition would become an entrepreneur. Although there are academic entrepreneurship principles, there is no agreement on the particular collection of factors that lead a researcher to become an entrepreneur, philosophic and empirical studies (Bin et al., 2018). A fascinating understanding of open source technology as a model for technical progress and technology is also nice in other manners (Cota et al., 2020). The government collaboration regarding enhancement of entrepreneurship education in the universities is also effective (de Castro et al., 2019). Proper research framework of the entrepreneurship can play a vital role for promulgating this education in the universities (Naderibeni et al., 2020) as universities are an effective tool for regional, financial and social growth (Guerrero et al., 2015). In lucid way, the validity and reliability in entrepreneurship education is significant too. Convergent validity is the topographical validation. The essence of relationships between instrument scores and other instrument indicators should be medium to large, indicating that importance of material and value influence the instrument's competence in the definition. The task is for the study of the adaptation between the applicable research components gleaned from the literature and the function factors of the instruments under evaluation.

In 1947 Pakistan had only one university, founded in 1882 by Punjab Lahore University. In the 1980s there were approximately 20 public universities in various parts of the country. At the same time, private universities started to appear in Pakistan with the implementation of a set of laws regulating higher education, with the establishment of many private universities in 1983 (Arif & Ilyas, 2013). The government has promoted higher education to the private sector. In the mid-1990s, therefore, the number of universities in the public and private sectors increased significantly. According to data provided by the Higher Education Commission (HEC), there are 100 higher education institutions in Pakistan, of which 83 are universities and 21 are graduate schools (HEC, 2008-09). Amongst these, 50 universities are five years old or older, 23 are major universities that offer instruction in a variety of disciplines, 13 are universities of engineering and technology, 8 are universities of business and information technology, and four universities are universities related to medical science and agriculture. Almost two thirds of these 55 developed universities are in and around the federal capital and four provincial capitals, Peshawar, Lahore, Karachi and Quetta. The rest of these are scattered across the country after nearly six decades of neglect, Pakistan's higher education status has become important. In recent years, several programmes have been undertaken to modernize and improve the infrastructure in the framework of the long-term strategic plan (Bengali, 1999). Some organizational problems have however emerged, such as quality management, and these need to be considered as business universities step forward to enforce the reform agenda. A study of the HEC operations in Pakistan shows impressive efforts to develop and improve the country's higher education system. The review shows that a range of priority areas of action are developed to build on. The establishment of a mechanism that reaches strong agreement on the definition of entrepreneurial training and its significance for the planning of future entrepreneurial education at Pakistan's national universities is of great importance. In particular, HEC has established a sound framework for faculty growth, incentives and rewards program (Aslam et al., 2012). All of this represents the HEC's dedication to entrepreneurial education in Pakistan; however, some difficulties must be taken into account in integrating this into Pakistan's existing education system. It is worth noting here that the following discussions on the issues are analytical and combine debate and recommendations for corrective action together. A study report indicates that, already in 1999, 370 institutes with courses on entrepreneurial subjects were identified by 750 research universities and 226 business schools. According to Ahmed et al. (2017) the entrepreneurial curricula have been adopted to enhance business classes, either by start-up or take-up, each individually in an existing organization. After almost sixty years of neglect in Pakistan, higher education started to show great promise. A large number of projects have been designed to be revised over the last decade, and the construction capacity development framework is now evolving in the sense of the massive growth strategy.

Nevertheless, some working issues, such as internal control, need to be tackled when visionary universities move up on the reform agenda in terms of capital punishment. Reflecting on the current HEC operations in Pakistan seems to be necessary for the establishment and advancement of a higher education body in the region. Several of the main imperatives are developing a framework that clearly depicts the concept of EE in Pakistani universities and their relevance to the future EE structure. Indeed, the dedication of the Higher Education Commission to the EE in Pakistan shows good faculty development frameworks, encouragement and reward schemes of HEC. According to Haque (2007), 65 percent of PICIC's total loan from 1958 to 1970 was transferred to 37 monopoly homes. The privatization of the vast manufacturing, bank and insurance sector did not diminish wealthy influence in the 1970s. In the 1980s Pakistan witnessed a swing in the encouragement of the private sector, but the main problem remained large-scale manufacturing. The Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), the Investment Board (BOI) and the Central Revenue Board (CBR) play a major part in the sector. In the 1990s, however, this pattern emerged following a realization that stability in a globally competitive SME market might provide the national economy with stability and prosperity. While the idea of entrepreneurship has remained unchanged for decades, perspectives for who wants to be businesspersons have certainly grown. Assume it: 100 years ago, what was the choice of the entrepreneur? Moreover, you were out of luck, and you had nothing to buy from the capital.

Theoretical Contribution

Our main concern is, with both emergent and old school approaches, to guarantee consistency of the manuscripts with innovative research methods. The members of the Editorial Board agree that both the theoretical and analytical aspects of the papers submitted could support disclosures and participation through references to the related readers. In fact, in addition to the practical factors that are highly fundamental to us, we accept that the following may be a theoretical influence (Salamzadeh, 2020). Training in Entrepreneurship is “any pedagogical program or method of training on entrepreneurial behavior and expertise” (Fayolle et al., 2006, p.702). Within the system, aims of different types exist among the groups targeting entrepreneurship education, especially those aimed at raising awareness of enterprise management but which should also be available to potential entrepreneurs, in order to create new experiences. Organization program for employees many research in training enterprise studies have concentrated on program that raise the confidence in the execution of multiple contractual duties. Previous studies have shown that cultural engagement by organizational role models that aim at encouraging business activity has a strong potential to embody entrepreneurialism as an appealing career route. Previous research furthermore claimed that assessing these forms of teaching would require theoretical foundation, including the TPB system and the theory of social learning with respect to prior research on gender issues, entrepreneurial identities and role models. Such techniques make up a wide variety of different techniques of education. Corporate experience classes not only encourage the acquisition of corporate knowledge, but are also intended to empower, foster and generally influence experiences of business; in other words, to motivate cultural life.

H1 Why is entrepreneurship becoming more important in the education system? The response is that we live in a society, which demands entrepreneurial behaviors of all kinds more and more.

H2 The expression of global competitiveness to provide more compelling reasons for greater focus on entrepreneurship demands careful study and forecast of the world of tomorrow requires much of its policy principles and guidance on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education.

H3 There is a need to understand why and how people face greater global incertitude and ambiguity, many factors bring a lot of potential, but also increased uncertainty, including political reorientations, reduced trade barriers, increased value of information and communication technologies.

Education in Pakistan

Pakistan is on the verge of 200 million human capitals to equip young people's knowledge creativity but is facing significant education challenges in providing uniform and quality education. According to government stats, lower performers in South Asia neighbor’s courtiers with per capita income. Pakistan is among one of the E9 highest countries out of school population.

Pakistan's progress in the education sector is hugely inadequate over the last decade, having a low budget weak management resulting in poor education outcomes. Figure 1 show that Pakistan's low education expenditure as a percentage of GDP compared with South Asia neighbors (Maldives, India, Nepal, Iran, and Sri Lanka) and countries with similar per capita income (Ghana and Burundi).

Figure 1 Education Monitoring Report

Higher education has begun to show significant promise after nearly sixty years of neglect in Pakistan. A substantial number of projects have been scheduled for the last decade to update, and the structure of the building capability development is now progressing as part of the massive-standing growth plan. Nonetheless, some working problems, like internal control, require self-addressed as visionary universities leap forward in capital punishment the reform agenda. Reflecting on the existing HEC (Higher Instruction Commission) operations in Pakistan appears to be vital footprints towards developing and advancing the higher instruction organism in the region. Several critical imperatives are developing a system that explicitly portrays EE's definition and its importance for the potential EE structure at Pakistani universities. Strong faculties’ production structures, motivation, and HEC's incentive schemes show the Higher Education Commission's commitment to the EE in Pakistan.

As Haque (2007) explains that 65% of the total loan provided by PICIC between 1958 and 1970 were shifted to the 37 monopoly houses. Privatizing the massive-scale industrial sector, banks and insurance groups did not diminish the wealthy's control in the 70s. Pakistan saw a swing in the private sector's encouragement in the 1980s, but large-scale manufacturing was still the foremost concern. The Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), the Investment Board (BOI), and the Revenue Central Board (CBR) pay a great deal of importance to the large-scale market.

On top of it, there have been entrepreneurial syllabus curricula that have been taken to mean company entry classes, either by beginning-up or takeover, separately, all within an existing company (Gartner & Vesper, 1994). Even as the concept of entrepreneurship has remained unchanged for decades, prospects have evolved to those who wish to be businesspersons. Assume of it: 100 years earlier, what was the entrepreneur's option? Besides, you were out of luck, and you did not have the capital to buy anything. The purpose of the research is to evaluate education and to propose entrepreneurs' education in Pakistan’s education sector. The researchers intend to examine if our education sector is the essential altercations and challenges faced by the current entrepreneur market across Pakistan. How would some addition of entrepreneurship education contribute to Pakistan’s economic environment?

The need to research to justify some of the following questions;

• Does entrepreneurship Degree in Pakistan academic Education can be implemented?

• Does entrepreneurship education has worth to be a part of in current situations?

• What are the deficiencies in Pakistan universities that are holding back the new generation to be a successful entrepreneur?

This paper commences a solemn literature review and an evaluation of current knowledge on topics related to, directly and indirectly, entrepreneurship education.

Entrepreneurship Study Subject

The study shows that throughout Pakistan, social and economic enterprise development is gaining recognition, but growth is indeed slow (Asif et al., 2018). It can have a gradual change in Pakistan in terms of product technology development, boosting capital investment or exchange, establishing career opportunities, and reducing poverty to a certain degree. For growing markets like Pakistan, providing entrepreneurship education is vital to open growth and investment inclusiveness. Pakistan's government and economic prototypes request a reworking of everything.

Universities should focus on providing entrepreneurship education to help students become entrepreneurs (Ilonen & Heinonen, 2018; Lu & Jover, 2019). Entrepreneurship coaches are a potential intact marketplace that requirements more consideration (Ankrah & Omar, 2015).

Entrepreneurship is becoming more and more talk of the days because we live in a race where entrepreneurial activities of all sorts become highly challenging. The expression, global competitiveness, encompasses most of the governmental laws and guiding principles regarding the struggle to become a business owner and entrepreneurial education. Nonetheless, making a more persuasive point of view for better weightage on entrepreneurship requires vigilant study, and evaluation of the world of next-generation is essential. The world has witnessed positive outcomes from entrepreneurship education (Wilson et al., 2007; Longva & Foss, 2018)

It will be essential to understand how and why individuals will encounter high levels of ambiguity and difficulty. Several forces create even greater opportunities on the world level, yet also greater complexity, like diplomatic realignments, decreased barriers to trade, enhanced intelligence importance or techniques of correspondence, higher production rates, and technological obsolescence.

At the organizational level, there is a dynamic and volatile environment. Increasingly, downsizing, transferring, reorganizing, mergers, acquisitions, and corporate partnerships are the trend across the world. Greater assets mobility, worldwide sourcing, ERPs' impact on the management of implicit certainty, and comprehensive trade rationalizations accompany these changes. It is evident from the above topic that the person faces greater instability in the work environment of employment, bonuses, temporary unemployment, relocation, and more tension (Headd & Kirchhoff, 2009). When this growth continues in the context, it is clear that all sorts of entrepreneurship activities will be required. Unless an academic value response (Entrepreneurship Education) is to take place, it has to be vulnerable to the above determinants. Otherwise, the individual, society, and organization will be under pressure. Therefore, the following explanation stresses the position of universities and the value of life in entrepreneurship academics. According (Köhler et al., 2017) needs to be more rigor in education studies to improve research quality.

Universities are known as facilitators of a culture of entrepreneurship; there is undoubtedly an opinion that a definite view on entrepreneurship education will spread to students that are trying to start their own business and help promote entrepreneurship (Tanveer et al., 2020). Considering universities as intermediaries of skills, graduates of entrepreneurship are configured with a line of an action plan and will let them be familiar with thousands of viable business ventures and offer them a sensible approach to entrepreneurship (Tanveer et al., 2019). Viewing colleges as national market mobility, the powerful political discourse on entrepreneurship would probably improve university ties with other entrepreneurial partners and promote national policies and promote economic resources. In reality, university education aims to make a student not only a job hunter, yet also, most of all, an employer (Schulte, 2004). Entrepreneurship education needs to be contextually appropriate given the market atmosphere to adopt for the coop's future purpose (Bandera et al., 2018).

Entrepreneurship guidelines as Curriculum subject in Pakistan

Pakistan had only one higher education institution in 1947, established in 1882 by the University of Punjab Lahore. Approximately twenty public universities were founded in various parts of the country in the 1980s. Simultaneously, the rise of classified universities in our country started with implementing and executing a series of policies regulating higher education, thereby creating several private universities in 1983. The government also promoted higher education to widen the private sector. Nevertheless, a significant increase in the number of colleges in both the public and private sectors emerged speedily in the mid-1990s. According to data from the Commission for Higher Education (HEC), Pakistan has more than three hundred higher education institutions, comprising one hundred and three colleges and forty-seven professional institutes (Tanveer et al., 2020a & b & 2019).

The state of higher education in Pakistan has begun to show significant promise after nearly six decades of neglect. Across the past decade, as part of the great-term strategic plan, many programs have been undertaken to modernize the infrastructure and increase efficiency. Moreover, some ongoing issues such as quality enhancement ought to be addressed as the business universities step forward to introduce the updated agenda of reforms. A study of Pakistan's current HEC initiatives shows impressive efforts to centralize and improve its higher education system. This year's results show that there is a range of focus points for progress to expand on. It is essential to create a mechanism through which strong agreement is reached on the principle of entrepreneurship degrees and its contribution to the preparation of potential entrepreneurship education in Pakistan's National Universities (Tanveer & Hassan, 2020).

The following discussion on the issues is descriptive and incorporates feedback and advice regarding remedial action side by side.

• On either one side of the coin, there is indeed a question of a lack of faculty for entrepreneurship, and on the other side, there is still a deficiency of Doctoral programs to offer a mere faculty for entrepreneurship (Kuratko, 2005). It will be notable to say here that more business schools are needed to develop sound industry-related Ph.D. programs. As part of its mandate, the HEC will help this endeavor. The other problem, though, is the shortage of staff; this can only be resolved through the addition of more faculty, building a strong network to build connectivity and staff exchange programs with universities with a clear background in education in entrepreneurship, by Faculty and curriculum with competent and qualified teaching.

• Vice-chancellors and department heads are constantly changing; leading to changes in values and vision. Consequently, courses and programs in entrepreneurship had already endured in universities through different ideologies of scholars. It is also seen noted that many programs for entrepreneurship are initiated and actively implemented by one instructor or management. Many people debate that this area is poor since many initiatives for entrepreneurship take precedence around the drive and determination of one individual. It's his/her power, I say. The strength and zeal of people who developed courses and programs, the fact that colleges are now starting to take hold is a great testament to the passion that resides in the world of entrepreneurship. In the world of entrepreneurship, one's power to make a change is more obvious than any other academic discipline we must be cautious not to encourage anything to appear “entrepreneurial”; otherwise the word would simply remain hypothetical. Financial entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Leadership management, strategies for Entrepreneurial Marketing, for starters, are all right; It must be made sure, however, that they are genuinely entrepreneurial to the development of entrepreneurship to a certain extent than just a title. We can assume a strong use and misuse of this word for reasons other than to expand the area of education in entrepreneurship.

• Things that are not good for the performance will be either eliminated or reduced whereas things that are benefiting the university education will be increased and more focus on entrepreneurship (Tanveer et al., 2019).

• There is a doubt about the quality of knowledge in entrepreneurship. There is still no vibrant sophistication of the world of entrepreneurship (Katz, 2003). This is where the young entrepreneurship faculty needs to be reinforced and established. Tireless efforts will enable the staff in teaching entrepreneurship to carry this practice into the next world. Developing curriculum, research, and faculty will be the rightful place for entrepreneurship in business schools. The teaching staff, both old and new generations, must join forces to ascend subsequent creek and relocate innovation to a position of responsibility.

Finding Solutions

The question remains after analyzing the challenges mentioned above-facing educators in entrepreneurship, so what should be performed? The solution is neither complicated nor intense. The solution is an accumulation of many small yet essential acts. In the previous account of the current challenges, the authors indicated a few of these. If we try, every one of us can make a difference because the 10,000-mile path often starts with the first move. On the one side, there is a lack of entrepreneurship and, on the other hand, there is a lack of doctoral programmes to include pure entrepreneurship. It is true that more business schools are required to establish sound doctoral programmes in business. As part of its work, the HEC must support this initiative. If business schools do not develop doctoral programmes, the entrepreneurship school itself must develop the requisite training. The other issue, however, is the lack of a faculty; this is to be addressed by recruitment of more faculty, the creation of a strong network and the development of links and technical exchange programmes with universities that already have a strong history in entrepreneurship education, skills and curricula. We must ensure that everything is not entrepreneurial; otherwise the word will remain merely rhetorical (Ruebottom, 2013). For example, entrepreneurial finance, business management and entrepreneurial marketing are good; however, they must be made genuinely business-like and not just a title to the entrepreneurial phase. This word appears to be used and exploited for other reasons than to develop the field of business education. Furthermore, the Vice-Chancellors and department heads change regularly, leading to shifts in principles and vision. Consequently, entrepreneurial courses and programmes have undergone numerous university philosophies. It was noted that many entrepreneurship programmes were launched by a professor or director and brought about success. Some claim that this sector is poor since many business projects are guided and decided by 12 individuals. I argue it is his power. The courage and enthusiasm of the people who have built courses and programmes that start rooting in universities today is a true homage to the emotion within the field of entrepreneurship. In the world of entrepreneurship, the power to make a difference is more visible than in any other academic field.

Another concept of insanity has been said to do the whole thing and expect a different outcome. The up-and-coming invention of entrepreneurship teaching members should therefore avoid the numbness of the example that has shaped so many business concepts. For new ideas, we will continue to move ahead fearlessly. Throughout our schools, innovations must be accepted. Professors require turning out to be more competent in the use of academic technology for entrepreneurship education and their pedagogies should be made bigger to take in new and innovative approaches to entrepreneurship coaching. Online meetings and online case studies sharing are feasible applications of educational technology. It will contribute to the variety of educational experiences the aptitude to fetch new life experiences from different geographical areas and universities. Education in Entrepreneurship should not only facilitate new business ideas to be developed from a broader perspective, furthermore, it also improves the capacity of current companies, and old ones, to develop and encourage innovation, thereby creating a revitalizing impact.

This study deals with the issue of designing effectual policies for the development of entrepreneurship learning education in universities in Pakistan through higher Education Commission, the background is to of main disciples being chased in Pakistan that concentrate both on establishing suitable programs for educating entrepreneurship and their position in enhancing universities' commitment to community outreach. The current education system will play a role by promoting attitudes and behaviors that foster students ' willingness to interact, build, and develop.

The main goal of education in entrepreneurship is to enhance the potential of participants to analyze and develop possibilities in economic, political, and cultural backgrounds. Pupils should be motivated to believe in their influence of arguments and the chance to see and use on hand resources as a base for establishing principles, civilizing careers, and intriguing full responsibility for their local population.

Because when the advantages of education in business are recognized, it has the probability to deliver and create a fresh furnishing of active and intelligent students armed with actual knowledge that contributes to a state's ultimate social and economic-economic development. Pragmatic planning must suit the educational activities to achieve these goals. These should include the production of a business plan for student start-ups; Appointment of clinicians, computer model, analysis of habits, Active events photo, and documentary field trips argue because, according to business conditions, pedagogy is evolving.

A dynamic and unpredictable world is viewed at the level of business just as well. The world's expectations are rapidly downsizing, transferring, restructuring, mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances. The changes include enhanced asset mobility, global procurement, the effect of initiatives on virtual reality management, and worldwide market rationalization. It has been clearly reflected in the discussed above that job, incentives, temporary layoffs, relocation and greater stress in the workplace are increasingly fragile (Maslach & Leiter, 2008). If these changes continue to happen, it will become apparent that in the future there will be a need for all sorts of business behavior. If there is a value in terms of education (entrepreneurship education), then the factors mentioned above should be responsive to it, or pressure would be exerted on the person, community and organization otherwise. The descriptions that evaluate that emphasize the part played by universities and the value of business learning. Universities are known as the promoters of an enterprise culture; a strong emphasis will spread to non-business students, aiding foster an enterprising culture and the growth of business knowledge through a strong focus on enterprise training. Viewing universities as skill mediators, entrepreneurship students travelling as veterans are equipped with expert expertise to help them recognize their success principles and give them a realistic strategy for engaging, such as developing practicing projects. Looking at universities as the driving force behind the Regional Development Corps, a major emphasis on business ownership is likely to increase university connections with other players in the business sector and promote regional and favorable entrepreneurial strategies and infrastructures for change (McDade & Spring, 2005).

The above findings promulgate that the curriculum for entrepreneurship needs a more complex, research-based approach to business orientation in courses than conventional instructional methods.


This concluded from the discussion and concepts that entrepreneurship has gained a key position in the current educational system. In the ongoing curricula, it is time to guide and advantage creativity to bring it into the mainstream. In reality, the rapid industrial and technical transition has caused severe problems for the education facilities. This shouts out to transform our current system to introduce “entrepreneurship” as an essential topic almost at levels and notably at the university level. The said explanation implicitly shows that there would be two kinds of consequences if such actions were not taken into account. One is that schooling will stay very far from the market's existing realities and, second, seriously affect economic growth.

Therefore, to realize the root cause and ultimate reality, it is proposed that courses/models be implemented in the education system of Pakistan and several other countries. When the following guidelines are implemented in a real sense, it will surely add value to public sector profitability (references to service delivery) and private sector benefit maximization.

In Pakistan, the dilemma is with the management. To reorganize the subject matters and curriculum, the dire need is to change students' mindset and teachers. As the generations are evolving, so is the culture. The students are now habitual of learning the book's material by heart and the examiners examine the intellect by the relevancy of its similarity to a textbook. Innovation and creativity are left behind, which sows the seed of an entrepreneur. The need for time is to conduct some workshops to open both the learners and policymakers' minds.

Attributable to the apparent lack of interaction between investment channels, business owners, and university students, Pakistan's poor entrepreneurial culture is further increasing. Our universities, apart from curricula, focus on theoretical subjects rather than the practical field. It lacks the project works, workshops participation with employers, a table talk between the tech giants and Bloomberg of colleges, and the opportunity to work in the field as part of their education policy. Many business and vocational schools in our country develop so-called professionals that are hardly competent to jump in the developed international market, and the unfortunate is that the conventional program is not focused on making a leader but a follower.

This would also create an entrepreneurial culture that highlights the single entrepreneurs, which can flourish at all rates. It throws light to the Triple Helix principle “that entrepreneurship not only improves the economic stature of the society but also points the way forward for handling individual and corporate advancement in the new economy” and eliminates the question of um-employment (Matlay & Mitra, 2002).


To ensure socio-economic growth, developed nations generally Pakistan in particular need a unique method and approach to entrepreneurship education. Support from key stakeholders is required to accomplish successfully and effectively. This includes both the community and private sectors operating in numerous capacities, namely research, decision making, and distribution of information.

Almost all of the obligations of the educational institutes will be to build human resources with imminent and knowledge that serves as the base. These preceding recommendations should be considered to create an organization dedicated to entrepreneurial learning in Pakistan's universities;

1. Research work on entrepreneurship policy needs to be stepped up. Work would provide an understanding of the topic field and thus provide a significant and indispensable framework for additional growth and deployment of activities in entrepreneurial education.

2. Key people including professors and students need to build conscientious attitudes about the importance of entrepreneurship to improve entrepreneurship education. Establishing and sustaining networks among the different age and skill groups can play a vital role in raising consciousness and mounting skills and in sequence and knowledge sharing.

3. Sharing perspectives with universities from other countries will be important and often partner on practical ventures and study to ensure that education leading to development entrepreneurs is also presented from a global perspective.

4. Encouraging the rampant dissemination of training in entrepreneurship literacy would be good for all schools across the country to strengthen the roots of entrepreneurial education.

5. Proficiency in teachers and administrators, both in especially post-service and in-service instruction, must be developed to gain expertise in educating the youth about entrepreneurship education; the same is often required for the professors and teaching assistants.

6. By developing, assimilating, and maintaining quality education in entrepreneurship Educational institutions for effective research on local curricula with all aspects is important for integrating education in entrepreneurship.

7. Corporate partners (stakeholders) need to work together for local businesses, public performers, and others. Fostering such a joint effort will improve knowledge of what partnership on entrepreneurship financial literacy might indicate for universities and stakeholders alike.

This will boost the drive to develop alliances.

Institutions in Pakistan should appear to be more proactive because they will have an organizational structure. Most organizations have been using an edge-down approach when dealing with their managers (Pervaiz & Khan, 2015). Profitable focus on venture education in schools requires long-term planning and a concerted desire on the part of the HEC departments, institutions, staff and professors, groups, and the local small trade sector, with clear commitments being given to the various stakeholders. The following paragraph discusses various forms of education in Pakistan, bearing in mind the history of entrepreneurship awareness. Furthermore, this is important to discuss that to establish more sustainable and realistic templates, insights are integrated into the description according to the above recommendations. Such models are taught at Essex University UK's School of Entrepreneurship and Management is suggested for reproduction in Pakistan. All such models produce the desired results if they were introduced in Pakistan and boost the country's economy.

The researcher contrasted the above courses with approximately 133 business schools in the European Countries during this study and found them full and special to embed in Pakistan Education Policy. Universities are liable to be involved in technology transfer and student entrepreneurship to accomplish future making (Mirani & Yusof, 2016).

Public Enterprise and Management Course

The training would help students and other experienced people pursuing employment in the tech industry, others researching options for new enterprise growth, and many other financial sectors, retail, and service industries finding new dimensions to successful business management possibilities, strategies, strategic planning, and global industry applications. This initiative will help develop inventive leadership skills for business organizations' managers in the musical and visual arts creative industries, new digital technologies, and architecture. The new scheme addresses innovation and leadership issues, strategies, policy development, and their implementations in the government sector.

Entrepreneurship and Regional Development Course

The initiative would gain awareness of the increasing appreciation of the partnership between the economic and social importance of entrepreneurship and the development and unity between urban and rural, central, periphery, and metropolitan regions around the world. In specific, the curriculum will investigate the intellectual and realistic relations between enterprise and infrastructure development problems. The whole curriculum will examine the role of wealth creation and its importance to economic growth in all forms ranging from high-tech to enterprise activity in different national contexts. This will further understand the reality for critical analysis of global organizations' position, national competition trends, modern organizational structures, imagination, technology, learning, human migration, capital flows, the climate, and how different regions throughout different countries are tied together.

International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Course

The course could discuss the fundamental aspects of a business model and marketing and user-centered business activity as it relates to multiple types of organizations in different stages of creation, progress, or expansion in different foreign and cultural contexts.

Social and Community Enterprise Management Course

This curriculum deals with the increasingly important foreign subject of social and community enterprise. The system calls for a crucial study of people and organizations involved in taking chances on behalf of their clients and investors, anyone seeking new forms of servicing their communities or adding value to current services, the need to balance social and economic return on investments.

Creative Industry Management Course

Its initiative will be to deliver competent, high-valued, appropriate, and overwhelming management education and training guide for decision-makers of the public sector and NGOs. The curriculum can provide the wider substance of economic planning and business skills training applicable to the government and private sectors. Such expertise will make students vitally analyze the networks in a global climate between the states, private including charitable sectors, and also with particular reference to administration and efficiency problems in such a setting. The course will also support across fields such as industry and wellness, public policy and district economic expansion, and communal venture.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Course

This is a very critical initiative. Innovation and entrepreneurship are essential to economic growth and societal change. This curriculum will allow students to gain insight into the real issues of global interest to companies, governments, policymakers, academics, educators, and local populations. Business and business awareness should remain mindful of social and financial change.

International Small Business Management Course

Small companies in most nations make up the bulk of businesses. The curriculum would concentrate on studying small and medium-sized enterprises' management and their associations with entrepreneurship. This collaborative scheme would tackle the main theoretical and practical issues related to small businesses ' entrepreneurship, sociology, psychology and management, development, progress, and maturity. It will also discuss the essence of managerial criteria when it is related to small companies at different stages of their growth. The distinction between entrepreneurial and managerial activity and the economic and social position of smaller companies speaks about the individual's rights in the creation of new business (Feola et al., 2019). Members of this curriculum will also benefit from theoretical and practical learning methods, including common perspectives and industry experts, politicians, and scholars.

International Business and Entrepreneurship Course

The above curriculum will provide students with a deep knowledge of the key aspects of foreign business composition and production. This program's curriculum will provide the expertise to allow students to explore business management problems when they relate to various types of organizations at different stages of creation, progress, or growth in different international and cultural environments.


All authors of this article would like to thank the Prince Sultan University for their financial and academic support to conduct this research and publish it in Academy of Strategic Management Journal.


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