Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 6S

Entrepreneur's Perception of Entrepreneurship Learning in the Family for the Formation of Entrepreneurial Interests

Luluk Tri Harinie, Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia

Esty Pan Pangestie, Universitas Palangka Raya, Indonesia

Gazali, Universitas Madura, Indonesia

Rusdiyanto, Universitas Airlangga And Universitas Madura

Arif Syafi'ur Rochman, Universitas Gresik

Much. Muchtar, Universitas Wiraraja Madura, Indonesia

Bambang Hermanto, Universitas Wiraraja Madura, Indonesia

Enza Resdiana, Universitas Wiraraja Madura, Indonesia

Achmad Imam, Universitas Madura, Indonesia


 This research aims to understand entrepreneurs' perceptions of the meaning of entrepreneurship learning played by parents as models/examples in the formation of entrepreneurial interests (ethnographic studies in ethnic Banjar families). His analysis used ethnographic approaches and the conduct of research using Spradley's ethnographic approach. The research setting was conducted in Palangka Raya City, while the informant was an entrepreneur of gold and gems (diamonds) ethnic Banjar from Nagara village, South Hulu Sungai, South Kalimantan, Indonesia).

Starting from the reality to be said to be a developed country according to previous research must have many entrepreneurs. But it is realized that the number of Indonesian entrepreneurs is still far behind compared to other countries. This is because there is still a view of some people who look down on the profession of entrepreneurs and the view of working as an entrepreneur has a very big risk.

On the other hand, it is realized that this view must be changed and entrepreneurial interests must be grown. One of the factors that can foster entrepreneurial interest through family, especially having parents who work as entrepreneurs is believed to be able to influence the interest in being an entrepreneur. This research has not reviewed other aspects that affect the process of growing entrepreneurial interest, so it needs further research on other ethnic families to enrich perspectives in entrepreneurship, especially what aspects can foster entrepreneurial interest.


Entrepreneur Perception, Entrepreneurial Learning, Entrepreneurial Interests, Ethnicity, Ethnographic Studies


Dynamic entrepreneurial activities bring influence to the prosperity of a country. This is because entrepreneurship is seen as an instrument that moves society and the economy to become more advanced in the future (Singh, 2008). Also revealed by McClelland in Nugroho (2015) that a country that has many entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs is a country that has the potential to quickly become developed (its economy) and become a prosperous country. Whereas if it wants to be said to be a prosperous country, a country must have entrepreneurs at least two percent of the total population. In fact, Indonesia only has 0.18 percent of entrepreneurs out of its 237 million population (Zarkasyi, 2013).

Realized the lack of number of entrepreneurs according to Alma (2013) on the background of society still looks down on the profession of entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs who psychologically consider entrepreneurial activities closely related to non-fixed sources of income and considered less respectable jobs. This kind of view has long existed and affects most of the population, thus making them uninterested and unmotivated in the world of entrepreneurship. He doesn't even want his children to field entrepreneurs and try to distract their children from becoming public servants.

The view of society like this must be changed especially changing the mindset from mental workers to entrepreneurial spirit and society must be made aware not to be complacent in the comfort zone. Making a change is not an easy job. Moreover, Indonesians seem to prefer to be employees by getting a fixed salary every month (Alifuddin & Razak, 2015). Actually, everyone has the opportunity to become an entrepreneur, because you can realize and develop the capacity to do business if you are aware of related business and have the skills to run everyday operations (Nicolaou, et al., 2008). This situation brings the effect of a person's sense of confidence and will be interested in business.

Cultivating entrepreneurial interests can also be shaped and learned throughout life. According to Hurlock (2010) interest is the result of a learning experience. The type of lesson that breeds interest will determine how long the interest lasts and the satisfaction gained from the interest. Therefore, it can be said that entrepreneurial interest in individuals can be realized and developed in accordance with the factors that affect them. One of the factors that influence entrepreneurship interest is family. This is in accordance with the opinion of Herawati (1998) that self-employment is a self-attitude formed from a combination of birth traits and family influences.

In reference to the results of previous research, the family is thought to have an enormous impact on the interest of a person in the business world. This declaration is reinforced by Herdimans research results (2008), according to which, a child's first environment for developing an entrepreneurial mindset is his or her family. In the Boz & Ergeneli (2014) study, families are the first social group to interact with people. Individuals learn fundamental family life values that enable them, for example with regard to entrepreneurship, to imitate or sustain the family traditions of their parents.

Also, having an entrepreneur parent influences their children's entrepreneurship interest. Basu & Virick (2010) discovered that having entrepreneurial parents can inspire children to follow in their footsteps. According to Scott & Tworney (1988), respondents whose parents owned small businesses preferred working independently over working for organizations. The work experience of parents influenced students' interest in entrepreneurship, found Wang and Wong (2004). According to Polin, et al., (2016), having entrepreneurial parents increases interest in entrepreneurship. Shapero (1975) shows the value of having multiple family members owning companies to increase credibility and desire to become an entrepreneur. Nicolaou, et al., (2008) argue that members of the family transmit not only business knowledge but also entrepreneurship to their followers.

Recognizing the influence of family factors, especially parents who are entrepreneurial background and have a business in growing entrepreneurial interest, giving rise to a form of "role models" in the family. According to Dunn & Eakin (1996); Golloway, et al., (2006), "family role models" can influence an individual's interest in entrepreneurship. Role models usually see the closest family, namely parents, brothers or sisters of parents, grandparents (Alma, 2013). Wibowo (2011) also stated that someone who grows up in an entrepreneurial environment will have a greater opportunity to become an entrepreneur. The results of Wang and Wong's (2004) research suggest family role models contribute to the level of entrepreneurial interest. Dunn & Eakin (1996); Galloway, et al., (2006) added that parents who work as entrepreneurs are believed to be role models who will shape children's interest in entrepreneurship in the future.

Based on what has been stated, it looks the importance of the role of parents for the process of growing entrepreneurial interest. This phenomenon makes researchers feel interested in studying how entrepreneurs' perceptions of the meaning of entrepreneurship learning played by parents in the formation of entrepreneurial interests. The hope is that this research can provide a deeper understanding of the role that parents play for the process of fostering entrepreneurial interest in the family.

Literature Review

The description for the study of theory begins with understanding about perception. According to Thoha (2005) that perception is a cognitive process experienced by everyone in understanding their environment both through vision, hearing, feeling and smell. Walgito (2010) also provides an explanation that perception as a process preceded by the process of sensing, which is the process of receiving stimulus by individuals through sensory devices or also called sensory processes. However, according to Slameto (2010), perception is the act of constantly interacting with one's surroundings. Sugihartono (2007), who suggested that perception is the ability of the brain to translate stimuli (stimulations from outside the human person) which enter the senses. King (2012) states that perception is an intellectual process in the regulation, interpretation and significance of sensory information. Based on the opinions of some researchers, perception can be said to be a process of translation or interpretation of stimuli by sensory tools. perceptual process requires learning and experience, according to Eysenck in Asrori (2009) In order to compare situations, a person's learning and interaction results provide experience.

Furthermore, the views and definitions of entrepreneurs from several experts summarized by Meng & Liang (1996) stated as people who have the following characteristics are creative, innovative and proactive, dare to take risks, have a clear vision and mission, have high-achieving needs, persevere and have a high sense of responsibility, confident, and eager and enthusiastic. Furthermore Bygrave (1994) said that those who are entrepreneurship have a higher desire for achievement than those who are not entrepreneurs. Therefore, McClelland in Alifuddin & Razak (2015) divides the characteristics of entrepreneurs into six things based on the desire for achievement, namely liking a job with realistic risk, working more actively in tasks that require mental ability, not working harder because of monetary rewards, wanting to work in situations that can be obtained through personal achievement, showing better performance in conditions that provide clear positive feedback, And think about the future and think long term.

Furthermore, entrepreneurship interest is a strong desire of a person towards entrepreneurial activities either realized or unconsciously satisfied through certain behaviors. This means that entrepreneurship interest can grow by seeing someone who is successful in entrepreneurship so as to give rise to interest in yourself to make a business (Agustini, 2007). Therefore, entrepreneurship interest can arise because it is preceded by a knowledge and information about entrepreneurship obtained from the family environment. Strengthened by Alma (2010) that the factors that drive entrepreneurship interest are family, friends, experience, economic circumstances, employment conditions and available resources. Santoso added in Suryamannim (2006) which states that entrepreneurial interest is understood as a psychic symptom to focus attention and do something about the entrepreneur with a feeling of pleasure because it brings benefits to him.

Based on the descriptions that have been put forward, it is realized the need for entrepreneurship learning process in the family to foster entrepreneurial interest in the next generation and the learning process can be done by inviting involved in the family business. According to Surya (2014) learning itself psychologically contains the meaning of a process carried out by individuals to obtain a complete change in behavior, as a result of the individual's interaction with his environment. Hence the need for entrepreneurial learning in family business through participation in daily practices in family business (Hastomo, 2021; Hamilton, 2011).


The research methods in this study use qualitative research design with ethnographic approach as the knife of its analysis. Proposed by Lincoln & Guba (1995); Abadi et al., (2021); Aliyyah et al., (2021); Endarto et al., (2021); Endarto et al., (2021); Juanamasta et al., (2019); Kalbuana et al., (2021); Kalbuana et al., (2021); Luwihono et al., (2021); Prabowo et al., (2020); Prasetyo et al., (2021); Prasetyo et al., (2021); Prasetyo et al., (2021a, 2021b); Prasetyo et al., (2021); Rusdiyanto et al., (2021); Rusdiyanto et al., (2020); Rusdiyanto et al., (2020); Rusdiyanto et al., (2020); Shabbir et al., (2021); Susanto et al., (2021); Utari et al., (2021); Nabilah Aliyyah et al., (2021); Indrawati et al., (2021); Bahtiar Prabowo et al., (2021); Prasetio et al., 2021; Prasetyo et al., (2021) In ethnographic research, people and societies living in only certain cultural situations are examined. In addition, ethnographic research involves learning about world from of the research subject's behavior or actions (Fatchan, 2015).

Spradley's Gradual Research And technology Flow, with five major principles divided into 12 stages, includes selecting an informant, interviewing an informant, taking ethnographic notes, asking description questions, and analyzing the interview (Spradley, 1997).

Pasar Besar and Palangka Raya City were the focus of the research, with Palangka Raya City focusing on observations. The research topics are selected using purposeful sampling and sampling strategies, which are based on a non-sine qua. This means that the number of samples is not the key consideration for researchers, but consideration is given to the quality and the accuracy of the informant to provide information. Even though almost anyone can be an informant, not everyone can be a good informant, according to Spradley (2007). The topics that informed the research in this ethics research are gold and gem (diamond) entrepreneurs from Banjar, including those from ethnic banjar companies in the villages of Nagara, business people who settled and traded in the village of Palangka Raya for over 20 years, have distinctive business banjar people and inherit busy people. The results selected three key informants in the table below:

Table 1
Key Informant
Speaker Age Gender Education Ethnic Start aVillagebusiness InheritedGenerationbusiness since
InformanH. Muamar 42 Man SMA Banjar
1980Nagara 2nd 20th
Hj. Rahimah 42 Woman SD Banjar 1994Nagara 2nd 17th
Hj. Yani 48 Woman SMP Banjar 1993Nagara 2nd 18th

The ethnographic approach for qualitative research is used to gather information via observations and in-depth interviews by the participant. The ethnographic data analysis involves interview analyzes, descriptions and domain, taxonomical and relationship analyses according to spradley method (Fatchan, 2015). The validation of ethnographic findings refers with Lincoln and Guba criteria (1995).

Results and Discussions

Working as an entrepreneur or entrepreneur for some people is still looked down upon, thus making them uninterested and unmotivated in the world of entrepreneurship. People want their children to turn their attention to being civil servants (Alma, 2013). Such views do not apply to most ethnic Banjar. Banjar ethnicity is very synonymous with trade and became one of the tribes referred to as the tribe of traders. Based on the findings of research in the field, according to the stories of informants revealed through the business experience owned by parents enable them to encourage their children to be interested in becoming entrepreneurs. Business experience was previously obtained by parents from the learning process by getting used to participating in entrepreneurial activities in the business place. Accustomed to trade is intended to equip with trade knowledge, so that it is able to strive independently. Admittedly one of the informants, trading directly without going through the process of learning to trade many are experiencing bankruptcy. Even added an informant, "... There are some people who have S2 economics because they do not jump directly into the field struggling with the business world even failed and even feared". Moreover, trading gold and gemstones (diamonds) is said to have a different way of trading, so the need for an experience gained from parents. Termed an informant as a Muslim, hunting all the way to China means that trade knowledge is obtained from life experience.

Entrepreneurship is narrated by informants as heard from his parents, at first it was not understood to be true. But because the desire to learn is strong, it can animate the entrepreneur. Keep in mind, cultivating an entrepreneur's soul in an individual can be realized if one has an interest in self-employment and interest is the result of a learning experience (Hurlock, 2010). In addition, with the philosophy of trading for worship embraced by ethnic Banjar as a devout Muslim makes him think traveling for business and practice. This is as expressed by Alfisyah (2014) who stated: "The idea of a balance between the concept of baibadah (worship) and bausaha (trading) among traders of banjar people has dynamized economic practices. This means that the seriousness of the Banjar people in looking at their commercial activities is no less serious than religious activities."

Realized by informants as well, entrepreneurship learning played by parents through habituation of entrepreneurship in the business place enables informants to understand that their parents in running a business have a strong trade instinct to dare to be entrepreneurial and have an entrepreneurial character. The entrepreneurial character seen in his behavior is like acting calculating, hardworking, disciplined, tenacious, patient, responsible, unyielding, deft, and very optimistic. Recognized by informants, these entrepreneurial characters shaped their parents into accomplished marketers.

Entrepreneurship learning played by parents, recognized informants are done since childhood and after school. This is felt by the informant as a way his parents get used to entrepreneurship and get used to working hard. Learning while working begins with the informant's parents by doing an easy job first. After that slowly, entrepreneurship learning will be improved again and even if it turns out not to have the talent of parents will still teach to learn entrepreneurship. This infoman considers as an effort by parents to encourage not to be afraid of failure in entrepreneurship, so that if you have difficulties will be able to be faced patiently and consider it as a common thing in the business. Success in entrepreneurship learning coupled with the provision of advice delivered by parents, recognized informants are able to motivate interest in business. Evidently, when teenagers look informants are used to trading independently and realized this ability is inseparable from the role of parents teaching first. The advice that informants often hear is religious to strengthen piety and faith, namely the message to balance between work and worship, the message of worship, the message of religion as a handle on life, and the message of complete surrender to God. Other advice is a message to master the knowledge that is derived, a message to diligently learn effort, a message to be earnest in effort, a message to patiently face risk, a message to maintain trust, a message to speak honestly, a message to be honest in taking advantage, a message to dare to win risk, a message to be independent, a message to be friendly, a message not to be ashamed of effort, a message to work hard, A message not to harm each other, a message to always keep promises, a moral message, and a message to be an entrepreneur. Finally, informants are encouraged by parents to learn to start a business and do not forget parents reminded to always stick to the philosophy of belief more than the property owned. This is meant by informants as the hope of parents to always maintain the trust given. Trust is something that must be maintained during the pursue and effort.

The findings of this study also prove that entrepreneurship is able to be realized by individuals throughout their entrepreneurial career as questioned by Galloway, et al., (2006) with the role of parents as models/examples in entrepreneurship, clarifying the questions raised by Dunn & Eakin (1996) by having both parents who are entrepreneurship have a strong influence on the interests of children. In addition, the study findings further make clear from the statement put forward by Boz & Ergeneli (2013) in terms of self-employment that a person chooses to become self-employed because he or she feels confident and this trust leads to interest in self-employment. A person's beliefs are shaped by contextual factors such as learning from past experiences. In addition, entrepreneurship parents provide their child (whether adult or not) with many experiences based on parental experiences. Second only to actual experience, parental experience was its best way to learn.


Based on the findings in the field and the discussion in this study, the conclusion of this study is according to the perception of entrepreneurs that entrepreneurship learning played by parents in the formation of entrepreneurial interests is based on the business experience that parents have. The business experience was previously obtained by parents from the learning process by getting used to being involved in entrepreneurial activities in the place of business during childhood until adolescence. The habit of trading is intended to degrade trade knowledge and technical expertise. The result was able to foster entrepreneurial interest that ultimately has the ability to entrepreneurship independently.

Studying from the conclusions of the results of this study that said that business experience plays an important role in the entrepreneurship learning process, this study suggests the participation not only of parents but also from the closest family (grandparents, uncles, aunts) who work as entrepreneurs to care about encouraging business interest in the family.


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