Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 4

How Black Friday can Mess with Jordanian Customers' Minds

Mohammad Fahmi Al-Zyoud, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Abstract

Black Friday is one of the most days in which a shopping fever spreads all over the world. The popularity of Black Friday witnessed a huge increase with the appearance of online shopping and the fact that individuals started to prefer online shopping over regular shopping. This study examined how aware the Jordanian consumers of black Friday and to what extent it managed to change their shopping behavior.

Total of (383) Jordanian individuals were exposed to self-administered questionnaire. Results of study indicated that impulsive behavior is the most influenced variable of all and Black Friday has the ability to deeply influence consumer behavior through influencing their impulsive behavior and on the spot buying decisions.

The study recommended examining the differentiation between impulsive buying and compulsive buying behavior during seasonal promotions and discounts.

Keywords

Black Friday, Consumer Behavior, Impulsive Buying, Commodity Value, Psychological Attachment, Decision Making, Personal Characteristics, Impulsive Buying.

Introduction

Every thanksgiving in every year people start waiting and expecting the day that they all wait for, the day that resembles for them the spark the ignites the shopping spree in them and the fever spear all over the world. Black Friday is widely known now for years, and people usually spend their thanksgiving with their families and schedule their coming Friday to welcome the day that they all have been waiting for through the whole year. Black Friday is the Friday that comes after thanksgiving in November. This day is known for its massive promotions, discounts and sales on all items all over stores in the world. In that day, people tend to spend a lot of money on items that they think they had it for a good bargain, the shopping fever spreads all over the world with individuals who are seeking to buy items and products from stores and online for prices that “they never dreamt off”.

Problem Statement

According to Simpson et al. (2011) Black Friday is known to be the busiest day of the world in terms of shopping. Authors attributed that to the ability of this notion to change consumer behavior and orient it in the right marketing direction. Lennon et al. (2018) noted that the idea of Black Friday managed to change consumer behavior in a fast pace while Swilley & Goldsmith (2013) argued that consumer behavior is exposed to major changes due to the concept of Black Friday which has the power of influence consumer behavior for one day but the change is massive and deep. Smith & Raymen (2017) stated that almost 81% of population goes shopping in UK during Black Friday and their shopping behavior changes dramatically. Also, Smith & Raymen (2017) found out that the main motive for individuals behind shopping during Black Friday is the major discounts and sales that aren’t available through the year with a percentage of 73% in UK and 86% in USA.

According to the above mentioned statistics and argument, current research study seeks to examine the degree of awareness of Black Friday as a concept among Jordanian consumers and to what degree this day have the ability to change the Jordanian consumer behavior.

Objectives and Hypotheses

In order to be able to able to achieve the main aim of current study the researcher managed to achieve the following set of objectives first:

1. To highlight the degree of Jordanian consumer awareness regarding Black Friday.

2. To explore the degree of interest in Jordanian consumer towards Black Friday.

3. To examine the fields of influence that Black Friday can throw on Jordanian consumer behavior.

Researcher employed a set of variable to appear as the main fields of influence within consumer behavior which included: (Commodity Value, Psychological Attachment, Decision Making, Personal Characteristics, and Impulsive Buying). However, the following (Figure 1) model was created:

Figure 1.STUDY MODEL (Wells et al., 2011; Akram et al., 2018)

Based on the aforementioned model, following set of hypotheses was extracted:

Main Hypotheses

H1: BF Spree has a significant influence on Consumer Behavior.

Sub-Hypotheses

H1: BF Spree has a significant influence on Commodity Value.

H2: BF Spree has a significant influence on Psychological Attachment.

H3: BF Spree has a significant influence on Decision Making Process.

H4: BF Spree has a significant influence on Personal Characteristics.

H5: BF Spree has a significant influence on Impulsive Buying.

Literature Review

History of Black Friday

From humble beginnings in Philadelphia somewhere in the range of 50 years back, “Black Friday” has turned into a worldwide retail wonder on account of the web and the media. The business event was initially imagined as a one-day deal bonanza in shops, to be hung on the after quite a while in America, intended to kick-begin the Christmas shopping season (Milavec, 2012). In undeniable reality it just turned into a national US apparatus during the 1990s and just outperformed the Saturday before Christmas Day as the busiest shopping day of the year there in 2005 as according to (Boyd Thomas & Peters, 2011). However, from that point forward it hasn't thought back. In 2011 Walmart dubiously opened its stores on the night of Thanksgiving Day, breaking the midnight time limit out of the blue. Today it is never again a 24-hour national run, however a multi-day worldwide long distance race, cherished by the media, awestruck by the speed and spread of its development (Simpson et al., 2011).

The shopping extravaganza following Thanksgiving discovered its way over its first nation fringe in 2009, with American retailers propelling it in Canada, in spite of their own Thanksgiving Day being held a month sooner than in the United States. That equivalent crusading approach has served American retailers exceptionally well. In 2010 Amazon acquainted it with the UK. The next year any semblance of Apple, J Crew and Bloomingdales brought it into Australia. What’s more, in 2014 Macy's and American Apparel Inc responded to the spearheading call in China by means of Alipay.

American retailers had realized rapidly that they could profit by presenting the occasion in business sectors in which they had no physical nearness. It simply required a practical online channel and focused dispatching rates. The worldwide walk proceeded into 2015. At that point, eBay got the “Dark” ball coming in India, in spite of the way that the bubbly period of Diwali is as of now over before the finish of November. Throughout the years it has transformed from being absolutely a blocks and-mortar event, to an Omni channel one. Retailers in their home regions have joined the activity when the Americans have driven, however in different nations they have stepped up first (Lennon et al., 2018).

According to Swilley & Goldsmith (2013) a gathering of Russian and Austrian business people were the first to bring Black Friday into Russia, drawing in several conspicuous online retailers to partake in their limited time ‘000 Black Friday’ site. In 2013 a climate white-out went with e posterior CDON’s presentation of Black Friday into Sweden. In 2014 the residential staple retailer, Checkers, started South African customers to the universe of Black Friday. In at least 30 nations, from Spain to Senegal reaching Iceland, customers around the world presently appreciate the November deal fest. Indeed, even in France, where limiting is intensely controlled, “Le Black Friday” is picking up force after the main speculative advances were made by Auchan and FNAC.

Worldwide statists on Black Friday Shopping Behavior

Holiday season in general-that is November and December-is considered to be one of the busiest days of the year for both shoppers and retailers. During that time, the percentage of shopping increases as the level of sales and discounts increase and people usually wait for this season to do all their shopping based on sales as a form of cutting back their expenses and save more.

In the United States, peoples’ expenses during holidays increase and classified according to their needs. The spending behavior is usually divided based on gifts, decorations, food, flowers and greeting cards. With Black Friday, individuals began to include another field in their spending behavior which is dedicated for deals, sales and promotions for items which were no on their list but found on sale. From that point, the influence on the shopping behavior of individuals grew to be more vivid and attached to the nature of the season and its ability to attract more customers causing them to act based on impulsive shopping behavior (Smith & Raymen, 2017).

According to a report by IPSOS (2017) it was revealed that during 2016-2017 holiday seasons-(thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday)-more than 174 million Americans shopped in malls and retails stores compared to 2016 when 164 million Americans when out shopping. The average spending during Black Friday as according to IPSOS (2017) reached $335/person and the age range of spenders appeared to be individuals within 24-35 years old.

As of the online shopping, IPSOS report highlighted that more than 58 million individuals shopped online that day and 65 million individuals shopped both online and in stores. However, it was found out that an online shopper spent roughly $49 than an individual who shopped in the stores. This was attributed to the fact that during the holiday season almost all stores in United States reach a discount of 45% on average compared to 44% in 2016 and 36% in 2015. Luxury brands registered a huge sale and discount as well; it registered a discount and sale percentage of 40-50% in 2017 compared to 30-40% in 2015.

Another Black Friday spending statistics by Deloitte stated that in US alone his foot traffic on retail stores and malls increased in 65% compared to regular days and the peak of the traffic appeared vividly at 4pm of every day of the holiday season and especially Black Friday. In addition to that, the shopping searches and waiting reached 59% even before the store opens and people who shop online during thanksgiving night regular days.

Consumer Behavior

The concept of consumer behavior appeared as an apparatus that helps organizations to build up a well-informed knowledge regarding their consumers. In addition to that, it is one of the major indicators that draw the maps of the best and best suited marketing strategies an organization should follow in order to gain more consumers and preserve its current consumers in the best satisfaction level there is.

According to Sahney (2016) consumer behavior was defined as:

“The interplay of forces that takes place during a consumption process, within a consumers’ self and his environment”.

From another perspective, Mostert (2002) defined consumer behavior as:

“The process whereby individuals decide whether, what, when, where, how, and from whom to purchase goods and services”.

According to Raorane & Kulkarni (2011), consumer behavior clarifies the reasons and rationale that underlie obtaining choices and utilization designs; it clarifies the procedures through which purchasers decide. The examination incorporates inside its domain, the transaction between comprehension, influence and conduct that goes on inside a buyer amid the utilization procedure: choosing, utilizing and arranging off products and enterprises. The investigation of shopper conduct manages understanding utilization examples and conduct. It incorporates inside its ambit the responses to the accompanying as Afolabi et al. (2016) stated:

1. ‘What’ the buyers purchase: merchandise and enterprises.

2. ‘Why’ they get it: need and need.

3. ‘When’ do they get it: time, day, week, month, year, events and so on.

4. ‘Where’ they get it: put.

5. ‘How’ regularly they get it: time interim.

6. ‘How’ regularly they use it: recurrence of utilization.

The extent of customer conduct incorporates the genuine purchaser as well as the different jobs played by him/distinctive people.

Drivers of Consumer Behavior Change

Commodity value

The idea of commodity value can appear on two levels, the first is the actual value of the commodity in the market, and this includes luxurious brands like jewelry, cars and high end brands. The other level is the value of the commodity from the perspective of the consumer like how much they want this item, how much it is important and how easy or hard to get such item (Watt, 2014).

According to Zeng (2009) most of commodity values are evaluated upon sales and discounts through holiday season like Cyber Monday and Black Friday, the discounts and sales that take place during these times give a higher value for the commodity given that it was exposed to a certain percentage of discounts which made its price available for individuals.

Psychological attachment

The psychological attachment appears here in the psychological motives that urge an individual to be involved in Black Friday. Theses motives can be derived either from the psyche of the individuals themselves or from the surrounding environment including family, friends, society, coworkers and other environmental motives (Vainikka, 2015).

Vlachos et al. (2010) stated that psychological attachment includes also the emotional attachment which plays a key role in supporting the individual’s need and desire to be involved in the process of shopping especially during holiday seasons. These emotions includes buying gifts for family and friends, emotions towards families during holiday and the concept of thanksgiving and family gatherings that appear in its prime during the holidays.

Decision making

The stage of decision making is connected to the phase when the consumer takes the final decision of buying an item. This stage includes lots of variables from within including the recognition of the need of the item, then the stage when a search for information takes place regarding the item like price, manufacturing, availability and reviews. After that, the stage evaluation appears in which the consumer evaluates the items in comparison to other similar items and followed by the actual purchase. The final stage of post purchased behavior when the consumer evaluates their item (Lysonski & Durvasula, 2013).

Personal characteristics

Personal characteristics and personal traits are common drivers of shopping behavior. An outgoing person who is social and has many friends is more likely to be influenced with the concept of Black Friday compared to a person who is isolated from the community (Mihić & Kursan Milaković, 2017).

According to Tsao & Chang (2010) argue that personality traits are very influential when it comes to shopping behavior in general. Authors attributed this influence to the fact that many individuals look at shopping as a relieving activity that enable them to unwind and relax especially with a company of a friend or a group of friends.

Impulsive buying

Impulsive buying behavior was defined by Brodén & Söderberg (2011) as:

“An unplanned on the spot purchase triggered by stimulus”.

Iram & Chacharkaras (2017) also supported the previous definition arguing that impulsive behavior is:

“A sudden and powerful urge in the consumer to buy immediately”.

Gutierrez (2004) noted that impulsive buying behavior is associated with the deep need of an individual to buy a certain item regardless of their ability to afford it. This kind of behavior was seen to be one of the motives that people end up having lots of debt, hanging with installment plans with the bank and losing friends for money related issues. Impulsive buying is usually triggered by many drivers which include a certain feeling of sadness or happiness, company of friends and family in addition to the state where an individual is undergoing a certain type of stress and anxiety.

Methodology

Methodological Approach

A quantitative methodology was followed in order to achieve the main aim and objectives of current study. Quantitative approach was defined by Wiersma & Jurs (2005) as:

“A research methods dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable in a systematic way of investigation of phenomena and their relationships”.

The quantitative method was used due to tis suitability and ability to cover a larger number of individuals bearing in mind that current study focuses on consumer behavior and consumers as population of study. As for the research approach, it can be seen that the researcher depended on descriptive analytical approach to reach results in study. This approach is based on trying to form a relationship between dependent variables (consumer behavior) and independent variables (Black Friday) and reach for results and explanations for the phenomenon.

Research Design, Philosophy and Instrument

The design of current research appeared to be deductive in its nature which is a research design that can reach an explanation for a set of hypotheses through experimental or quasi approaches utilizing random sampling based on employing different research tools like surveys, questionnaires and clinical data, while its philosophy was based on positivist nature meaning that the researcher depended on numerical data and statistical reasoning in order to explain and frame the phenomenon under examination.

The instrument of the research was the questionnaire; a questionnaire is a document that consists of a group of statement related to the main aim of the study. Current study was based on self-administered questionnaire which the sample was exposed to. The questionnaire was built by the researcher and was formed of two man sections; the first presented demographic variables including (Age, Gender, Education, Occupation, and Social Media Literacy) while the other section consisted of statements related to variables of study including (Commodity Value, Psychological Attachment, Decision Making, Personal Characteristics, and Impulsive Buying).

Population and Sample

Population in research refers to all humans who are eligible to take part in the research due to the commons that gathers between them and the problem of the research. From the population; the researcher usually extracts a sample which refers to a percentage from population which a researcher has access to and might be able to be exposed to the tool of study.

In current research, sample of study consisted of all Jordanian consumers who are residents of Jordan. The sample consisted of (400) individuals within malls, commercial complexes and stores in Jordan. The final number of the sample after application reached (383) individuals which highlighted that the response rate was 95.7% referring to it as statistically accepted.

Statistical Processing and Data Screening

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed for the sake of data screening and processing. The data gathered from the sample was downloaded on the software in order to reach the statistical tables that had the ability to highlight a major reading in the results. The following statistical tests were employed:

1. Descriptive statistics

2. ANOVA

3. Multiple regression

4. Coefficients.

Results

Demographics

Table 1 showed results of demographics related to age; it was found out that the majority of the sample answering the questionnaire was individuals within the age range of 24-29 years old forming 40.6% of the sample with a frequency of 156 individual. The least age range appeared to be individuals within the age range of 18-32 years old forming 7% of the sample.

Table 1: Sample Characteristics According To Age
Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
18-23 27 7.0 7.0 7.0
24-29 156 40.6 40.6 47.7
30-35 103 26.8 26.8 74.5
+36 98 25.5 25.5 100.0
Total 384 100.0 100.0

In Table 2, sample characteristics according to gender were calculated. It was found out that 68.8% of the sample was females while 31.3% was males. This can indicated a tendency of having females mostly oriented towards shopping more than men.

Table 2: Sample Characteristics According To Gender
Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Female 264 68.8 68.8 68.8
Male 120 31.3 31.3 100.0
Total 384 100.0 100.0

In Table 3, it appeared that 68.5% of the sample held diploma compared to the least of the sample that held post graduate studies forming 2.3% of the sample.

Table 3: Sample Characteristics According To Education
Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
High School 55 14.3 14.3 14.3
Diploma 263 68.5 68.5 82.8
Bachelor 57 14.8 14.8 97.7
Post Graduate 9 2.3 2.3 100.0
Total 384 100.0 100.0

Table 4 above highlighted the fact that 26.8% of the sample were students compared to the least of the sample who were private sector employees forming 21.6% of the sample. The indication are that students are more into shopping and purchasing bearing in mind that they don't have financial responsibilities like rent, household an family members to support so they tend to shop more than other types of the sample.

Table 4:  Sample Characteristics According To Occupation
Occupation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Private Sector 83 21.6 21.6 21.6
Public sector 100 26.0 26.0 47.7
Self-employed 98 25.5 25.5 73.2
Student 103 26.8 26.8 100.0
Total 384 100.0 100.0

Questionnaire Analysis

Table 5: Responses To Questionnaire Statements
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Black Friday
The concept of Black Friday reached us through social media 384 2.00 5.00 4.5469 .61137
During Black Friday the best deals and sales are available 384 2.00 5.00 4.4089 .74541
Black Friday is a trend and I always follow trends 384 1.00 5.00 4.3906 .83558
I've known black Friday sine I was a kid 384 2.00 5.00 4.4583 .64499
I am not sure what Black Friday is 384 1.00 5.00 4.1172 .97451
Customer Behavior, Commodity Value
I always buy items on Black Friday that are expensive on regular days 384 1.00 5.00 4.0651 .83552
Black Friday is a good discount day 384 1.00 5.00 4.1302 .97687
I prefer to buy expensive items during Black Friday 384 1.00 5.00 3.7786 1.03991
All items are on sale regardless of their original prices 384 2.00 5.00 4.3229 .71163
Black Friday is a good day to invest in something expensive but on discount 384 1.00 5.00 4.2891 .76290
Psychological Attachment
I involve in Black Friday to fit in my community 384 1.00 5.00 4.0417 .83546
I think of shopping during Black Friday as a way of socializing 384 2.00 5.00 4.2344 .57107
My friends do it so I do it 384 3.00 5.00 4.4427 .61474
I think that Black Friday is nothing but a marketing strategy 384 2.00 5.00 4.1615 .91119
Decision Making
I make fast buying decisions when I is black Friday 384 2.00 5.00 4.3411 .75152
If the discount isn't good I won't buy the item even on Black Friday 384 1.00 5.00 4.1562 .76583
Sales and discount make me do fast decisions regarding shopping 384 1.00 5.00 4.2995 .82164
Sales and discounts supports my decisions 384 1.00 5.00 4.2500 .95595
Going out with friends makes me take fast decisions 384 2.00 5.00 4.4479 .70240
Personal Characteristic
I like sales and discounts 384 2.00 5.00 4.5052 .70431
When I am sad I go shopping 384 2.00 5.00 4.2734 .70856
When I am happy I go shopping 384 2.00 5.00 4.5078 .68550
I can't see a sale on a window and don’t go in 384 2.00 5.00 4.3099 .70084
I like Black Friday cause I shop a lot 384 1.00 5.00 4.2422 .78908
Impulsive Buying
Discounts and sales urge me to shop 384 3.00 5.00 4.6458 .55936
When I see sale a immediately buy the item even if I don’t need it 384 2.00 5.00 4.5469 .61137
I have many items that I bought on sale but I don’t need them 384 1.00 5.00 4.3906 .78399
I am irrational when it comes to shopping 384 1.00 5.00 4.3698 .86939
I feel an urge inside me to shop on sales 384 1.00 5.00 4.4453 .68717
I don't like Black Friday because I shop irrationally 384 1.00 5.00 4.4297 .71189
Valid N (listwise) 384

Table 5 contains mean and standard deviation of the sample's responses to the questionnaire statements. It appeared that there was a positive attitude towards statements given that their mean was above the mean of the scale (3) indicating to the statements as good indicator.

Table 6: Variables Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Black Friday 384 2.60 5.00 4.3844 0.58579
Commodity Value 384 2.00 5.00 4.1172 0.69592
Psychological Attachment 384 2.75 5.00 4.2201 0.52616
Decision Making 384 2.20 5.00 4.2990 0.59624
Personal Characteristics 384 3.00 5.00 4.3677 0.53708
Impulsive Buying 384 2.83 5.00 4.4714 0.51031
Consumer behavior 384 2.92 5.00 4.3051 0.46374

In Table 6, variables of study were calculated showing the mean and standard deviation of each one of them. Results also indicated that there was a positive attitude towards variable from respondents given that the mean of each variable scored higher than the mean of the scale (3) indicating to the results as good and positive.

Reliability

A reliability test was carried out using Cronbachs’ alpha. The result showed a value of (0.942) for the all items as well as alpha for each variable is greater than accepted percent 0.60, which is a reasonable value indicating the tool consistency that enhanced its use for the study.

Hypotheses Testing

Main hypotheses

H1: BF Spree has a significant influence on consumer behavior.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 7-9). With the r value of 0.83, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are strongly correlated. Again, with 29.069 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on consumer behavior.

Table 7: Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.830 0.689 0.688 0.25909
Table 8: Anova
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 56.724 1 56.724 844.999 0.000
Residual 25.643 382 0.067
Total 82.368 383
Table 9: Coeffeicents
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 1.425 0.100 14.252 0.000
Black Friday Spree 0.657 0.023 0.830 29.069 0.000

Sub-hypotheses

H1: BF Spree has a significant influence on Commodity Value.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 10-12). With the r value of 0.783, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are strongly correlated. Again, with 24.567 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on Commodity Value.

Table 10: Model Sumary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.783 0.612 0.611 0.43383
Table 11: ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 113.590 1 113.590 603.526 0.000
Residual 71.896 382 0.188
Total 185.487 383
Table 12: Coeffeicents
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 0.041 0.167 0.246 0.806
Black Friday Spree 0.930 0.038 0.783 24.567 0.000

H2: BF Spree has a significant influence on Psychological Attachment.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 13-15). With the r value of 0.526, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are medium correlated. Again, with 12.082 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on Psychological Attachment.

Table 13:  Model Sumary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.526 0.276 0.275 0.44814
Table 14: ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 29.315 1 29.315 145.970 0.000
Residual 76.716 382 0.201
Total 106.031 383
Table 15: Coeffeicents
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 2.149 0.173 12.431 0.000
Black Friday Spree 0.472 0.039 0.526 12.082 0.000

H3: BF Spree has a significant influence on Decision Making Process.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 16-18). With the r value of 0.642, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are strongly correlated. Again, with 16.35 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on Decision Making Process.

Table 16: Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.642 0.412 0.410 0.45792
Table 17: ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 56.058 1 56.058 267.334 0.000
Residual 80.102 382 0.210
Total 136.160 383
Table 18: COEFFEICENTS
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 1.436 0.177 8.125 0.000
Black Friday Spree 0.653 0.040 0.642 16.350 0.000

H4: BF Spree has a significant influence on Personal Characteristics.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 19-21). With the r value of 0.387, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are medium correlated. Again, with 8.198 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on Personal Characteristics.

Table 19: Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.387 0.150 0.147 0.49593
Table 20: ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 16.527 1 16.527 67.199 0.000
Residual 93.952 382 0.246
Total 110.480 383

H5: BF Spree has a significant influence on Impulsive Buying.

This hypothesis was tested using linear regression analysis (Tables 22-24). With the r value of 0.928, it was confirmed that independent variable and dependent variable are strongly correlated. Again, with 48.503 as the value of t at 0.05 significant at (0.05), it is confirmed that BF Spree has a positively significant influence on Impulsive Buying.

Table 21: COEFFEICENTS
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 2.813 0.191 14.701 0.000
Black Friday Spree 0.355 0.043 0.387 8.198 0.000
Table 22: Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.928 0.860 0.860 0.19098
Table 23: ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 85.807 1 85.807 2352.550 0.000
Residual 13.933 382 0.036
Total 99.740 383
Table 24: Coeffeicents
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
1 Constant 0.929 0.074 12.603 0.000
Black Friday Spree 0.808 0.017 0.928 48.503 0.000

Discussion

Previous section highlighted results of study derived from SPSS. It was seen that all results were positive achieving the main aim of the study which to examine the degree of awareness and influence of Black Friday on consumer behavior within the Jordanian environment. Through the analysis, the following general findings were reached:

1. The majority of the sample was students who had almost no financial responsibilities like bills, rent and household needs. This result was seen to be logical given that mostly students who invest their allowance in buying items that they need.

2. Females formed the majority of the sample and also that result was seen to be logical given that female are known for their interest in shopping more than males and they are most likely to go shopping for many reasons and in all occasions.

3. There appeared to be a good level of awareness from Jordanian consumers regarding the idea of Black Friday. Respondents seemed to know the meaning of the concept and were aware of what comes along with this kind of days.

4. All statements in the questionnaire were answered correctly and in a positive way which indicates that individuals understood each and every statement and answered them based on their true experience.

It appeared from results of study that Jordanian consumers knew what Black Friday means even though it isn’t a norm of a tradition within the Jordanian culture. They managed to highlight that they gained such an experience from social media platform which indicated that technology and internet managed to throw such experience on them.

The main aim of current study was to examine the degree of awareness of Jordanian consumer regarding the concept of Black Friday which was achieved to be positive based on respondents’ answers and bearing in mind that the independent variable (Black Friday) scored a mean of 4.3844. In addition to that, the study aimed at examining the influence of Black Friday on a set of variables regarding consumer behavior which included (Commodity Value, Psychological Attachment, Decision Making, Personal Characteristics, and Impulsive Buying). Based on results of study and according to hypotheses testing presented earlier it appeared that Black Friday as a concept managed to have an influence on all chosen set of consumer behavior and based on that all study hypotheses were accepted scoring an R value of (0.830) for the main hypotheses.

Results have given a varied influence of Black Friday on consumer behavior. Looking at hypotheses testing it appeared that the most influenced variable of the given set of variables was the variable of ‘Impulsive Buying’ which managed to score an R value of (0.928) referring to it as the most influenced behavior of consumer by Black Friday. Many studies appeared to support such an idea like Omid (2016) who argued that generally speaking, major discounts and sales have a big influence on consumer behavior and mainly on the degree of how impulsive they get when shopping.

Santini et al. (2015) also noted to the fact that promotions and sales are most likely to support an individuals to make an on the spot decision to buy an item regardless of its price. This can be attributed to the difference that retail stores highlight among consumer on the before and after price which encourages and individuals to buy impulsively and without thinking.

The variable of ‘Commodity Value’ came in the 2nd rank of influence when it scored an R value of (0.783). It was revealed that commodity value changes when its price changes which can be influential for individuals to make the purchase without thinking. Armstrong & Chen (2012) stated that the commodity value is influenced by major sales and promotion and especially high end brands like cars and jewelry which encourages individuals to buy such item on lower process than usual thinking that they got a good deal or a smart bargain. Janiszewski & Cunha (2004) also noted before that many individuals wait for sales season in order to get items that are known to be of high value so they depend on such seasons on order to get their needs of high end brands based on sales and promotions.

The least influence variable of all according to results of study was ‘Personal Characteristics’ which scored an R value of (0.387) but it still appeared to be influenced by the idea of Black Friday. It appeared that person al characteristics and traits mostly have an influence on individuals all times regardless of sales seasons or promotions; the idea is that personal traits appear more vividly when facing a sales season. This was supported by Waheed et al. (2017) when they argued that personal traits are influential on individuals' consuming behavior all the time it only appears to be of high influence during the seasonal discounts and sales.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Current study aimed at examining the degree of Jordanian consumer awareness of Black Friday and how this day can change consumer shopping behavior based on a chosen set of variables which are (Commodity Value, Psychological Attachment, Decision Making, Personal Characteristics, and Impulsive Buying). Total of (383) Jordanian consumers were exposed to self-administered questionnaire in order to generate thoughts and ideas regarding their awareness of Black Friday and how their shopping behavior might be influenced. Results of study indicated the existence of influence of Black Friday on Jordanian consumer behavior which attributed to their awareness of this day through social media and other interfacing platforms.

Conclusion

During holiday season people involve in a higher shopping behavior due to the sales and promotions that cover the markets and start attracting individuals to take fast decision to purchase. The majority of the markets depend on seasonal holidays to reach their target and make as much profit as they need through promotions and discounts that are known to be attractive to individuals.

Black Friday is one of the strategies that proved its efficiency in increasing the spending limit among individuals based on sales and promotions on both level in stores and online. Among the factors that can be highly influenced by Black Friday is impulsive buying behavior among individuals. Seeing big discount percentages and huge sales numbers can motive the individuals towards making on the spot purchases which they never planned to do before.

Recommendations

Based on the results and discussion of study the following recommendations appear:

1. To carry out a research examining the influence of Cyber Monday on individuals’ online shopping behavior.

2. To run a report that highlights the major schemes that retail stores run as marketing strategies during holiday season to encourage individuals to shop online more.

3. Many sales and discounts aren’t even real; some of them are created to attract shoppers and customers onto purchasing items that aren’t even on sale.

4. It is recommended to highlight the influence of holiday seasons discounts on both impulsive and compulsive behavior in order to differentiate between them and find how such promotions can influence each one of them.

References