Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 25 Issue: 2S

Factors affecting user engagement with online social media celebrity lawyers using UTAUT and PPM theories

Cai Zhi Meng, Anyang Normal University, Management and Science University

Brian Sheng-Xian, Teo*, Management and Science University

Siti Khalidah Mohd Yusoff, Management and Science University

Citation Information: Meng, C.Z., Teo, B., & Yusoff, S. (2022). Factors affecting user engagement with online social media celebrity lawyers using UTAUT and PPM theories. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 25(S2), 1-17.

Abstract

China has the most significant number of smartphone users in the world and the most prominent number of social media practitioners and users. Some lawyers interact with users on social media, and their videos and live broadcasts have attracted hundreds of thousands of users' attention and millions of clicks. This research examines factors related to user engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ broadcasts using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and "push-pull-moor" (PPM) theories. Innovativeness was used as the moderating factor, whereas the risk was used as the pushing factor. The analysis results indicated that trust, knowledge, social influence, performance expectancy and innovativeness were positively related to user engagement, and risk was negatively related. Innovativeness was proven to be significantly moderating other relationships except for the relationship between trust and engagement. Hopefully, this research improved the win-win situation for users and lawyers and promoted the dissemination of legal knowledge among the public.

Keywords

UTAUT, PPM, Social Media Celebrity, Risk, Innovativeness, Lawyer

Introduction

The emergence from celebrities from social media live broadcast services is a manifestation of the entire new economic power. It relies primarily on individual strength, gathering a group of like-minded fans, and finally generating economic and commercial opportunities. In the era of 5G mobile networks, the greater the influence of social media celebrities, the greater their social responsibility, especially considering those young people who are concerned about social media celebrities and are deeply affected. Their popularity could be due to their specific characteristics being magnified under the influence of the internet, which fits with the various psychologies of users. There are many types of network celebrities: online game celebrities, drama performance celebrities, knowledge sharing celebrities, travel celebrities, adventure celebrities, etc. There are many recent publications on this matter and as shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Recent Years Of Publications On Network Celebrity
Authors Issues Variables
Kim & Song 2016 Celebrity's self-disclosure on Twitter Retweeting, social presence, social interaction, celebrities' self-disclosure
Wang et al. 2017 celebrity endorsement of the airline Attractiveness, trust, worthiness, expertise, attitude, credibility
Jin 2018 Celebrity on social networking advertising Celebrity versus Peer Facebook User, social identification, interaction
Ouvrein et al. 2018 Adolescents' online celebrity aggression Empathy, disengagement, mild-online aggression, severe online aggression
Sun et al. 2019 live streaming in social commerce Visibility, meta-voicing, guidance,
Immersion, presence,
Zhou et al. 2019 Users’ broadcasting on live streaming Social distance, challenge stressors, hindrance stress, material values
Park & Lim 2020 Internet celebrity and product endorsement Product fit, trustworthiness, attractiveness, attitude,
Brown & Tiggemann 2020 Body image of Instagram Celebrity Image, State appearance, body dissatisfaction, body appreciation
Teng et al. 2020 Celebrity business with fans Attractiveness, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Credibility, brand attitude, perceived congruence
Ma 2021 Perceptions of digital
celebrities, and shopping orientations
Enjoyment,interaction,presence,utility,self-presentaiton,newwork size

Most of the past literature about online celebrities has mainly focused on social commerce and business values. Few of them emphasized their positive social values, especially in the field of law popularization. Internet celebrity is a very controversial profession. Online celebrities' criticism primarily focuses on the adverse effects of their behaviors and their negative guidance on young people. Most people will inevitably be bored by the behavior that breaks through the moral bottom line and triggers negative public opinion. However, reasonable and positive Internet celebrity behavior is helpful for social progression and deserves encouragement. Some of the behaviors worthy of recognition are inspiring others using vocal singing, conveying love via volunteer services, showing beautiful sceneries during traveling, and spreading knowledge through the internet. Internet celebrities and their followers have a strong clinginess. This clinginess often forms a specific online community, which is transformed into the primary consumer of the fan economy. Live streaming, platform rewards, content payment, advertising endorsements, and other forms have inspired Internet platforms, Internet celebrities, and E-commerce to jointly create an Internet celebrity economy. The essence of this economy is to convert Internet celebrity resources into economic benefits utilizing industrialized production. The positive energy of the Internet celebrity group transmits positive vibes in a variety of ways, which is of great significance to the creation of Internet culture and even a healthier social atmosphere.

The emergence of social media celebrity lawyers is an exciting phenomenon. Social media celebrity lawyers can continuously share knowledge, experience, and opinions worthy of everyone's attention. Social media celebrity lawyers show novel legal cases using creative ways that are humorous and contain a lot of legal knowledge through social media. An essential role of social media celebrity lawyers is to establish universal legal beliefs among the public, which allow everyone to enjoy and benefit a lot. Thus, it is wise to encourage high-quality social media celebrity lawyers to disseminate legal knowledge to the public through social media. Some social media celebrity lawyers can stand out from thousands of Internet influencers, become well-known stars, and have been active in social media for a long time. However, most social media celebrity lawyers cannot escape from the fate of being extremely popular for a short period before the vast number of other users eventually annihilates them. With the broad applicability of social media celebrity lawyers in developing China's Social Live Streaming Services (SLSS) economy, social media celebrity lawyers have jointly promoted the development of Popularizing Laws in China. This could help ordinary people in China learn basic law knowledge and protect their rights using laws.

Previous literature on legal internet celebrity lacks systematic theoretical research and lack complete empirical research. Furthermore, there are no present studies that empirically focus on the adoption of social media celebrity lawyers, although several empirical studies are about user satisfaction of online celebrities. Since the research of social media celebrity lawyers is still in its early stage, there is still a lack of study that systematically considered continuous attention, trust, risk, and other related factors underlying different theories. Therefore, this research tries to find the positive and negative factors affecting the public's continuous engagement with social media celebrity lawyers in social live broadcast services.

UTAUT and PPM Theories

Technology acceptance research is a constantly developing field, as new technologies such as social live broadcast services keep evolving all the time. Two major disciplines have contributed to developing models and theories addressing technology acceptance, adoption and usage. Psychology and Sociology focus on technology acceptance behavior, whereas social live broadcast services focus on systems’ characteristics concerning technology acceptance.

A significant body of research has its foundation in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), initially conceived by Fred Davis in 1986. TAM is an intention-based model derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) but tailored to meet the broad needs of information technology research (Davis et al., 1989). Since its introduction, TAM has enjoyed wide acceptance and has proven to be a reasonably accurate predictor of users’ intentions to use information technology and their actual system usage. TAM has evolved through the years, and many researchers have tested the addition of new variables to the model to increase its explanatory power. Venkatesh, along with Davis and other researchers (2003), integrated TAM with seven other dominant models in the field of technology acceptance and introduced the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). It indicates that the aggregated model attempts to find a unified model that combines different perspectives in technology acceptance research. Many previous studies have applied UTAUT theory in various research fields. For example, Dwivedi et al. (2016) test the adoption of mobile health by evaluating factors including peer purchase, peer review, engagement, expertise, and decision behavior. Shaw et al. (2019) test adoption of mobile commerce by evaluating factors including hedonic, utilitarian, social norm, comparison, reduction and expression.

E.S. Lee (1963) proposed a systematic theory of population migration-the "push-pull-moor" (PPM) theory. He believes push-factors urge immigrants to leave their original places of residence; pull-factors attract immigrants who wish to improve their lives to move into new places of residence; and, mooring-factors mainly include distance, material obstacles, differences in language and culture, as well as immigrants’ value judgments on these factors. Population mobility is the result of the combined effect of these three factors. Many studies have adopted the PPM model into different research fields, such as (Hsieh et al., 2012; Lin & Huang, 2014; Jung et al., 2017). It shows that the PPM model’s variables (push, pull and mooring) differ across research contexts. Therefore, researchers must consider the distinct characteristics of the research context to further identify specific push, pull, and mooring factors.

Extending UTAUT with PPM

Before the unified model introduction, researchers employed technology acceptance models to investigate users’ behavior in the online context. Interestingly, although the UTAUT is an economical and robust model, little research has utilized the model or attempted to examine its boundaries. The current study aims to fill this gap by extending the UTAUT model with PPM theory while at the same time studying the unified model’s boundaries. More effective approaches must supplement the social media celebrity lawyer perspective, so the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) theory and PPM theory are combined in this research.

Given the limitation of previous social media celebrity lawyer research, to fill the gaps, this study attempted to utilize UTAUT and PPM theory as the underlying theoretical foundations to reveal the factors that shape the adoption of legal internet celebrities. UTAUT and PPM theories were chosen because the two theories cover different aspects of factors that can effectively explain the adoption of social media celebrity lawyers. The behavior of social media celebrity lawyers is based on relatively new service technology – social live broadcast services based on 5G and identifying the streaming services technology adoption needs different aspects of factors. Some previous researchers have successfully extended one basic idea with other variables or theories in the adoption behavior researches. Sun et al. (2019) extend UTAUT with quality variables to compare investment behavior between South Korea and China.

This study examines the ways users participate in social media celebrity lawyers’ social live broadcast services and how they perceive social live broadcast services. The objectives of this study are: (1) to identify different aspects of factors such as individual and organizational factors affecting users’ continuous engagement to social media celebrity lawyers’ social live broadcast services, (2) to conceptualize a theoretical structural model based on UTAUT and PPM theories to represent best the relationships in the adoption of social media celebrity lawyers’ social live broadcast services, (3) to examine how the elements in the proposed model influence the usage of social media celebrity lawyers’ social live broadcast service, and (4) to give suggestions based the research results.

Hypotheses and Research Model

Trust and Engagement

In social live broadcast services, trust is considered particularly important because lawyers and Internet celebrities represent the legal authority of the masses without a legal education. Trust in lawyers can be manipulated into accumulating users’ beliefs in honesty, goodwill, and ability, which can increase users’ willingness to rely on lawyers, especially for those who cannot afford high lawyer fees. Trust has been proved to be an influential factor in adopting social media or commerce research fields. Sun et al. (2021) indicate that trust can affect institutional investors to add crypto-currency to their asset portfolios. Trust has also been used in different research areas to investigate adoption behaviors, including financial advising (Cruciani et al., 2021), business to business service (Gansser et al., 2021) and gradualist strategies (Kartal et al., 2021). Social media celebrity lawyers are courageous because they face public criticism and are subject to peers’ supervision. Social media celebrity lawyers explain to the public the legal issues and risks that may be encountered in different industries; use cases to enhance the public's awareness of the law, and propose corresponding countermeasures against threats in various sectors. Although most people have not encountered legal problems, they can learn a lot of legal basics through the explanation of social media celebrity lawyers and are more confident in facing possible future challenges without paying any fee. Once the public can use the legal knowledge, they have learned to protect their lives, and the public will have more trust in social media celebrity lawyers, especially in those super lawyer stars that have tens of millions of followers. Therefore,

H1: Trust positively affects users’ engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts.

Knowledge and Engagement

The knowledge sharing behavior of social media celebrity lawyers or professionals is commendable, especially when law professors from famous universities explain legal knowledge to the public through live broadcasts. In this study, knowledge can be understood as users' views on live broadcasts as a learning channel about technologies, news and information. Sun et al. (2020) indicate that knowledge includes the skills, norms, data, characteristics, interpersonal relationships, components, and tools that an individual must possess when dealing with specific tasks. Many previous researches have applied knowledge factors to different research fields. Fedel and Durcikova (2014) prove the organizational value of an electronic knowledge repository depends on the degree to which it offers high-quality knowledge to its user. Zhu et al. (2016) show that perceived knowledge positively influences information insufficiency and seeking. Moghavvemmi et al. (2017) examine how other factors affect knowledge sharing between students via Facebook. Wang et al. (2018) prove the moderating role of knowledge equivocality in wikis. Pee (2018) indicates that it is necessary to consider knowledge attributes, enterprise social media affordances, and their interactions when understanding knowledge sharing using enterprise social media. Malik et al. (2019) show knowledge can positively predict employee creativity. Despite all the above, some other researchers have connected knowledge factors with social and professional issues, including Wang et al. (2018), Cho & Yang (2018), Tasi & Kang (2019), Han et al. (2019). Suppose users have sufficient information, skills, guidance, positive and negative information and know the advantages and benefits of learning law through live broadcast. In that case, they will be very willing to use it. Not only can users receive legal education through free channels, but they can also conduct free consultations through live interaction to improve their legal knowledge level. Therefore,

H2: Knowledge positively affects users’ engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts.

Performance Expectancy and Engagement

Performance expectancy is the most influential UTAUT in predicting behavioral intention and remains significant at all measurement points regardless of environmental settings. Sun et al. (2019) apply performance expectancy as a key factor in comparing investment behavior between South Korea and China. Adapting performance expectancy in the context of social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts implies that users will think live broadcast is helpful because it enables them to accomplish their businesses, ensure life or jobs safety and flexibility, or access to related legal aid more effectively. In addition, social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts provide a convenient channel for users to deal with the job or daily affairs, and users do not need to visit different law firms or agencies one by one. Also, with 5G technology, more and more information technologies have been used in live broadcasts, which is supposed to significantly increase users' performance and social media celebrity lawyer’s interaction. From the discussion so far, we hypothesize that:

H3: Performance expectancy positively affects users’ engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts.

Social Influence and Engagement

Social influence means users’ perception of normative social pressures or relevant others' beliefs that they should or should not engage in social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts. For example, the opinions of essential referents could be the basis for a person’s feelings about the utility of social media. The judgment of significant others influences users’ perception about using social media. The significant others’ influences could accumulate and form a social pressure. In this case, if using social media is seen as desirable behavior by the social pressure, users may feel normative pressures and intend to use social media. From the discussion so far, we hypothesize that:

H4: Social influence positively affects users’ engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts.

Risk and Engagement

The risk factor is one of the most core factors when users are accepting new products. Risk has been applied to research fields, including cultural comparison, business, conversion intentions, factor protection, etc., to explore various uncertainties (Sun et al., 2021). Usually, the risk factor is reflected in the user's money, time, privacy, and various uncertain negative aspects in the future that may lead to disappointing returns or losses. Since most users do not have complete legal knowledge, it is difficult to distinguish whether the lawyers in social media videos are correct and valuable. Even if they spend a lot of time searching for online video that suits their needs, it may be challenging to find the right one. Internet celebrity lawyers may face hundreds of user consultations simultaneously during the live broadcast, so they can hardly give all users satisfactory answers. In this case, even if users have been following online lawyers for a long time, it may be difficult for them to get the help that truly meets their needs. Therefore,

H5: Perceived risk negatively affects users’ engagement with social media celebrity lawyers’ live broadcasts.

Moderating Effects of Innovativeness and Engagement

Mooring factor may increase users’ propensity to accept social media celebrity lawyers’ suggestions as users try to get a good part of their suggestions. Innovativeness refers to the degree to which users adopt new ideas or new tools relatively earlier than other members of the social system. Innovativeness ability has been proven to be an influential factor in different research fields, including the role of innovativeness in the adoption of enterprise resource planning systems, the moderating role of innovativeness on online shopping behavior, and the role of innovativeness in the continuous choice of airline passengers. The public could be relatively more inclined to adopt new technologies because social media celebrity lawyers can not only provide consulting services for free but also the public can also choose lawyers that are more suitable for them by comparing the quality of consulting services of different lawyers. In particular, those who do not know that their rights have been violated can be inspired to protect their rights through online lectures by social media celebrity lawyers. The advancement of network technology will bring more creativity to the public to seek online legal services that suit them. Users with higher innovativeness capabilities will learn more legal knowledge through social media celebrity lawyers, and their expected performance could be improved. Those users with higher innovativeness ability may find it easier to find social media celebrity lawyers they trust and accept positive social influences to raise their legal awareness. When users have better innovation ability, the risk they feel will be reduced because their innovation ability may bring them a better ability to avoid risks. In other words, when users become more innovative, pull variables will be more important for the development of engagement, whereas push variables will bring fewer adverse effects. Therefore,

H6. Innovativeness positively affects engagement.

H7. The relationship between trust and engagement is positively moderated by innovativeness.

H8. The relationship between knowledge and engagement is positively moderated by innovativeness.

H9. The relationship between performance expectancy and engagement is positively moderated by innovativeness.

H10. The relationship between social influence and engagement is positively moderated by innovativeness.

H11. The relationship between fear and engagement is negatively moderated by innovativeness.

Figure 1 is the research model and shows all hypotheses.

Figure 1: Research Model

Measurement

This questionnaire was designed to survey Chinese users who follow social media online celebrity lawyers. The information disclosure behavior of the questionnaire was consented by them. According to the questionnaire survey data, most users are working as technicians, farmers, businessmen, and civil servants. Most of the users who participated in the questionnaire survey were under 45 years old and often watched videos posted by social media celebrity lawyers. This study first conducted a pre-test survey on 36 volunteers to improve the reliability and validity of the questionnaire survey. Based on the predicted results, we modified the questionnaire prior to officially launching the online questionnaire in September 2021. A total of 563 questionnaires were obtained within two weeks, with a response rate of 74.2%. After excluding incomplete and invalid questionnaires, 510 valid questionnaires were empirically tested.

This research adopts the seven-Likert scale as measurements, where 1 – indicates strong disagreement and 7 – indicates strong agreement. Smart-PLS 3.0 was selected as the analysis software because it has advantages in moderating analysis and is currently widely used in the fields of management, marketing, organizational behavior, and information systems. Table 2 shows the details of the demographic statistics information of the questionnaire. It shows that women prefer to pay attention to social network lawyers than men. This may be because women face more rights violations in China and need legal advice in their lives.

Table 2
Demographic Statistics
Category Subject N %
Gender Male 215 42.1%
Female 295 57.9%
Education Level High School 146 28.6%
Bachelor 327 64.1%
Master 25 4.9%
Ph.D 12 2.4%
Age 20-30 201 39.4%
31-40 194 38.0%
41-50 106 20.7%
More than 50 9 1.9%
Yearly Income <50,000$ 129 25.2%
50,000-100,000$ 263 51.5%
100,000-200,000$ 95 18.6%
>200,000$ 23 4.7%
Usage Time
per Week
<30Mins 93 18.2%
1-3 hours 218 42.7%
3-6 hours 166 32.5%
>6 hours 33 6.6%
Occupation Civil servants 159 31.1%
Professionals 103 20.1%
Businessman 127 24.9%
Farmer 98 19.2%
Others 23 4.7%

Result Analysis

The reliability and validity of the research model are shown in Table 3. Cronbach's alpha value and composite reliability were higher than the threshold (0.7). At the same time, the value of average variance extracted (AVE) was higher than the threshold (0.5), and the standard loading values were also higher than the threshold (0.6). Therefore, the convergence validity and reliability of the research model was proven.

Table 3
Convergent Validity, Composite Reliabilities Testing Results
Construct Item Standardized Loading AVE Composite Reliability Cronbach’sa
Trust T1 0.913 0.9 0.963 0.943
T2 0.905
T3 0.924
K1 0.916
Knowledge K2 0.925 0.89 0.959 0.9635
K3 0.917
Performance PE1 0.936
Expectancy PE2 0.944 0.89 0.961 0.941
PE3 0.914
Social SI1 0.845
Influence SI2 0.933 0.88 0.955 0.942
SI3 0.856
R1 0.958
Risk R2 0.907 0.89 0.962 0.94
R3 0.936
IN1 0.941
Innovativeness IN2 0.918 0.93 0.976 0.962
IN3 0.897
E1 0.928
Engagement E2 0.966 0.9 0.965 0.945
E3 0.939

Trust(t), Knowledge(K),Performance Expectancy(PE), Social Influence (SI), Risk(R), Innovativeness(IN), Engagement (E)

In order to test the discriminant validity of the research model, we use the Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio test. Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio (HTMT) is the ratio of inter trait correlation to intra trait correlation, which indicates the ratio of the average value of the exponential correlation between different dimensions to the average value of the exponential correlation between the same dimensions. The threshold of Discriminant Validity HTMT is 0.85, which means the HTMT between the two facets cannot be greater than 0.85. Table 5 indicates that all the values are less than 0.85. Therefore, the discriminant validity of the research model was confirmed. Furthermore, the bootstrap confidence interval of HTMT in all facet combinations cannot exceed 1. Table 4 indicates that all the values are less than 1.0. Therefore, the bootstrapping confidence interval of HTMT was also confirmed.

Table 4
Discriminant Validity (Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio)
  R IN PE EN IN*R IN*K IN*PE IN*SI IN*T K SI T
R                        
IN 0.255                      
PE 0.378 0047                    
EN 0.484 0.367 0.071                  
IN*R 0.152 0.268 0.066 0.288                
IN*K 0.311 0.373 0.039 0.395 0.671              
IN*PE 0.079 0.045 0.094 0.013 0.289 0.106            
IN*SI 0.031 0.047 0.058 0.058 0.071 0.010 0.528          
IN*T 0.254 0.338 0.068 0.344 0.712 0.673 0.145 0.051        
K 0.567 0.043 0.179 0.421 0.355 0.408 0.030 0.048 0.377      
SI 0.201 0.072 0.569 0.044 0.022 0.055 0.048 0.075 0.045 0.110    
T 0.319 0.274 0.032 0.477 0.313 0.405 0.104 0.032 0.211 0.361 0.066  

Trust(t), Knowledge(K),Performance Expectancy(PE), Social Influence (SI), Risk(R), Innovativeness(IN), Engagement (E)

Table 5
Bootstrapping Confidence Interval Of Htmt
R->E 0.541
IN->E 0.259
PE->E 0.077
IN*R->E 0.241
IN*K->E 0.221
IN*PE->E 0.191
IN*SI->E 0.179
IN*T->E 0.072
K->E 0.197
SI->E 0.105
T->E 0.408

Trust(T), Knowledge(K), Performance Expectancy(PE), Social Influence (SI), Risk(R), Innovativeness(IN), Engagement (E) as shows in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Structural Model (P < 0.05)

Figure 2 is the structural model result of the research. All the four pulling factors were proved to be positively related to engagement. Trust was significantly and positively associated with engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.264. Knowledge was significantly and positively associated with engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.134. Performance expectancy was significantly and positively associated with engagement with a path coefficient value of 0.376. Social influence was significantly and positively associated with engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.202. The pushing factor risk was proven to be negatively and significantly associated with engagement, with a path coefficient value of -0.227. The mooring factor of Innovativeness was significantly and positively associated with engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.135. Innovativeness was also proven to be significantly moderating the relationships between pushing-pulling factors and engagement. Innovativeness positively and significantly moderated the relationship between knowledge and engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.209. Innovativeness positively and significantly moderated the relationship between performance expectancy and engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.153. Innovativeness positively and significantly moderated the relationship between social influence and engagement, with a path coefficient value of 0.149. Innovativeness negatively and significantly moderated the relationship between knowledge and engagement, with a path coefficient value of -0.136. Unfortunately, Innovativeness has no significant moderating effect on the relationship between trust and engagement. Trust, knowledge, performance expectancy, social influence, risk, and innovativeness were proven to explain engagement factors in a variance proportion of 42.4%.

Table 6 shows the coefficients (β), standard errors (SE), P-values,T values of all hypotheses. A hypothesis is supported if its corresponding P-value must be less than 0.05, and the corresponding T value should be higher than 1.96.

Table 6
Results Of Hypotheses Testing
  ß SE T value P-value Hypotheses
R -0.227 0.012 2.752 0.019 Supported
IN 0.135 0.087 2.441 0.011 Supported
PE 0.376 0.091 2.516 0.017 Supported
IN*R -0.136 0.057 3.134 0.006 Supported
IN*K 0.209 0.082 2.213 0.027 Supported
IN*PE 0.153 0.043 3.576 0.003 Supported
IN*SI 0.149 0.078 2.020 0.031 Supported
IN*T 0.062 0.055 1.349 0.126 Not Supported
K 0.134 0.039 3.678 0.002 Supported
SI 0.202 0.061 3.019 0.005 Supported
T 0.264 0.074 2.511 0.028 Supported

Trust(T), Knowledge(K), Performance Expectancy(PE), Social Influence (SI), Risk(R), Innovativeness(IN), Engagement (E)

Figure 3: A Plot of Innovativeness's Moderating Effect Between Risk and Engagement

Figure 3 indicates that when innovativeness is high, users have a low risk of perceiving the engagement of social media celebrity lawyers’ broadcasts. Therefore, high innovativeness leads to risk more negatively related to engagement.

Figure 4: A Plot of Innovativeness's Moderating Effect Between Knowledge and Engagement

Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 indicate that innovativeness has positive moderating effects in relationships to knowledge, performance expectancy, social influence and engagement. High innovativeness makes knowledge, performance expectancy and social influence more positively related to engagement, whereas low innovativeness is the opposite. Therefore, high innovativeness leads to knowledge, performance expectancy, social influence and engagement more positively associated with engagement.

Figure 5: A Plot of Innovativeness's Moderating Effect Between Performance Expectancy and Engagement

Figure 6: A Plot of Innovativeness's Moderating Effect Between Social Influence and Engagement

Figure 7 indicates that, unfortunately, no matter innovativeness is low or high, the slopes of low trust and high trust have no significant difference, which means that innovativeness has no moderating effect in the relationship between trust and engagement.

Figure 7: A Plot of Innovativeness's Moderating Effect Between Trust and Engagement

Discussion

Trust was proven to be significantly and positively associated with engagement, indicating that social media celebrity lawyers should strive to gain users' trust. Social media celebrity lawyers can provide free consulting services to specific clients and share the entirely free service process with other users to improve the users' trust. Knowledge was proven to be significantly and positively associated with engagement, indicating that users with more legal knowledge can obtain more useful information from social media celebrity lawyers and pay more attention to their broadcasts. Therefore, social media celebrity lawyers should disseminate more basic legal knowledge to users in the broadcast to improve their legal basic knowledge of clients, allowing users to better interact with lawyers. Performance expectancy was proven to be significantly and positively associated with engagement, indicating that users will continue to engage in the lawyer's broadcast. Therefore, social media celebrity lawyers need to share those typical cases in daily life often because these cases have reference value for most users. Social influence was proven to be significantly and positively associated with engagement, indicating that increasing social publicity can increase users’ attention to social media celebrity lawyers’ broadcasts. The government and mass media should publicize the benefits of social media celebrity lawyers' broadcasting to the public because the increase in public legal awareness is conducive to the sustainable development of society. Innovativeness was proven to be significantly and positively associated with engagement, indicating that users who like to explore new things are more willing to gain valuable legal knowledge to guide their lives by watching broadcast social media celebrity lawyers. The government and the media should encourage the public to experience online legal services and help the public conveniently seek legal information through smartphones, tablet computers, and other new channels. The risk was proven to be significantly and negatively associated with engagement, indicating users still have doubts about the reliability of the lawyers’ broadcast services. This may be because most users rarely deal with lawyers and think that the cost of legal services is high, so free legal services may not be as directional as paid services. Law firms should recommend senior lawyers to broadcast and go to residential areas to communicate face-to-face with users to dispel users' doubts.

Conclusion

The findings will contribute to improving social media celebrity lawyers’ broadcasting efficiency and attracting more fans. The followings are suggestions about improving trust, knowledge, social influence, performance expectancy and innovativeness. Social media celebrity lawyers should analyze and summarize the legal needs of different users, including marriage, labor disputes, property disputes, traffic accidents, work-related injury compensation, housing disputes, medical disputes, etc. Social media celebrity lawyers should also pay attention to users' interests and attract more public engagement through the continuous output of high-quality content. Since the number of followers determines the influence of social media celebrity lawyers, the promotion should use various propaganda media such as local newspapers, television stations, and local forums to expand the coverage of fans. Nowadays, in the face of enormous social pressure, users are more willing to seek satisfaction, achieve mental relaxation and stress relief in relaxing entertainment fantasy. Therefore, social media celebrity lawyers can share legal knowledge with users through entertaining and vivid ways, such as sitcoms and animations. According to the different legal needs of users, social media celebrity lawyers can accurately divide the legal popularization objects into other groups and provide personalized services, such as sharing administrative regulations with civil servants, giving knowledge of contract law and labor law to white-collar workers and manual workers, providing businessmen with the latest taxation policies, intellectual property rights, production safety and other knowledge. As for young people, social media celebrity lawyers can spread legal knowledge about crime prevention and self-protection.

Social media celebrity lawyers may provide a variety of legal cases so that users can freely choose legal cases they are interested in and have enthusiasm for participation. Lawyers should respond quickly and effectively to users’ messages so that not only these users’ needs are met, but other users can also gain more knowledge by reading the responses. Social media celebrity lawyers could regularly communicate and discuss with users online to form emotional convergence and cognitive consensus and encourage users to forward the content of the communication in the circle of friends to attract more new users. Law firms should strengthen the training of operating personnel and set up a planning team, especially inviting experts in text, creativity, shooting, editing, packaging, etc., to provide technical guidance to improve the broadcasting skills of their social media celebrity lawyers. Social media celebrity lawyers can also study psychology, marketing, aesthetics, and other courses to grasp users' needs better. Social media celebrity lawyers should also reward network operators for attracting high-quality network operators who understand politics, law, business, and new media operations.

Limitations and Future Researches

This research has also encountered some limitations. Firstly, all the subjects for the questionnaire survey are Chinese, and the Chinese legal system is different from the European and American legal systems. Therefore, other legal systems may lead to different levels of users' acceptance of social media celebrity lawyers’ broadcast behavior. Thus, in the future, the live broadcast behavior of social media celebrity lawyers in the two legal systems should be compared to promote the popularization of the law among all kinds of people around the world. Secondly, this research did not carry out a special survey for the socially disadvantaged groups that most need legal assistance, such as the disabled, rural women, and the elderly. In the future, special research should be carried out on them to obtain the most efficient legal aid.

Acknowledgement

Cai Zhi Meng, Law School, Anyang Normal University, China & Graduate School of Management, Management and Science University, Malaysia; Brian Sheng-Xian, Teo*, Global Affairs Department, Management and Science University, University Drive, Malaysia; Siti Khalidah Mohd Yusoff, Graduate School of Management, Management and Science University, University Drive, Malaysia and Corresponding Author: [email protected]

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Received: 26-Dec-2021, Manuscript No. JLERI-21-9363; Editor assigned: 28-Dec-2021, PreQC No. JLERI-21- 9363 (PQ); Reviewed: 11-Jan-2022, QC No. JLERI-21-9363; Revised: 19-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JLERI-21- 9363 (R); Published: 26-Jan-2022

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