Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 3
Intan Nazuha Abdullah, Tunku Abdul Rahman University
Abdul Malek, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Azima Abd Manaf, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Issues in gated and guarded community increase from year to year and cause of increasing in fear of crime among the population. At the same time it will create social issues and bring a bad impression in certain residential area. Thus, gated and guarded housing scheme can be defined as gated and protected community in one of the housing principles that play an essential role in creating safer living surroundings. Meanwhile, functions of social capital in line with trust and social networks, which it could improve the performance of society by facilitating coordinated action. Social well-being is the feel a sense of belonging and social inclusion which involves a related person as a supporter through person in society. This paper aims to reflect on the strategic management in social capital in achieving community social well-being among the gated and guarded community resident. Specifically, it aims to gain insights into the relationship between strategic social capital, focusing more to the trust and network elements and social well-being in terms of stability, community, exclusive and privacy. So that strategic management will be as a tool to ensure the communities and social capital aspect can work together in the gated and guarded community area. As the result, the emergence of the concept of social capital has shed mild on the impact of social systems on network movements and collective well-being.
Strategic Management, Gated and Guarded Community, Social Capital, Social Well- Being, Property Management.
Strategic management is a process to evaluate, planning and implement creative design to manage and improve competitive advantage. Meaning that evaluation process is more concerned to the internal and external surrounding, therefore, roles of planning is to develop the best strategy and collaborate with action to ensure the successful in the task given. Whilst implementations play important roles to ensure the systematic and organize organizational can be achieved (Lins et al., 2017). Then, the notion of social capital has achieved an alternative prominence inside the community area and the approaches delivered in economics with the idea that any social matters arise and it was proposed a wonderful form of contributions starting from micro to macro views (Lollo, 2012). Therefore, social capital is the value of social networks and is determined by voluntarism, donating, neighbourhood-activities and charity. It can be seen as resources that could in-or decrease within a society or group of community (Dill, 2015). Gated and guarded community is such enclave ordinarily represents private neighborhoods (Kohn, 2004; McKenzie, 1994) which means personal and manipulates their personal offerings, infrastructure and facilities; and need to get an access to enter their boundary (Tedong et al., 2016). According to Atkinson & Blandy (2005), gated and guarded community can be defined as fences around the boundary where the public have to get permission before entering this area. It was characterized through using agreements which tie the residents to a regularly occurring code of behavior and collective responsibility for managing. As general, gated community can be defined as groups of community within the vicinity which is secured by 24 hour guard service and clearly bound with fence and absolutely make use of by security features (Usman et al., 2007; Rahim, 2013). In order to achieve social well-being among community, social capitals play an important role and organize by strategic management tools.
Issue Arise in Gated and Guarded Community
In section 46 of The Street, Drainage & Building Act 1974, preventing from using public road is viewed as an offence (Rahim, 2013). Many researchers from the west country demonstrates the idea of fenced communities has brought about accelerated segmentation and segregation of socioeconomic populations (Usman et al., 2007) and creating a wide range of social issues among the population. So, it will affect relationships among the population. Refer to the Table 1 below, it shown number of issue discuss previously.
|Table 1: Issue In Gated And Guarded Community|
|Status||Achieving high levels of image and prestige among the community, if accompanied by arrogance and the absence of social interaction within the community will affects the gap of excessive reputation differences among society.|
|Civic engagement||The attitude of the residents to take responsibility with Management Cooperation together.|
|Use of public area||Social integration among gated community are lesser compared to the others community interm of leisure space.|
|Traffic system||Limited to only one entrance to the community area.|
|Rights of property ownership||All the residents have to follow the stated rules and regulations. Indirectly the individual's freedom over their own property has its own limitations due to such regulations, even though law enforcement has not been fully implemented.|
|Differences in belief,religions and justice||There are some religious issues that are often discussed among the communities for example a proper swimming suit guideline.|
|Injustice||Multicultural gated communities and exceptional wishes of direction, very difficult to satisfy the needs of the residents in the community area.|
|Relationship among the community||Selfishness and negative attitude in the community.|
Source: (Sidal & Kang, 2016, Othman, 2007; Usman et al., 2007).
Social Well-Being among Community
Aim and basic of social well-being in the community depends on the position level by individuals, family and in the community itself (Haris, 2010). It was determined by three aspects which is a social problem management, fulfillment of condition life and social mobility within the community (Midgley, 1995). Thus, it will create a balance between safe environments; maximize social mobility and fulfillment of basic need for each individual.
The previous researcher looks forward into social well-being from objective and subjective aspect to enhance the quality of urban (Smith & Clay, 2010; Zaimah et al., 2017). Subjective aspect is more related to the human emotional, feeling and satisfaction (Diener & Suh 1997; Mohd Yusof, 2013). But if the people feel threatened stress, pressure it is shown deterioration in well-being (Sidal & Kang, 2016). Therefore, social well-being and quality of life are two different things and previous research shown that satisfaction in neighborhood will affected community social well-being (Sidal & Kang, 2016; Zaimah et al., 2017; Smith & Clay 2010; Sirgy & Cornwell, 2002; Sirgy et al., 2000).
In line with Putnam’s proposed measurement of social capital, community can be connected through several elements which are trust and network. In this case, strategic management can be as a tool or model in organizing the social capital elements in achieving social well-being within the community because strategic management emerged as part of strategic making a plan, that’s now seemed as one of its foremost instruments (Wells, 2000). Meanwhile, with the combination of social capital in strategic management will make more enhancements in a strategic plan, which covered the pre-planning and strategic planning procedures to ensure the social well-being can be achieved within community resident (Table 2) (Mainardes et al., 2014).
|Table 2: Factor Of Social Capital, Gated And Guarded Community And Strategic Management|
|Social Capital||Strategic management||
Strategic management involves planning and doing strategy in the actual action.
“Strategy” seems to be somewhere out there in the either with little or nothing to do with the community.
|Trust||Trust as the expectation that some other person will perform movements that are beneficial|
|Network||Extent of networks and frequency of contact associated with
neighbour/family and people who live nearby
|Gated and guarded community|
|Fencing & Gates||Physical security normally used in the area to ensure community stay in the secure environments|
A Proposed Conceptual Model
This study is conducted to analyze the effectiveness of strategic management in social capital by using trust and network as a tools to measure social well-being among gated and guarded community. The proposed research model is the model to be used in this research as shown in Figure 1.Structured questionnaires will be used as an instrument in data collection to be as sampling method. It is parallel with the statement by Habidin & Yusof (2012) which is structured questionnaire will help a lot in terms of reducing of time, cost and energy use during the process. Meanwhile, the population of this study comprised the resident staying in gated and guarded community which is focusing more in Klang Valley area.
Community Social Well-Being
Previous studies have shown the satisfaction towards neighborhood life and will affects the social well-being of the community (Hipp, 2009; Sirgy & Cornwell, 2002; Sirgy et al., 2000; Lee & Guest, 1983). Therefore, loose in public relations will push more challenge facing by the community, especially in safety and social network aspect (Sepideh et al., 2013). This subjective social well-being includes interrelated additives of high quality pride, feeling and emotion along with joy, a laugh and contentment; nor terrible along with sorrow, sadness and dissatisfaction (Diener & Suh, 1997). Life may be seemed as wealthy as a result of fun, satisfied, safe, cherished and protected (Mohd Yusof, 2013). On the other hand, when individuals feel risky, depressed, dissatisfied and surrounded by way of troubles, these symptoms can result in the deterioration of their well-being (Sidal & Kang, 2016). Thus, social well-being and quality of life are in fact a difficult concept to interpret. However, referring to the previous researcher, whether viewed from an objective or subjective lenses, gives meaningful expectations to the improvement of the quality of life of urban dwellers (Sidal & Kang, 2016; Zaimah et al., 2017; Smith & Clay, 2010). While according to Blakely & Snyder (1997), observe of the secured and protected neighborhoods in the United States of America had proposed four values of social well-being that had been inspired and the intention of their inhabitants in example of balancing (equality and peace), network sentiments (community cohesion), exclusivity (privilege or prestige). Indirectly, the choice of any type of gated and guarded community reflects the will to social well-being described through the residential features (Sirgy & Cornwell, 2002; Sirgy et al., 2000).
Gated and Guarded Community
According to the previous research, finding a gated and guarded neighborhood allows citizens to acquire a well-being in their lives through get entry to protection, privateness, style, space and prestige (Thuraiya et al., 2015; Nur Azhani et al., 2014). But, how the community can ensure that their social well-being will be at the highest level? It can be seen through signifying the development of housing and neighborhood conceptions of control and isolation will show the tendency of the occupants to the characteristics of a lifestyle, privacy and prestige lifestyle (Marina et al., 2011). The impact of gating is greater than what we could imagine. No network can continue to exist on its very own outside of the local financial and social framework. It can bring the very common concept of gated community is confined get admission to. The effect of physical barriers in that area for example gates and fences will turn negative perception to the resident which is separating people with exclusive repute and exceptional degree of income. Therefore, to overcome the problems among the community, social capital is the best tools to tackle all the problems that arise.
The study reveals that strategic management in social capital is important to ensure the social well-being can be achieved within the community. Thus the element of stability, community, exclusive and privacy will depend on the social capital aspect in term of trust and network. Therefore, combination of safety through the physical aspect in gated and guarded community, humanism aspect of social capital elements and manage by strategic management planning will ensure social well-being among the community resides.
The study was supported by the faculty of Built Environment, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College under the Centre for Construction Research.
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