Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 20 Issue: 3

Ensure GWJ Application with UTAUT Models

Marsofiyati, Universitas Negeri Jakarta

Henry Eryanto, Universitas Negeri Jakarta

Osly Usman, Universitas Negeri Jakarta

Abstract

Purpose of this study is to help ASPAPI (Association of Indonesian Office Administration Scholars and Practitioners) members understand the application of the Grip Work Journey (GWJ) application as a new technology in the field of Office Administration. The research method used in this research is a survey method. While this research model is the UTAUT (Unified Technology of Acceptance and Use of Technology) model. 6 Users of the Grip Work Journey (GWJ) application hope that administrative work can run effectively and efficiently because it is assisted by this application which has 6 (six) feature.

Keywords

Grip Work Journey (GWJ), Office Administration, Office Technology, UTAUT Model.

Introduction

Development of technology is changing the work-based paper (paper based) into a job based technologies minimal use of paper (paperless). This change would have an impact on the activities of the everyday application users. These changes drive changes to planning, processes and implementation as well as policies in various fields, especially in the office sector. Therefore, to find out what factors influence the implementation of the Grip Work Journey application, we use the UTAUT model (Unified Technology of Acceptance and Use of Technology).

This is to find out whether the technology we make is needed, in helping the achievement of organizations, such as schools, companies and agencies. This is necessary in order to provide information on whether this technology is successful, useful or failed to implement. In order to follow up on this, we intend to continue researching the Grip Work Journey application (Zain, 2018; Mulyono, 2018). Information systems using technology are currently increasing.

This is driven by the demands of modern organizations which are expected to be able to present information quickly, accurately and openly. Study on information systems in academics that this information system can help the learning process and increase the productivity of lecturers. If it’s linked in the world of offices, an information system should be able to help work in the office and increase the productivity of employee performance in it.

Literature Review

Archive Application Using Arterial

Arteries is a web-based archiving application that was built to be able to integrate archives electronically (Sholeh, 2018). System configuration required especially for the software is the Windows operating system, XAMPP and a web browser. This application contains the contents of the archive database in the form of a list of archives that are inputted and simple searches and advanced searches can be performed.

Advantage of this application is that it makes it easier to spread archives and duplicate archives but there are drawbacks in using this application, namely if there are documents that have not used an electronic signature, if changes are made to the document, it cannot be traced whether the document is still original or not. With an electronic signature, if the document is changed, the information will be displayed that the document is no longer valid.

Web-Based Document Archiving

System is created using the PHP MySQL application with the aim of archiving documents based on this web is done to help and prevent a very long process of storing and searching for a document that is needed in a fast, precise and detailed time. MySQL is one type of database server that is very well known and widely used to create a web using a database as a source and data processing.

Then PHP My Admin define web application created by PHP myadmin.net. PHP MyAdmin is used for My SQL database administration. In this application, you can design the operator data that interacts with the system. This operator can add incoming and outgoing mail to the system which will then be included in the archive list.

The advantages of this application are that it makes it easier for users to find incoming and outgoing mail quickly and in detail and can create reports of incoming mail, outgoing mail and operator lists. However, there are weaknesses in this application, namely the system is built with procedural or structured programming and does not use object Frame Work-based PHP and cannot be accessed offline (Simangunsong, 2018).

Application Grip Work Journey

Application is an office application that is useful for helping leaders, administrators and secretaries in carrying out office activities have 6 (six) The main menu is:

a) Contact: feature is used to store a person's and company contacts.

b) Reminder: feature used to create a warning with an alarm for user-defined events.

c) Schedule: Feature for managing personal and leadership work schedules.

d) News: feature for creating company news reports and reading news from outside the company.

e) Note: Feature to store important user notes in an integrated manner.

f) Mail: Features for processing messages/letters with format/style certain.

Models UTAUT Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)

Model formulates four main variables, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. Which is said to be an exogenous variable. 2 variables behavioral intention and use behaviour as endogenous variables. UTAUT is one of the most significant acceptance theories because, it can predict the acceptance of information technology in about 70% of the cases. Compared with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), it can only predict the acceptance of information technology in about 40% the cases that has been studied by previous researchers. Also, UTAUT can link exogenous variables with behavioural intention and use behaviour. Here are eight models defined in the UTAUT model (Bendi & Andayani, 2013; Taiwo & Downe, 2013; Putri & Mahendra, 2017; Putri & Jumhur, 2019).

Research Methodology

The research method used in this research is a survey method, namely the primary data collection method by giving questions or statements to individuals as respondents of this study. Meanwhile, this research model is UTAUTmodel (Unified Technology of Acceptance and Use of Technology). Based on the results of research conducted by researchers, this study uses the calculation of the Smart PLS application. The results obtained by the researcher are as follows (Figure 1):

Figure 1 Smartpls Output Results

Based on the results, the output shows that the indicator with a loading factor value above 0.05 can be said that the indicator is suitable for use in this, and the data is valid or has met convergent validity. As for measuring the reflective indicator, the test was carried out with the validity of discriminant cross loading with the following results (Table 1):

Table 1 Loading Factor
BI EE FC PE SI UB
BI1 0.91 - - - - -
BI2 0.927 - - - - -
EE1 - 0.918 - - - -
EE2 - 0.905 - - - -
EE3 - 0.874 - - - -
FC1 - - 0.628 - - -
FC2 - - 0.836 - - -
FC3 - - 0.772 - - -
FC4 - - 0.649 - - -
PE1 - - - 0.777 - -
PE2 - - - 0.839 - -
PE3 - - - 0.826 - -
PE4 - - - 0.677 - -
PE5 - - - 0.751 - -
SI1 - - - - 0.928 -
SI2 - - - - 0.891 -
SI3 - - - - 0.804 -
SI4 - - - - 0.91 -

The criteria for cross loading are that each indicator has a higher construct than other constructs. The results above show that each of the indicators for the construct has a higher factor to other constructs. As for strengthening the discriminant validity by comparing the square root value of the average AVE, if the AVE value is >0.7 then the data can be accepted.

The following is Table 2 of AVE results in this study:

Table 2 Reability and Validity
  Cronbach's Alpha rho_A Composite Reliability Average Variance Extracted (AVE)
BI 0.815 0.821 0.915 0.844
EE 0.881 0.884 0.927 0.809
FC 0.708 0.748 0.815 0.527
PE 0.834 0.847 0.883 0.602
SI 0.906 0.912 0.935 0.782
UB 0.664 1.051 0.762 0.528

Based on the output above, it shows that the construct in the study has a BI reliability value of 0.815> 0.7, EE of 0.88> 0.7, FC of 0.70> 0.7, then PE of 0.83> 0.7 and SI of 0.90> 0.7 and UB of 0.66> 0.7, it can be concluded that the data is reliable (Table 3).

Table 3 Test Hypotesis
  Original
Sample (O)
Sample
Mean (M)
Standard
Deviation (STDEV)
T Statistics
(|O/STDEV|)
P Values
EE -> BI -0.098 -0.1 0.11 2.894 0.372
FC -> BI 0.343 0.349 0.077 4.423 0
PE -> BI 0.242 0.251 0.091 2.672 0.008
SI -> BI 0.431 0.416 0.091 4.756 0
UB -> BI -0.005 -0.013 0.047 3.116 0.908

Based on the results of the output above, it shows that the effect of effort expectancy on behavioral intention is 2.89>1.96 while facilitating conditions on behavioral intention are 4.42>1.96 and performance expectancy on behavioral intention is 2.67>1.96. Then influence on behavioral intention is 4.75>1.96 and use behavior (UB) on behavioral intention is 3.11>1.96.

Discussion

In this study using a survey method and the calculations using the SmartPLS application. In this study, it has 6 variables with several indicators, namely behavioral intention, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, performance expectancy, social influence and use behavior. Through the calculation of each construct, the Cronbach's Alpha value is obtained >0.6, so it can be said that the construct is valid. Furthermore, the calculation of Composite Reliability shows a value>0.7, which means that each construct is reliable.

In the calculations in this study, it shows the effect of effort expectancy (EE) on behavioral intention (BI) at a T statistic of 2.89>1.96. The effect of facilitating conditions (FC) on behavioral intention (BI) is 4.42>1.96. The effect of performance expectancy (PE) on behavioral intention (BI) is 2.67>1.96. The influence of influence (SI) on behavioral intention (BI) is 4.75>1.96 and the influence of use behavior (UB) on behavioral intention (BI) is 3.11>1.96.

This research was conducted to see the level of individual intention to behave and individual behavior to use technology, in this case in the form of the application of the Grip Work Journey application which is carried out using the UTAUT model. The Grip Work Journey application is an application created and assembled as a form of manifestation of office automation to be able to face global competition. This application has been designed to help several office jobs quickly and accurately and certainly can connect with information and communication technology that is generally used by many individuals (Amiaya, 2013; Abosede & Akintola, 2015; Marsofiyati, 2015 & Marsofiyati et al., 2020).

Users of the Grip Work Journey application are divided into 6 types, namely:

a) Director

b) General Manager

c) General Affairs

d) Secretary

e) Admin

f) Staff.

This application also has 6 main features, namely contact, note, reminder, schedule, news and mail. This application is also equipped with a profile menu to be able to adjust the identity of the application user, a tutorial that is prepared to assist users in operating the application and also a logout menu to be able to exit the application.

The use of the UTAUT research model in this study, the intention to behave (beharioral intention) and behavior to use technology (use behavior) is influenced by people's perceptions of performance expectations (performance expectancy), business expectations (efficiency expectancy), social influence (social influence). And supporting conditions (facilitating conditions).

Implications

We suggest that people are able to develop products and services using a variety of sophisticated technologies and platforms. By using good technology is able to influence a performance in the company. With the use of this technology in a company, it is able to carry out office work efficiently and effectively so that it can make it easier for employees to carry out their work.

Conclusion

Based on the results of research conducted by researchers, the conclusions in this study are as follows:

1. This study uses a survey method with variable X implementation which has indicators in the form of: a) motivation, b) experience, c) social conditions, d) workload, e) how to work. Variable Y is technology with indicators, namely: a) working time, b) income expectations.

2. The use of the Grip Work Journey application is divided into 6 types, namely: a) Director; b) General Manager; c) General Affairs; d) Secretary; e) Admin; f) Staff.

3. This application has 6 main application features (contact, note, reminder, schedule, news, and mail) equipped with a profile, tutorial, logout.

4. The reliability test results show that the BI reliability value is 0.815>0.7, EE is 0.88>0.7, FC is 0.70>0.7, then PE is 0.83>0.7 and SI is 0 , 90>0.7 and UB of 0.66>0.7, so it can be concluded that the data is reliable.

5. The effect of effort expectancy (EE) on behavioral intention (BI) is 2.89>1.96.

6. The effect of facilitating conditions (FC) on behavioral intention (BI) is 4.42>1.96.

7. The effect of performance expectancy (PE on behavioral intention (BI) is 2.67> 1.96.

8. The influence of influence (SI) on behavioral intention (BI) is 4.75>1.96

9. The influence of use behavior (UB) on behavioral intention (BI) is 3.11>1.96.

References

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Amiaya, A.O. (2013). Adequacy of information and communication technology resources for office technology and management programme in Delta State Polytechnics. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(11), 1-12.

Bendi, R., & Andayani, S. (2013). Application of the UTAUT Model to understand the behavior of users of academic information systems. HOAQ Journal of Information Technology, 2(1), 144-151.

Marsofiyati, H.E. (2015). Office management. Jakarta: LPP Press, State University of Jakarta.

Marsofiyati, S., Zain, N., Eryanto, H., & Usman, O. (2020). Measuring the level of community desire to use GWJ application in office activities. Management Science Letters, 10(6), 1251-1258.

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Putri, R.A., & Jumhur, H.M. (2019). Blibli application enthusiasts. com by using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. Journal of Business Research and Management, 12 (1), 16-23.

Sholeh, M. (2018). Digital-based archive management using electronic signatures and implementing archive applications using arteries. Dharma Bakti Journal, 140-150.

Simangunsong, A. (2018). Web-based document archiving information system. Mantik Penusa's Journal, 2(1), 11-19.

Taiwo, A.A., & Downe, A.G., (2013). The theory of user acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT): A metaanalytic review of empirical findings. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 49(1), 48-58.

Zain, N.D. (2018). Grip work journey sang penjelajah. Jakarta: Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Jakarta.

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