Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 25 Issue: 2S

Exemplary Leaders as a Role Model to Prevent Corruption in the Time of Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Sri Sulistyawati, Prima Indonesia University

Mukidi, Islamic University of North Sumatra

Ismed Batubara, Muslim Nusantara Al-Washliyah University

Iwan Setyawan, Prima Indonesia University

Rudy Pramono, Pelita Harapan University

Nelvitia Purba, Muslim Nusantara Al –Washliyah University

Citation Information: Sulistyawati, S., Mukidi, Batubara, I., Setyawan, I., Pramono, R., & Purba, N. (2022). Exemplary leaders as a role model to prevent corruption in the time of covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 21(S2), 1-10.

Abstract

 In the era of globalization which is full of challenges, for that the organization of a state institution must remain strong in situations, especially when a change occurs, therefore it is very necessary for a leader in a state institution who can be a role model for his subordinates, capable of being an example or example for those they lead. The leader of a state institution has a wide circle of influence, so the behavior of the leader will be an example for subordinates to act and behave. The hot phenomenon is known by the public in Indonesia, there is a leader of a state institution of the Ministry of Social Affairs, even this incident to the level of lower leadership is detrimental to many parties and the state. 7 (seven) Facts about the Corruption of the Covid-19 Social Assistance that ensnared the Minister of Social Affairs, Juliari P. Batubara and his subordinates. The Indonesian Minister of Social Affairs Juliari P. Batubara surrendered after being named a suspect by the Corruption Eradication Commission in the early hours of Sunday, December 6, 2020. Social Minister Juliari was entangled in the case of procuring social assistance for handling Covid-19 from the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs in 2020. It all started with the hand arrest operation of Ministry of Social Affairs officials some time ago.

During the Covid-19 pandemic, what is really needed by the community during a crisis during the Covid-19 pandemic is handling that really helps the community's economy, therefore behavior and mindsets and examples are needed that can prevent excessive reactions to moral crises so that they don't happen. corruption in the organization of a state institution he leads. These Exemplary Leaders are important because they will be a magnet for the subordinates they lead to follow and carry out what their leaders want in an organization in order to avoid any form of crime.

The data analysis method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative method, namely by describing and analyzing the data that has been obtained and then describing the exemplary leaders model for a state institution as a role model for its subordinates to prevent crime in a state institution during the COVID-19 pandemic.

From the results of the study it can be stated that: Exemplary leaders as role models for their subordinates are still very low as a result of a moral crisis and occur in various organizations not only in a state institution so that crimes occur repeatedly, continuously from the elite organizational level until the lowest organization even occurs at the level of ministry and state institutions. From the crimes that occur, it can harm the state and people and the loss of the integrity of a leader so that the spirit and authority of a country is destroyed.

Role modeling in the context of trans international leadership is a leader who must be able to think quickly, do the right analysis, make decisions and act quickly. a leader must be able to act as a role model who is able to provide good examples and examples of how to think and act so that what he does provides welfare to the community for committing criminal acts of corruption during this Covid 19 pandemic.

Keywords

Leader, Corruption Prevention, Role Model, Character

Introduction

The crime of corruption is a crime that is not foreign in the midst of society and this corruption is an extraordinary crime (extraordinary crime) that damages the economy of a country. Corruption in Indonesia has become increasingly severe and acute, like a malignant cancer that has spread to the cells of public organs, spreading to high legislative, executive and judicial institutions until the Ministry of Social Affairs is also involved in corruption (Purba et al., 2020). Perpetrators of criminal acts of corruption are not poor people, but are public officials with fairly high education who have access and authority in government and private. Corruptors have high financial capabilities, but are weak ethically, morally, and legally. And do not have empathy for the people and nation of Indonesia (Mufida et al., 2020).

In 2020, a deadly virus emerged in the world, namely the Covid-19 Pandemic which made the world community unable to carry out their activities, to reduce this spread, countries in the world and Indonesia implemented Lockdown (staying at home) to reduce the spread of this virus, which is certainly disturbing. In the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, corruption crimes are very vulnerable to being carried out by irresponsible individuals, even though they have been warned that corruption in the midst of this condition will face threats and demands for the death penalty (Hasan et al., 2020). To respond to an organization/institution that subordinates do not commit the crime of corruption, the leader has an important role as a role model/model as an effort to prevent it.

Leadership is the ability of a person to move his subordinates in order to carry out the tasks of an organization, institution or government. In the process, leading means making various efforts to move the community. Stephen P. Robbins argues that a leader must have to influence a group of people (subordinates / members) in carrying out tasks to achieve the desired goals.

If Yukl defines leadership as an individual and social facilitating process, then Northouse states leadership is a social process that occurs in groups that are involved in achieving common goals that involve human traits, abilities, skills, behaviors, and relationships. Bass & Bass defines leadership as the interaction of two or more people in a structured group on the perceived situation and expectations of members. Hoy & Miskel stated, “We define leadership broadly as a social process in which an individual or a group influences behavior toward a shared goal” (Usman et al., 2013). Leadership in a broad sense is a social process that influences the behavior of individuals or groups to achieve common goals. And the leader is a role model for his subordinates (Brown, 2013). Therefore, a leader in carrying out his duties must have character values that have exemplary role models for his subordinates who can play a major role in preventing corruption (Purba et al., 2020).

Crime and corruption can occur anywhere in an organization or in a state institution, ranging from petty crimes to crimes that harm the people and state. Leaders must be role models, at least in terms of morals, ways of thinking, ways of behaving and acting, honesty, and firmness. In principle, the leader must be an extraordinary human figure (extraordinary person), must do more work than talk a lot and have character. On the shoulders of the leader is responsibility to make changes and reforms in an organization./Ministry of State. With such a character, a leader can be called a role model who becomes a role model for his subordinates.

In the midst of the outbreak of corona virus at the end of 2019 which resulted in a shaky economy in the midst of social media community, Juliari was suspected of corruption in the Basic Food Social Assistance Fund during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This situation creates a moral crisis against the leader of a state ministry who should be a role model.

In a modern organization or in state institutions, the role of exemplary leaders is to instill and strengthen the culture of the organization / ministry / state institution. Leaders must also be required to be able to develop self-confidence by giving authority to their followers, because giving this authority will make their followers feel strong, capable and confident. On the other hand, without clear authority, subordinates will feel suspicious, both in nature and in their actions, in the eyes of the leadership.

Based on the description above, the author argues that exemplary is a form of model that is shown and commitment is carried out in daily activities so that it becomes a role model for his subordinates. namely: Like the case at the Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia which greatly shocked the public where during the covid-19 pandemic, the government's program on Social Assistance to the public was corrupted by the Indonesian Minister of Social Affairs Juliari P. Batubara. This problem will certainly have an impact on their subordinates because the leader's behavior will be an example for subordinates to act and behave, this is because the leader plays an important role in improving the performance and goals of the organization/state ministry they lead.

Research methods

The approach method in this research is socio legal, so the research approach used is a socio legal approach (Socio Legal Approach), thus the focus of this research is to make a description of social and legal reality, as well as trying to understand and explain the logic of logical connection between the two.

Data Collection Methods and Legal Materials

The method of collecting secondary legal materials in this research is through documentation studies and literature studies to conduct a legal literature search. The collection of legal materials is carried out by searching for all laws and regulations related to the problems in this research.

The legal materials were collected by conducting a search of the legal literature on both printed legal materials and legal materials downloaded from online. Unwritten legal materials will be traced through the results of legal research.

Data Analysis Method

Primary data obtained from the field will be collected, inventoried, then analyzed using the inductive qualitative analysis method, to describe the overall state of research object in general, which will then be combined with secondary data in the form of legal materials obtained from the results of literature study.

After the data is considered valid, it is then constructed to gain a broader understanding of the problems posed in this study.

Discussion and Analysis

The number of theories that have developed in the western world and Asia negates that there is no theory that is universal and breaks through infinite space and time. Western and Asian leadership theories are cultural knowledge (knowledge as cultural) and have the same practical level and emphasize the fit context so that these theories can be applied effectively. The dominance of the role of one theory is more temporary as a result of cultural processes. Instead, behavioral approach becomes more in line with the formation of a role model as long as the situation and environmental context supports that formation (Herbet et al., 1986).

Exemplary becomes a Fundamental Leader towards his Subordinates

Leaders in an organization/state ministry have a greater responsibility for an achievement than an organization, because core leadership is a driving force for human resources or their subordinates, therefore a person's leadership qualities are needed. This is as stated by Wareen Bennis & Burt Nanus stated that "The role of leadership can be seen from the aspect of being a direction setter, agent of change, spokesperson and coach (Daswati, 2012).

The leader is the priest of an organization/state ministry. Subordinates as a congregation are obliged to imitate the movements performed by their priests. Thus, the priest provides an example that his congregation must follow. The imam as a leader must always be in the front so that it is easy to see and imitate his congregation. Leaders who are at the forefront in the theory of educational leadership developed by Ki Hajar Dewantara called "Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodo which means: In front of being a role model. As an example every leader is required to have leadership character.

The leadership characteristics that are expected by their subordinates who represent the Americas, Asia, Europe and Australia according to the results of Kouzes & Posner's research are: 1. honest, 2. looking to the future. 3. inspiring, 4. capable. 5. fair. 6. willing to provide support 7. broad-minded 8. intelligent. 9. straightforward. 10 .reliable 11. brave. 12.willing to cooperate 13. imaginative 14. cares. 15. determined. 16. mature. 17. ambisius. 18. loyal. 19. able to control oneself. 20. independent. Of the 20 leadership characteristics mentioned above, the most important are: 1. Honest. 2. look ahead. 3. inspire. 4. speak (Santosa, 2019).

Leaders with character are needed, as Bung Hatta said that the Indonesian people who aspire to the same degree as other nations in the world, need leaders who have character. It is not intelligence that is needed, but character, a strong character accompanied by will, character takes precedence over intelligence. People who have character easily achieve that intelligence. But intelligence alone cannot awaken character. Knowledge only advances in the hands of people who have character (Hatta et al., 1984).

The four characters are role models of a leader for his subordinates who are expected to behave as exemplary.

Role Model shown through attitude and behavior. Subordinates will see if the leader can show consistency and commitment in saying and acting. This is important because the leader is a mirror for his subordinates (Kusumaningrat, 2019). All actions and behavior of leaders will determine how they behave. According to Kouzes and Posner, for modeling the way, a leader must have principles that the leader believes in and consistently fight for his principles. The leader does not only state what the values and principles are and then convey it in a speech, then give orders to his subordinates to behave in accordance with what is expected.

Role modeling in the context of transformational leadership, leaders must be able to think quickly, do the right analysis, make decisions and act quickly. From the point of view of a communication expert, the role model leader does not only rely on the result in the form of building a positive image for himself, but also must be accompanied by works that are grand and monumental and provide benefits to the organization. Its essence means, a leader who is also a role model must always be able to provide a good example and an example of how to think and act in a state institution.

A leader who is a good role model is a leader who is respected by his subordinates and his organizational environment. Leaders are able to form teamwork that is able to be a role model or example and is seen as a credible leader. Leaders have humility, are open to discussion, accept criticism and suggestions for the common good and organization. Leaders are able to demonstrate professional leadership qualities in accordance with organizational expectations.

There are three important things to realize "leading by example", a leader who becomes an example or role model. Like the Messenger of Allah, he is a good role model. The indicator of his example is the phrase "ibda bi nafsik" (doing before speaking) (Sjamsudin et al., n.d). This is the main key of the example (uswah) of the Prophet Muhammad, which is to give an example (act) before ordering (saying). This is also the 'nature of exemplary' that must be attached to each of his followers. As an exemplary leader you can do: First, set high performance expectations for himself and for his team. Second, there is an awareness to show the desired attitude and behavior from the team. Third, give appreciation and praise for the performance, improvement efforts, and positive behavior shown by the team.

The main characteristic of a leader as a good role model is a leader who has a strong character, someone who has high discipline, commitment, honesty, integrity, credibility, caring and has the characteristics of a servant. In a broader scope, a leader deserves to be called a role model leader when he is able to think about, utilize and manifest in any form of behavior he has to give to others or his subordinates (Haryono et al., 2015). Foster leadership as a role model to avoid non-crime during the Covid-19 pandemic.

In cultivating a leadership spirit, there are three important points, namely leadership, team working and communication. According to Carnegie, there are several things that today's leaders need, namely legitimate authority, authentic self-confidence, self-confidence with flexibility, acceptance of risk and determination. Meanwhile, to improve leadership skills there are several specific steps, namely focusing on the big picture, being ambitious, knowing yourself, being assertive, controlling stress, accepting criticism, being willing to listen, being flexible, being supportive, encouraging others, celebrating success, being supportive. subordinates, lighten burdens, accept responsibility, solve problems, do right, be honest, avoid gossip, do one's best and criticize constructively. Being a leader, the most important thing is how we have triangular qualities including intellectual quality, emotional quality, and spiritual quality.

Intellectual qualities make leaders able to sort out data, information and opinions that are accountable to science and standard-operating-procedures. Emotional data will show that leaders have the ability to make decisions appropriately, quickly, and accurately, which are accountable to other humans who are related as humans. According to the Leadership Expert, Prof. Dr. Djokosantoso Moeljono that “a leader who wants to succeed, should realize that the main foundation of a professional is to have a high discipline attitude with a deep foundation of honor. In addition, as a leader, you must understand deeply that leading is a mandate, an obligation and not a right, lead with a clean conscience.”

If a leader wants his subordinates to have integrity, the leader must have more integrity. If the leader wants his subordinates to be disciplined, honest, work hard and on time, then the leader must be able to show his subordinates the nature of discipline, hard work and more respect for time. All this needs to be realized by a leader in an effort to build the trust of subordinates, so that a solid team work can be formed.

There are several ways that can be done to cultivate a leadership spirit, including the following:

1) Build Knowledge, Diligently Read. Leaders need a foundation of theory because those who have theory can see beyond the naked eye.

2) Open Your Own Cells Window The leader is the person who inhabits windowed cells and builds doors so he or she can visit other cells. A leader recognizes diversity and dares to face differences.

3) Self-Discipline Leaders work with discipline that starts with themselves. Remember, the long journey of the odyssey of human self begins with the wandering within oneself. When humans are stupid, humans want to dominate other people. However, when man attains wisdom, man wants to control himself.

4) Work with Priority In action oriented, will meet the concept of priority. Leaders know how to put things first. If someone is too busy with everything and thinks all matters are important, then it is a sign that person has not been working with priorities.

5) Do or Delegate if you can do it, get it done as soon as possible. Apply the following 3D: Do it, Diligence it, or Dump it, don't procrastinate. A problem once considered a problem will remain a problem until it is resolved. If something is postponed, it will be a problem in the future.

6) Build Trust and Respect Trust and respect are earned because you are worthy of respect, knowledge, and not behaving as you please. Maintain commitment and care for others.

7) Maintain Emotional Stability Get to know your own emotional state and control it. Use emotions to show commitment. One way to maintain emotional stability is to live a balanced, vertical and horizontal life, sleep regularly and stay away from the use of stimulant drugs or dopping.

8) Practice good communication. Learn to lead, deal with conflict, recognize different views, and manage people. Without clear communication, no one will follow you.

9) Learn to Write Leaders must be able to write with clear logic. Learn to write and create living writings.

10) Use management is a science that teaches to achieve goals through other people. Learn how to formulate strategies and drive operational activities in a single unit.

From the description above, it can be analyzed the importance of a leader who must be an example in speech, attitude and behavior. The exemplary nature must be developed and taught seriously to his subordinates to make the tasks and responsibilities assigned to him a success. Exemplary leaders are needed as a leader's morality in order to avoid crime in general and particular to prevent corruption for his subordinates in an organization he leads. What is said should be according to what is done, what is done must be a good example to his subordinates. During the Covid-19 pandemic, various crimes occurred including corruption which was very embarrassing and destroyed the authority of the state, people who should have received assistance from the state in severe difficulties were very disappointed and the integrity of a leader was eroded. For this reason, it is important to cultivate a strong leadership spirit for a leader as an example for his subordinates to maintain the dignity and dignity of the leader, society, nation and state in accordance with the constitutional mandate of 1945 Constitution as the highest legal order in Indonesia.

Conclusion

1) The leadership of an organization such as the ministry of state has a wide circle of influence, so the behavior of the leader will be an example for subordinates to act and behave. The behavior of the leader in accordance with values that apply in society adopted by the organization / ministry of state will make it easier to change the behavior of his subordinates.

2) Exemplary leaders and taught to their subordinates so that crime does not occur in general and especially corruption in a state organization and institution to encourage, inspire, and motivate subordinates to behave well and be trustworthy in their implementation, both in carrying out daily activities and carrying out their duties for do not commit crimes within state organizations/ministries during the critical period of Covid-19 pandemic that can harm the personal leader, people, nation and state through role models (role models).

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This article has been published on Kompas.com with the title "Leadership and Communication in the Covid-19 Crisis Period", Click to read: https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/04/08/142643965 /leadership-and-communication-in-crisis-covid-19?page=all. scientific journal of management science p-issn 2356-2005 e-issn 2598-4950 scientific journal of management science.

Received: 02-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. JLERI-21-8743; Editor assigned: 04-Dec-2021, PreQC No. JLERI-21-8743 (PQ); Reviewed: 07-Dec-2021, QC No. ASMJ-21-9737; Revised: 21-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. JLERI-21-8743 (R); Published: 03-Jan-2022

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