Academy of Educational Leadership Journal (Print ISSN: 1095-6328; Online ISSN: 1528-2643)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 24 Issue: 3

Factors That Affect The Performance Of Teachers Working In Secondary Level Education

Demet Hasbay, Beykent University

Erkut Altındag, Beykent University


Wage, Working Environment, School Management, Performance of Teacher.


This study examines wage, working environment, and management factors that affect the performance of teachers working in secondary education. Considering the study’s effect, it is important to note that the performance of the teachers working in secondary schools increases and that this increase in performance will affect school management, teachers, students, and parents in a positive way and be beneficial. This research has been conducted with 103 teachers working in secondary schools, examining whether wage, working environment, and management factors have an impact on teacher performance at the secondary level. In order to make a more general generalization, the research needs to be measured on larger masses. In addition, a complete benchmarking point has not been created in Turkey because of the limited study done on this area.

Main Assumptions of Study

In this study, the following assumptions will be evaluated:

H1: Wage factor has a direct and positive effect on the performance of the teacher.

H2: Working environment has a direct and positive effect on the performance of the teacher.

H3: Management factor has a direct and positive effect on the performance of the teacher.

Concept Of Wage

Definition of Wage and Factors of Wage

Wage has affected various social circles throughout history. Thus, the definition of the wage differs from person to person. Wage can be seen as a means of purchasing power according to an individual, a condition determining the livelihood standard for another individual, according to another individual, which can also be seen as a means of satisfying his or her instincts (Yüksel, 1998, 196). Wage is influential not only in meeting the physical needs of individuals but also in meeting their social and psychological needs.

In evaluating wage, besides an individual’s social status, it is important in the level of development of one’s own country. For this reason, the concept of wage is defined in different ways as “price of labor” in terms of economy, “means of livelihood of the worker” in terms of social politics, and “compensation of worker’s mind and body activities” in terms of labor law (Zaim 1997, 160). These elements depend on the employer and the workplace environment; thus, payment is made in return for a job and must be in the form of benefits that can be represented in kind or in money. In case the payment made cannot carry any of these titles, payment to the employee cannot be accepted as a wage (Yalçın, 1998, 21).

Importance of Wage

When it comes to wages, market value is taken into consideration, which is taken as compensation for the employee’s labor. Wage, in our age, has gained importance in different aspects. It is necessary to examine the importance of wage, which is the most basic stone of working life, in various forms. It is as important as the employee, in terms of the employer, economically, regarding labor law, society, and unions. In particular, studies show that wage distribution must consider the importance of rising skill prices (Juhn et al., 1993).

Importance Regarding Employee

A small fraction of society can have its own financial resources in a different way or in a similar way. Employees are forced to work in order to survive and meet and fulfill their families’ needs; they require compesation for their work (Ataay, 2000, 253).

Importance In Terms of Employer

Employers usually want to increase performance while reducing costs. Therefore, they seeks to achieve a workforce that is affordable and of high quality. Also, the wage should not be regarded only as a cost factor regarding business. Wage and the efficiency and motivation of employees reduce the rate of labor turnover and ensure quality production; thus, a business carries more importance in terms of continuity and production (Baştürk, 2009, 6).

Importance In Economic Terms

From an economic point of view, wage can be explained as the amount paid for capital and labor, with the resources required to produce goods or services. The laws of economy define the labor of the employee as a form of a commodity. It is accepted that the employee sells the physical and intellectual work, not the self (Sabuncuoğlu, 1997, 211).

Importance In Terms of Business Law

Labor law consists of wage protection regulations in order to ensure that the worker is paid in the required manner. In an environment where wage is not protected by regulations, the employee with his family will fall into difficulty; in this case, the state will have an obligation to look after the employee and the family (Demircioğlu ve Centel, 2013, 135).

Importance In Terms of Society

Wage is a cost factor that influences industry development. The distribution of national income across various segments is an important measure of the degree to which social justice in society has taken place. Annual totals of wages show shares of national income of the working population. Thus, it is revealed whether national income decreases or does not increase within years (Balta, 2007, 11).

Importance In Terms of Trade Union

Trade unionism increases the bargaining power of employees; as a result, average wages of unionized workers are higher than the average wage of unionized workers. The success status of unions is often measured by wage increases. For this reason, the priority of trade unions is to increase the income of its members in collective bargaining negotiations (San, 2011, 21).

Wage Types

Due to the complexity of the wage structure, many concepts related to wage are used, e.g., gross wage, net wage, and minimum wage (Ergin, 2009, 9).

Gross Wage

Gross wages from employer to the employee are given from the vault. At the same time, the gross wage is used in collective labor contracts and wage statistics in international comparisons. The fact that there are differences in the rates of interruption in countries causes differences in their prosperity levels, even though employees have the same absolute income. The greatest reason for the differences in these cut-off rates is due to insurance premiums and taxes. This situation is closely related to the social politics of the country in which it is experienced (Durmaz, 2010, 11).

Net Wage

Net wage, after various deductions from gross wage such as tax, social insurance premiums, debt installments, and union dues payments, the employee receives an amount to spend on coverage’s. The net wage is necessary for the employee and his or her family to meet their needs and to manage their lives. The employer is usually based on the gross wage. Because the employer is generally interested in a total amount of money spent on the work of the employee, the employer usually makes cost calculations in this direction (Baştürk, 2009, 8).

Minimum Wage

Wage is almost the only source of income for individuals. The wages of employee should not be paid less than the level that will allow him or her to live a life that suits human dignity. The purpose of minimum wage in the interest of employee and employer is to prevent the employee from being paid at a lower rate than the value of the service (Talas, 1997, 82). In the implementation of the minimum wage in the enterprises, social, cultural, economic, and political factors are influential. Minimum wage helps sustain the employee needs of life; on the other hand, payment status of a business such as economic criteria varies based on location and time (Korkmaz, 2003, 3).

Teacher Fees

Today, the position of the teaching profession is respected, which is a legacy from the past to the present. The attitude of one country toward the profession is taken into account regarding wages; thus, it is possible to mention a great contradiction between the teacher’s income situation and the dignity shown (Akdeniz, 1982, 357). If we were to look at the wage of teachers by adhering to the status variable, teachers receive a different wage despite working the same weekly course hours and seizure times, thus indicating that the reputation of the teaching profession also varies (Öztaş, 2010, 17).

Working Environment

Working Life and Individual

Work is a major part of human life, and it is generally regarded as the main developmental task of a person’s adult stage of life. The person transitions to work and professional life, together with the adulthood stage. With this transition, the person will continue to work for years and enter a process that will end with a pension (Kuzu, 2009, 6). Work has become a necessity in which people cannot escape. The concept of work, besides the economic gain that it earned for studying so that one can survive as well as the individual, the individual completes the development of, to sustain his or her lives, to gain respect within the community, to contribute to society, and to earn a certain status in terms of providing individual fulfillment and happiness, which holds an important place in an individual’s life (Demir, 2003, 14). Work activity is the name given to the activity of producing goods or services, which are a particular usage value rather than remuneration (Tınar, 1996, 6). Work life affects the individual’s economic life as well as its cultural and social life. In addition to this, in regards to the individual’s working life, social structure and technology have a direct influence in politics. Working life activates elements of national power, and it contributes to these elements (Gudul, 2010, 1). The concepts “work environment” and “organization of work” apply to both general factors, such as organizational and managerial characteristics, and factors applying to individual workers. Occupational stress is related to the physical environment and responsibility (Sveinsdóttir et al., 2006). Also interest in understanding the role of school context in teachers’ professional development has recently emerged (Steinberg and Garrett, 2016).

Concept of Working from Yesterday to Today

Since the beginning of history, the concept of work has been regarded as part of the industrial revolution in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, which has gained in significance.

In the beginning, an act was undertaken by farmers and craftsmen to meet obligatory needs, industrial revolution and modern-day life along with a focus on basic needs to meet social needs. While this study’s priority is within the private area, today it has made the transition into the public domain. With the emergence of the capitalist order, the work has now begun to take place not only in the private space of a house but also in factories and the like (etc.). It has been observed that the “working” word means shifts in time. Business and working words have come to be used interchangeably. Work is based on the concept of voluntariness while business means a positive gain (Aydın, 2011, 33).

Concept and Definition of Quality of Work Life

The working environment can lead to a drop in staff motivation if it does not have proper working conditions. Moreover, it is hardly expected that an employee who does not have the quality of contemporary business life is effective and efficient in his work. Managers have to increase the morale and motivation of their employees by increasing job satisfaction of their staff and by regulating their working environment (Özgen & Yalçın, 2010, 329). A high quality of work life provides better opportunities and various changes to improve the quality of life of an employee (Yücetürk, 2005, 102). The quality of work life, its relationship to the individual, and the relationship of the individual to work ensures that the relationship of the individual in regards to social life is at a certain level and remains systematic (Erat, 2010, 8). Together with the work experience of the employees, the way a subject feels or thinks about his or her business is closely related to employees and managers. To solve the problems faced by the employees, the quality of life should be upgraded, and the needs of an organization and employees must be met simultaneously. In this case, “the quality of work life” concept reveals (Özaslan, 2010, 7). The concept of business quality of life came into being in the 1970s and early 1980s with restructuring efforts. During the restructuring period of work, the concept of business has evolved with the recognition of employees’ participation in management. Efficiency gains in corporations have become operative with restructuring (Aba, 2009, 3). The main aim of work quality of life is to ensure economic growth of the institution and to perfect the working conditions of employees (Solmuş, 2000, 37). The concept of business quality of life is also important organizationally in the institution. The institution’s quality service is to produce, thus earning a respectable place in society, and to be able to sustain this respect should improve the quality of work life according to the conditions of the day (Avcı Öztürk, 2010, 23).

The business quality of life is a comprehensive concept. In terms of managers, “business quality of life” is making progress with psychological factors. In terms of trade unionists, “business quality of life” is to ensure job security, a healthy, and humane working environment and an economically equal balance. In industrial democracy, “business quality of life” is to ensure the participation of employees in organizational decisions (Güvenli, 2006, 3).

Work Environment and Quality of Work Life of Teachers

The main aim of education is to learn. In order for the learning to take place, the environment in which the learning and teaching activity takes place is one of the most important factors in determining the quality of the learning. In regards to observation and research of teacher and teacher candidates, there has not been a common consensus among experts and educators about how to have the best work environment necessary for the teaching experience or develop their experience. Further, there is no accepted standard practice for everyone in the media dimension, as it is in the curriculum and method dimensions of the education system. Educational environments provided for teacher and teacher candidates differ from country to country just as some countries also show changes within themselves (Özcan, 2011, 200). The most important part of the education system is the schools. School administrators and teachers have a big responsibility, creating the way schools work, creating school goals, thus creating an effective and safe school. It is necessary for school administrators and teachers to improve the quality of work life and to improve working environments in order for school administrators and teachers to be connected to the work they are doing, to be satisfied with their work, to be able to fulfill with satisfaction, cope with stress and burnout, and to maintain strong communication with students, parents, and teachers. School managers and teachers with a high level of work quality and working conditions typically achieve the desired success and provide a more powerful means of communication and the efficiency of their work (Akın Kösterelioğlu, 2011, 17).

Management Concept

Definition and History of Management

People continue their lives within the community. This situation leads to a minimum level of guiding collective life organization. In every stage of human history, informal organizations emerging in human relations or formal organizations established by written rules have been encountered (Fişek, 1979, 127).

People need community life. This management, which is needed by community life, examines people’s relationships and typically believes they are under various factors (Can, 1994, 21). The oldest practices of administration were formed in the community administration and the defense organizations concerned with it. In economic activities, managerial application thrives later (Tosun, 1984, 6). Management is the way to organize the events that the organization continues to pass on to its determined policies (Güçlüol, 1985, 1). In other words, an organization is the process of directing individuals who are brought together to fulfill their duties and roles in order to apply predetermined policies (Başaran, 1982, 91). The aim of management is to provide simpler work strategies without wasting resources and using the available resources in the best possible way (Tor top, 1990, 7).

Management Theory and School Management

Management science is divided into three periods. These periods are referred to as the approaches. These approaches are classical approaches, which give structural weight, and environmental or behavioral approaches, which take into account interaction with the environment of the individual and the management and systematic or organizational approaches that regards the organization as a system (Kaya, 1991, 51). These three approaches are related to human nature; while classical approach theory has a pessimistic view, neoclassical approach theory has an optimistic view. In the systematic approach theory, a balanced attitude is adopted. A manager works with individuals who co-exist in a regular and harmonious manner to reach a desired target (Erdoğan, 2008, 41). The features of an administration can be summarized in three different dimensions: philosophical, psychological, and technical. Physiological dimension remark; manager’s value system, psychological dimension remark; manager’s personality features, technical dimension remark; manager’s knowledge and skill (Koz, 2013, 14). When a school manager is mentioned, the first person who comes to mind is the school principal who is the discipline manager. Besides a school manager, assistant principals, chairmen, and school coordinators are involved in school management. School management is perceived as a job and a specialty. Recently, prerequisites for graduate studies are provided by provincial education directorates to ensure development of school managers and teachers as a requirement of protocol in big cities such as İstanbul, Ankara, and İzmir (Özge Sağbaş, 2013, 56).

The school administrator is the person who, as a result of the communication with the teachers, relaxes the teachers about the work, encourages them to identify and fix the mistakes, and gives them confidence. Teachers should conclude that they easily say their thoughts and they are treated fairly in their working environment. Besides this, they are able to make claims (Hesapçıoğlu & Bakioğlu, 2001, 39-40). Participation in management is important to motivate a worker. This situation increases employee motivation. If an employee, who applies a managerial decision, detects mistakes and exposes different sources, this situation provides both the employee who is aware of the appreciation conditions with motivation, and the quality level of the decision taken is raised (Eren, 1996, 367). Participating in management strengthens the personality of participating personnel. It enhance confidence; it provide experience and grow. It is also a motive for reunification (Bursalıoğlu, 2005, 160).

Application of the Factors Affecting Performance of Teachers Working in Secondary Education

Purpose of the Research

The greatest purpose of this thesis study is to affect teacher performance at the high school level and to examine the factors related to wages, working environment, and management; the effects on teacher performance; and to improve the performance of teachers in the workplace.

Scope and Limits of Research

In the research on the factors affecting the performance of the teachers working at the secondary level, sample analysis has been carried out on teachers working in private secondary schools operating in Istanbul. This research is applied to a total of 103 teachers.

Method of Research

Throughout the research, as the data collection method, the questionnaire method has been used: 103 questionnaires were evaluated. In answering the questionnaire survey forms, we applied a 7-point Likert attitude scale.

The options for evaluating the answers in the questionnaire are as follows: (1) disagree completely; (2) mostly disagree; (3) partially disagree; (4) neither agree nor disagree; (5) partially agree; (6) mostly agree with; (7) totally agree the options. It is thought that the septet (7’li) Likert scale will yield more reliable results than the quinary and 10-spot scales. The questionnaire data obtained from the sample population with the application of SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) package program have been analyzed. In the analysis, factors affecting the performance of the teachers working at the secondary level, the averages of the variables loaded on each factor, and reliability factor, correlation, and regression analyses have been conducted. In order to scientifically form the questionnaire, attention has been paid to some of the generally accepted criteria and issues in the literature. The introductory of the questionnaire uses fluent and clear language in regards to the content of the research and scientific and social benefits. We emphasize that the contents of the questionnaire will remain confidential. Especially for many schools, where there is a risk of leakage of information outside, it is aimed that administrators can easily fill the questionnaire without worry. At the bottom of the introduction, the persons who conducted the research, names, titles, and contact information are included.

Explanatory expressions are given in regards to the septet Likert scale. It has been noted that questions and answers are simple and straightforward in language and usage. Questions with the septet Likert-type are prepared with a closed end. In this way, the manager who answered the questions was prevented from leaving the questions unanswered or spending too much time answering them. The variables used in the research and the number of questions are shown in Table 1. This section discusses the wage of the research from Ermiş’s master’s thesis (Ermiş, 2008, 99), in the department related to the working environment, Gül’s master’s thesis (Gül, 2010, 113-114), in the department related to management, Işıklı’s master’s thesis (Işıklı, 2012, 148-149), and in the section on teacher performance, an Çıpa’s master’s thesis (Çıpa, 2014, 77). In addition to these questions, we also ask about teacher demographics. With these specially prepared questions, information has been obtained about the school and the teacher filling the form.

Table 1: Variables And Number Of Questions Asked
Variables Number of question asked
Wage 7
Working environment 7
Management 7
Teacher performance 9
Total number of questions 30

A total of 10 demographic questions is in the questionnaire. Moreover, within the scope of the research, the total number of questions in the survey was 40.

Research Findings and Evaluation

The data obtained in the research and their evaluations are included in the tables and explanations.

Demographic Features

The type of school in which the teachers participated in the questionnaire is shown in Table 2. Of the 103 teachers who participated in the questionnaire, 99 (96.1%) teachers answered this demographic question. Four (3.9%) teachers did not answer this demographic question. Fifty-five (%53,4) teachers participated in the questionnaire in vocational high schools, 41 (39.8%) teacher in Anatolian High School, one (1%) teacher in the science high school, one (1%) teacher in Anatolian Teacher High School, one (1%) teacher works in other schools. Besides, participation of the teachers working in general high school and social sciences department had not seen in the questionnaire. This is due to the fact that there is no questionnaire study with the teachers working in the schools mentioned.

Table 2: Teachers Who Responded To The Survey And Their School Type
School Type Frequency Percentage
General High School 0 0
Anatolian High School 41 39,8
Science high school 1 1,0
Anatolian Teacher High School 1 1,0
Social science High school 0 0
Vocational high school 55 53,4
Other 1 1,0
Total 99 96,1
Missing participation 4 3,9
Total 103 100

The average age of teachers participating in the questionnaire is shown in Table 3. Of the 103 teachers who participated in the survey, 98 responded to this demographic question. Five teachers did not respond to this demographic question. The average age of teachers participating in the questionnaire was determined as 35 as the result of the analysis.

Table 3: Average Age Of Teachers Who Responded To The Questionnaire
Valid participation 98
Incomplete participation 5
Average age 35,1327

The average age of the teachers working in private secondary education institutions is 35, as the result of the analysis; this can be explained by teachers starting from the first years of their graduation from the education faculties of universities that they have been prepared for the public personnel selection examination that the Student Selection and Placement Center has prepared, and that they cannot be appointed on their own branches; to survive it can be explained by starting to work in private schools.

Table 4: Gender Of Teachers Who Responded To The Questionnaire
Gender Frequency Proportion
Female 74 71,8
Male 27 26,2
Total 101 98,1
Incomplete participation 2 1,9
TOTAL 103 100%

Gender distribution of teachers participating in the questionnaire is shown in Table 4. Of the 103 teachers who participated in the survey, 101 (98.1%) teachers answered this demographic question. Two (1.9%) teachers did not respond to this demographic question. From the teachers who participated in the questionnaire, 74 (71.8%) were female teachers, and 27 (26.2%) teachers were male.

The 71.8% female employee ratio can be explained by the fact that it is preferred by women due to the structure of the teaching profession. The main reasons why women prefer the teaching profession are the proper working hours of the teaching profession, the fact that it is an intermediate year vacation and the summer vacation, and the nature of the relationship with children motherly woman.

Table 5: Educational Status Of Teachers Who Answered The Questionnaire
Education Frequency Proportion
University 73 70,9
Master degree 28 27,2
Doctorate 1 1,0
Total 102 99
Incomplete participation 1 1,0
Total 103 100%

The educational status of teachers participating in the questionnaire is shown in Table 5: 102 (99%) teachers responded to this demographic question from 103 teachers participating in the questionnaire; one (1%) teacher did not respond to this demographic question; 73 (70.9%) teachers who participated in the questionnaire were university graduates; 28 teachers (27,2%) graduated with a master’s degree; and one (1%) teacher was a doctoral graduate. In this case, 28.2% of teachers were specialist teachers because they have master and doctoral degrees.

Table 6: Teachers Who Responded To The Survey And Average Operating Time At The Institution Where They Are
Valid participation 98
Incomplete participation 5
Work Average 3,3061

The average duration of study in the institution, where the teachers participated in the questionnaire, is shown in Table 6. Of the 103 teachers, 98 responded to this demographic question. Five teachers did not respond to this demographic question. The average duration of study at the institution where the teachers participating in the questionnaire were determined to be three years as the result of the analysis.

Teachers working in private secondary education institutions, the main reasons for the three-year period of the total study period at the institution as a result of the analyzes carried out can be explained as follows: Teachers start as trainee teachers in the first years of teaching profession after graduating from education faculties. There is no change in wage by the management when the teacher has finished his or her internship period or if there is an increase in the minimum levels; the teacher can leave the institution he/she works for. In addition, in the case that the teacher has a high working potential, if the school administration ignores this situation and does not raise the salary for any promotion, the teacher observes this situation for the first two years and decides to leave the work after the third year.

Reliability Analysis of the Research Scale

Reliability analysis indicates the extent to which the questions asked in the questionnaire research relate to each other, their consistency, and the scale used reflects the problem of interest (Delipoyraz, 2009, 104). The purpose of reliability analysis is to measure the randomness of the data. If the answers to the questionnaire are randomly distributed, it is decided that the survey results are reliable. Reliability analysis is used to test the reliability, coincidence, and consistency of the selected sample. It is decided according to Cronbach’s Alpha (α) whether or not the result is reliable (Mozgallı, 2009, 39). When the results of the questionnaire of 30 questions constituting the research scale in Table 7 are examined, it is determined that Cronbach Alpha value of reliability is 0,920. The threshold value in the literature is much higher than 0,700. The questions used in the research are clearly understood by the participating teachers, and similar questions are answered in the same direction.

Table 7: General Reliability Analysis Of Variables
Cronbach Alpha (a) Values Number of Variables
0.920 30

As shown in Table 8, the highest reliability ratios appeared in the working environment and management factor. There are two possible reasons for this: 1) The work environment and management scale questions, compared with other scale questions, clearer and understandable; 2) Working environment and management scale questions are similar and have responded to in a similar manner.

Table 8: Reliability Analysis Of Variables
Variables Number of Questions Cronbach Alfa (a) Values
Wage 7 0.880
Working environment 7 0.918
Management 7 0.918
Teacher performance 9 0.701

The reliability analysis used to measure the scientific accuracy of the research may be meaningless, as long as it is not supported by “factor analysis,” which is another confirmatory analysis. For this reason, in the second phase of the research, factor analysis has been undertaken, and all variables in the study have been classified according to their clusters.

Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical analysis that allows data to be presented in a more meaningful and concise way, based on the relationships between variables. Factor analysis was developed between the years 1930 and 1950, accelerating within the general trend of mathematical science. This type of analysis has found a wide range of practice in psychology in the first stage. As a result of computer development in the 1950s, many different areas have been used, mainly in social areas (Khalaf, 2007, 2). Factor analysis is used in social sciences in scale development or adaptation studies and a different purpose of a scale or is used for a different sample in research; instead of providing a single coefficient for building validity, it reveals the structure factor or confirms the previously predicted factor structure. The information obtained as a result of the factor analysis provides a road map for validity and reliability studies to be carried out later and other statistical analyzes to be carried out in accordance with the points obtained through the measurement (Uyar, 2012, 4). The construct validity of the research scale was tested by factor analysi,s and it was researched whether the scale was single or multiple factor. In the following sections, the verification of validity and reliability of the scales of the factorial components used in testing the model will first be separately performed; then the research model will be tested as a whole using correlation and regression analysis. The results of the factor analysis of three independent variables and one dependent variable in the research showed that each variable is clustered within itself, and its structural validity is high. According to the results of the analysis, the KMO values have been found to be between 0.859 and 0.901. The resulting values in terms of internal consistency, as shown in Table 9, is close to perfection.

Table 9: Kaiser?Meyer?Olkin Validity Values
Criteria Explanation
1.00 < KMO <0.90 Excellent
0.90 < KMO < 0.80 Good
0.80 < KMO <0.70 Middle
0.70 < KMO < 0.60 Weak
0.60 < KMO < ?.. Bad

The first analysis has been carried out on the wage scale. Factor distribution results of the wage variable are shown in Table 10. The first independent variable, the wage factor, has been clustered within itself and not separated by sub factors. The value of KMO has been identified as 0.897.

Table 10: Factor Analysis Of The Wage Scale
Kaiser?Moyer?Olkin the Criterion of Sampling Adequacy 0.897
Bartlett Sphericity Test Approximate Ki Square 346.561
Df 21
Sig. 0.000

Factor distribution results of the working environment variables are shown in Table 11. As mentioned above, the sub factors are not separated as the research environment factor, the second independent variable of the research. It has clustered within itself. The KMO value has been identified as 0.887.

Table 11: Factor Analysis Of The Working Environment Scale
Kaiser?Moyer?Olkin the Criterion of Sampling Adequacy 0.887
Bartlett Sphericity Test Approximate Ki Square 457.279
Df 21
Sig. 0.000

Factor distribution results of the management variable are shown in Table 12. The management factor, which is the third independent variable of the research, is not divided into subfactors as previously noted. It has clustered within itself. The KMO value has been identified as 0.859.

Table 12: Factor Analysis Of The Management Scale
Kaiser?Moyer?Olkin the Criterion of Sampling Adequacy 0.859
Bartlett Sphericity Test Approximate Ki Square 491.724
Df 21
Sig. 0.000

Factor distribution results of teacher performance variable are shown in Table 13. Finally, while no changes were made to the factor structures of the independent variables in the study, question 6 on the teacher performance factor, which is the dependent variable of the research, is out of scale. The reason for this is because the performed factor analysis eigenvalues are calculated as 1; question number 6 is assigned to a single factor when all the questions with a low load factor have been excluded from the scope of the research.

Table 13: Factor Analysis of the Teacher Performance Scale
Kaiser?Moyer?Olkin the Criterion of Sampling Adequacy 0.901
Bartlett Sphericity Test Approximate Ki Square 473,243
Df 36
Sig. 0.000

Correlation analysis

Correlation analysis for the relationship between the independent variable with the dependent variable or variables is based on the calculation of the correlation coefficient, which is indicated as a percentage (Gülerce, 2007, 43). Correlation is the direction of the relationship between two or more variables and its degree. It is possible to show the degree of the relationship between two variables by simple correlation and by the degree of multiple correlations of the relationship between three or more variables. Whether or not the correlation is a linear feature can be revealed by examining the scattering diagram. If the X, Y points are clustered around a straight line, this is linear correlation; if there is a cluster around a curve, it is called a nonlinear correlation. If two variables thought to be related to each other increase and decrease together, they are called plus correlation. If they tend to change in the opposite direction, then it is a negative correlation; if the two variables do not change together, as if there is no relationship between them, they are called zero correlations. The degree to which they are compatible with each other in the exchange of two variables determines the correlation coefficient and is indicated by the letter r. R takes values between -1 and +1. A correlation coefficient close to -1 and +1 indicates that the relationship between the two variables is strong. It indicates a full linear relationship. If there is no relationship between two variables, that is, if the correlation coefficient is equal to zero, these are called “vertical variables” (Sönmez, 1995, 5-6). It is not possible to establish a cause-effect (causality) relationship based on the results of this analysis, as it is known that one-to-one relationships are examined here. This analysis may be appropriate for the answer to the question “how is it affected” when each variable is examined individually by other variables. Looking at the results of the research in Table 14, it is seen that each independent variable affects a one-by-one dependent variable. For example, there is a linear relationship between wage and teacher performance of 0.618. In other words, the increase in wages also affects performance in the same way. The most interesting detail in this table is that trust in top management and the structure formed by the school management influences teacher performance more dominantly than all other independent variables. There is a positive relationship between management factor and teacher performance at the 0.864 level. Because this value is close to the exact value of 1, the administrative moves directly, and it directly and strongly enhances teacher performance. The fact that this effect is higher than the wage proves that some research in the literature is contradictory. However, from the other side, it is a critical indicator in terms of the contribution to science.

Table 14: Correlation Analysis Of Variables
  Wage Factor Environment Factor Management Factor Performance Factor
Wage Factor

Pearson Korelasyon 1 0.467** 0.631** 0.618**
Sig. (2-Kuyruklu) Tailed   0.000 0.000 0.000
N 103 103 103 103
Environment Factor Pearson Korelasyon 0.467** 1 0.769** 0.787**
Sig. (2- Kuyruklu) Tailed 0.000   0.000 0.000
N 103 103 103 103
Management Factor Pearson Korelasyon 0.631** 0.769** 1 0.864**
Sig. (2- Kuyruklu) Tailed 0.000 0.000   0.000
N 103 103 103 103
Performance Factor Pearson Korelasyon 0.618** 0.787** 0.864** 1
Sig. (2- Kuyruklu) Tailed 0.000 0.000 0.000  
N 103 103 103 103

Prior to the next step, multiple correlation problems have been checked, and the scale questions have been re-examined to ensure that the management factor received a value of 0.864, and it has determined that the questions have completely separated from each other.

Regression Analysis

Regression analysis was developed by Sir Francis Galton in the second half of the nineteenth century. Today, regression words are used to explain the statistical link between variables. For the mathematical expression of the mean relation between a regression-dependent variable and independent variable (variables), regression analysis is frequently used in many disciplines (Ayhan, 2006, 5). Regression analysis, in dealing with the relationship between dependent and independent variables, does not necessarily represent a causality relation. That is, it does not necessarily mean that the independent variable is the result of the cause and dependent variable.

The goals of the regression analysis are (Beşiktaş, 2010, 25)

1) To estimate the mean value of the dependent variable and the given values of the independent variable.

2) To investigate whether the independent variables have a significant effect on the dependent variable; and

3) To predict the value of the independent variables and the mean value of the dependent variable or to estimate the future value.

Table 15: Models Of Regression Analysis
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Significance
B Standard Error Beta
1 Constant Variable 0.350 0.254   10.378 0.171
  Wage Factor 0.129 0.058 0.130 20.207 0.030
  Environment Factor 0.307 0.072 0.304 40.257 0.000
  Management Factor 0.500 0.074 0.548 60.728 0.000

The results of the regression model, in which all three independent variables are examined together, are given in Table 15. The “determinant coefficient” of the study has been determined as 0,794. In other words, 79.4% of changes in teacher performance, which is a dependent variable of the research, are explained by wages, working environment, and management styles. The strongest correlation here is the management factor with a coefficient of 0.548 beta. The management factor is the environmental factor with a coefficient of 0.304 and a coefficient of 0,130 followed by a wage factor.

Dependent variable of the research: Teacher Performance

All these indicators show that the managerial and working environment variables shadow the wage factor and reduce its importance. When teachers are supported by management and when an appropriate work environment is established, they can improve their performance without worrying about the wage factor. Wage is not the most important motivator. Although many studies have suggested that the most important motivator in many sectors is the wage factor, it is not possible to make a generalization due to the structural differences of some sectors—especially those working in the education sector should be self-sacrificing; therefore, it will not be a wise choice to reward or punish them. However, it should be noted that the wage and working environment factors are significant in the multiple causality relationship and directly and positively affect the dependent variable.

Hypothesis Results

H1: Wage factor has a direct and positive effect on teacher performance: Partially supported.

According to factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, wage factor has a partial influence on teacher performance, for which the first seven questions of the questionnaire examined together with the teacher performance factor.

The H1 hypothesis is partially accepted. Thus, it can be said that wage partially affects teacher performance.

H2: Working environment has a direct and positive effect on teacher performance: Supported.

When questions 8–14 are examined, the questionnaire environment factor is evaluated together with the teacher performance factor; according to factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis of the working environment have a significant effect on teacher performance. Thus, the H2 hypothesis is accepted. As expected, it has seen that the working environment directly and positively influenced teacher performance in schools. The hypothesis has resulted in the expected direction.

H3: Management factor has a direct and positive effect on teacher performance: Supported.

When the management factor of questions 15-21 was evaluated together with the teacher performance factor, per factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, management factor has a significant effect on teacher performance. Thus, H3 hypothesis is accepted. As expected, school management has directly and positively influenced teacher performance. The hypothesis has resulted in the expected direction.

Conclusion And Discussion

In this study, the factors affecting teacher performance at the secondary level were investigated. The results obtained for the findings are as follows: school type, employee number, foundation year of institution, teachers’ age, teachers’ gender, educational status, total operation time, and operation time in teacher current institution. Besides this demographic research, teacher wage, working environment, and managerial factors are examined to make a remarkable difference in enhancing teacher’s performance of work. The result of this research, in teacher’s wage, working environment, and managerial factors, show that the managerial factor is the most effective. Another factor having a major effect on teacher performance after management factor is the working environment. The wage factor, which is the least effective factor, follows the working environment factor. The wage factor overshadows the working environment and managerial factors. The education sector has a dynamic structure because of the human service element in the education sector. Institutions serving in the education sector maintain their assets in the sector, as long as they determine their organizational goals and realize the determined aims.

Positive progression of the human element in the education sector and reaching the goal of which institution to determine is dependent on the quality level of the relationship between manager and teachers and the schools where teachers carry out their professions. The satisfaction that teachers acquire in their profession can affect attitudes toward the profession. Hierarchical authoritarian order occurs in schools. Managers are in the top of the hierarchical structure. Teachers are responsible for their managers. The school works are divided into two branches: administrative and educational. There is a division of labor between educator and administrators. Teachers are experts in the own fields. School administrators use certain rules to control teacher behavior. Teacher authority is also clearly defined by these rules. The existence of rules directly brings objectivity to schools. School managers’ attitude directly affects teacher performance. If the correct and effective communication to be followed by the school management is positively perceived by teachers working in the institution, it will be effective in increasing the teachers’ performance by raising the morale concept that the teachers need in their daily business life. School managers should try to ensure the participation of the teachers working in the institution to the organizational processes; the aims are determined by the school management and decisions for the school.

Consultation with teachers on school-related decisions, giving a right to speak, and the implementation of thoughts that teachers give to administrators in their decisions are the different factors used to increase teacher performance. Career investment and career development for teachers is another important factor that enhances teacher performance in school by school management. Besides this, knowledge of the possibilities of progress within the organization increases work desire. Prominent possibilities for promotion within the institution for teachers is another important factor to enhance motivation. Further, the individual’s career development goals are emphasized on the management side to enhance motivation. Working environment affects motivation and job satisfaction of teachers. Considering the problems that arise in the case of dissatisfaction, motivation and satisfaction of teachers are important key for organizational activity. Evaluating job satisfaction and motivation only in terms of organizational effectiveness is not sufficient enough. There is no doubt that individual take their time to work. Therefore, individuals’ satisfaction in working life and high motivation significantly affect individuals’ quality of life. In the physical and climatic structure of institution, a teacher’s work environment directly affects a teacher’s performance. Climate is considered as not only the heat and physical factors but also the psychological environment. A teacher’s performance is propped up in when he or she is feeling comfortable in an environment that avoids oppression, according to the analysis results.

The result of researching wage concept shows that, unlike in other professions, in the teaching profession, wage concept affect teachers’ performance less than management and working environment. The teaching profession provides teachers with security, and the social and respect requirements increases their performance.

When teachers change according to principle and rules, efficiency will increase. Also, when receiving fair changes, a teachers’ hard work will pay off and enhance teacher’s performance according to appropriate wage system and practices. If a manager needs various suggestions, first, the wage-enhancing performance approach should not be considered as a valid approach. As seen in this research result, the wage concept can be kept in the background. Making correct management models and annihilating stress factors on teachers are more important than the wage concept. For this reason, actual management models should be applied and adopted in not only companies but also in schools.

For instance, it is necessary to be open to new generation approaches such as leadership types, contemporary management approaches, mentoring, and coaching. School management’s radical change of application directly and positively reflects student’s success. Growing a successful individual is relevant to elimination of structural problems in the country’s education system. To eliminate structural problems, school administrations, the District National Education, Provincial National Education, and the Ministry of National Education play an important role. As especially rehabilitation of present working system and bringing incentive and reward systems which enhance teachers’ performance, which can solve lots of problems; thus, selection and replacement exams place step-by-step school grades.

The most important condition for academicians who will research this area in the future should be kept extensive sample set of questions. The greater the sample number, the more generalized result of the research. A total of 103 teachers have practiced in this study and the questionnaire has been filled out. The most important part of the research is the sample number. Due to the limited work this area in Turkey, a complete benchmark has not been created.


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