Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 3

Implementation of Diversity Management and its Relationship with Organizational Justice: Case of Jordan

Bassam F. Aldaibat, Al-Balqa Applied University

Ziad Ali Eid Alshawabkeh, Al-Balqa Applied University

Feras Suliman Al-Shalabi, Al-Balqa Applied University

Reham Zuheir Al-Momani, Amman Arab University

Khaled Banyhamdan, Amman Arab University

Lina Hamdan Mahmoud AlAbbadi, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Rapid globalization have resulted in a diverse workforce in most countries, despite the recognized importance of diversity management, little research has empirically investigated the impact of diversity management on organizational justice at Jordanian organizations. The present study explores the impact of diversity management on organizational equity.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The study’s sample consists of (320) mangers that will help answering the study’s questions and hypotheses. Besides, the researcher developed a questionnaire aiming at measuring diversity management policies and the organizational justice. Moreover, some statistical techniques were used for testing the hypotheses and answering the study’s questions.

Results: Results indicate that diversity management policies like diversity awareness training, pay and rewards systems, performance appraisal, and career development have impact on organizational justice. The results of this study indicate that diversity management as an independent variable accumulates a variance of (54.8%) from the organizational justice.

Conclusion: This paper links the two studied constructs and presents a valuable contribution for diversity management; therefore, the results could be used for a further scientific research as also for practical implications.

Keywords

Diversity Management, Diversity Management Policies, Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, Jordanian Industrial Organizations.

Introduction

Several profound trends are shaping the labor markets of modern organization. Researchers suggest that current workforce characteristics are radically different from what they were several decades ago (Cummings & Worley, 2009). In the past decades firms took a melting-pot approach to diversity, assuming that workers could somehow automatically accommodate into existing culture. But today's managers have found that employees do not put aside their cultural values when they come to work (Decenzo et al., 2010). The challenge, therefore, is to make firms more accommodating to diverse groups of workers by handling different lifestyles, family needs, and work styles.

Organizational justice has become one of the common concepts in understanding workers' behavior in the workplace (Fujimoto et al, 2013). Organizational justice has many effects on many organizational variables such as contextual performance dimensions (Abojaser, 2010). Organizational justice research has deployed during the past years (Greenberg & Colquitt, 2013). Meanwhile, given the diversity of the contemporary workforce, there is a many research in diversity management. However, while each of the two subjects of research has continued to grow, there seems little correlating between the two (Choi & Rainey, 2014).

Industrial companies operating in Al-Hassan industrial estate (HIE) contribute to the Jordanian economy through economic development and increasing the national income (Qudah, 2017). Furthermore, it is contributing in generating innovations, creating jobs, and introducing advanced technology to improve goods and services. HIE considered the first Jordanian industrial estate.it was established in 1984, and considered the largest industrial estate in Jordan. The investment amount reaches (479) millions and the export (432) millions in 2016. According to (HIE) statistics the rate of foreign workers has reached 76% in 2016, and the rate of women's economic participation had reached 87% in 2016 (JISC, 2016). Al-Hassan industrial companies face many changes in external environment such as increased competition locally and globally which requires effective diversity management. Therefore, Al-Hassan Industrial companies might apply diversity management practices to promote perceptions of organizational justice and reducing discrimination.

We lack empirical studies that examine the impact of human resource diversity management on organizational justice. The integration of diversity management and organizational justice remains a matter of guessing (Berry, 2016; Choi & Rainey, 2014). The aim of the research is to help address this gap by investigating the effect of diversity management practices on organizational justice in Jordanian industrial organizations.

The aim of this research is twofold. First, it investigates Jordanian managers’ attitudes and understandings regarding workforce diversity management and organizational justice, and second it assesses the impact of managing diverse work force toward organizational justice. Therefore, we will search a response to the following three research questions: (1) What is the awareness degree about the diversity management policies at the industrial organization, from the standpoint of managers? (2) What is the awareness degree about the concept of organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organizations from the standpoint of mangers? (3) What is the impact of diversity management policies on organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organizations?

Literature Review And Hypothesis Development

Diversity Management

Fujimoto et al. (2013) defined diversity management as managerially-initiated programs and human resource management that seek to empower the diverse workforce by integrating social groups. According to Pitts (2009) diversity management means a comprehensive method that merges the affirmative action and diversity management programs. Daft (2010) defined diversity management as a creating suitable organizational climate that improve individuals and groups performance in the organization and minimize potential disadvantages. Yang & Konard (2011) defined diversity management as a set of formalized practices developed and implemented by organizations to manage diversity effectively.

Organizational Justice

Organizational justice refers to the workers’ tendency to compare their situation with colleagues status at work, or the workers perceptions and justice recognition in the workplace, which ultimately affects their attitudes and behaviors at work (Steers & Porter, 2006).The historical roots of organizational justice go back to Adams’ theory of equity, which is based on a basic assumption that individuals tend to judge justice by comparing their inputs to the outputs they receive, as well as comparing the ratio of inputs to their outputs with their peers (Luthans, 2008). Organizational justice is a strong enabler, motivating employees to achieve organizational goals, through the establishment of conducive employee-employer relationships (Greenberg & Colquitt, 2013). Administrative literature specifies three types of justice: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice (Cuguero & Fortin, 2014).

Distributive justice refers to employees' released fairness about work outcomes without any discrimination due to age, sex or ethnicity. Distributive justice concerns perceptions of fair distribution of gains in accordance with the value of the by employees (Tan, 2014). Procedural justice means the fair implementation of work policies on all workers without discrimination, and how employees perceive the fairness of rules and procedures used in a process (Nabatchi et al., 2007). Procedural justice also refers to employees’ perceived Justice fairness about human resources policies that affect work outcomes (Fujimoto et al., 2013).Interactional justice refers to employees’ perceived fairness in relation to the quality of interpersonal interaction with which employees’ are treated by authority (Abojaser, 2010). Interactional justice emphasizes treating employees with dignity, sensitivity and respect, Interactional justice is often further separated into interpersonal and informational justice (Al-Zu’bi, 2010).

Diversity Management Impact on Organizational Equity

Park & Kim (2017) indicated that diversity management is positively related to the perception of organizational fairness in the workplace. Fujimoto et al. (2013) mentioned that effective diversity management results from a decision-making process that meets the normative principles of organizational justice. According to Claudia & Deanne (2015) high level of interactional justice exhibited by the line manager promotes the performance of nationally diverse teams. Berry (2016) argued that diversity and equity are necessary for multicultural societies and their organizations to be successful and the presence of both can lead to full integration while the absence of both can lead to marginalization. Choi & Rainey (2014) examined whether DM, implemented in an environment of perceived organizational fairness and fair treatment, enhances job satisfaction. They found when employees perceive a higher level of organizational fairness; diversity efforts become more effective through enabling higher levels of job satisfaction. Mitchell (2004) indicated that social equity can be achieved if managers have a clear understanding of diversity and diversity management that is built into the organization’s culture. Magoshi & Eunmi (2009) indicated that diversity management practices trigger positive effects on employees’ organizational commitment, which was mediated by their perception of procedural justice.

Pitts (2009) mentioned that diversity management has an impact on workers performance and job satisfaction, and there are differences between employees perception toward diversity management based on their race. Armstong et al. (2008) indicated that there is a positive impact of diversity management and workers creativity and productivity. According to Al-Ramdneh (2015) there is a positive impact of human resources diversity management and organizational excellence.

Al-Masarwa (2011) indicated that there is a strong relationship between human resources diversity management and organizational commitment. D’netto et al. (2014) concluded that Australian manufacturing organizations appear to adopt a legalistic compliance approach’ and have not considered workforce diversity as a source of competitive advantage. Tanachia & Sandra (2015) stated that diversity management is associated with higher levels of inclusion which is in turn boosts affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior of both non-native and native Dutch employees. Charbel et al. (2011) concluded in their study in Brazil that diversity management in Brazilian companies is still an emerging issue, and the major challenges are related to discriminatory actions taken by coworkers and diversity management requires the strong support of top management and continuous organization to sustain efforts toward incorporating diversity. Buengeler & Hartog (2015) concluded in their study that a high level of interactional justice exhibited by the line manager promotes the performance of nationally diverse teams. Therefore, we assume that there is a statistically significant of diversity management on organizational justice.

First main hypothesis: There is a statistically significant impact of diversity management on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Benefits of Diversity Management

Many organizations today have work force diversity programs, some conduct cultural audits to ensure that diversity is pervasive in the organization. Brain et al. (2014) indicated that diversity management has advantages such as attracting minority talent and innovation, but diversity management has disadvantages such as increased conflict, increased training costs and communication issues. According to Berry (2016) exposure to diversity can enhance creativity and lead to competitive advantages for organizations, while there are negative consequences such as diminished cohesion and lower productivity. Eddy & Greg (2010) stated that workforce diversity can play important role in enhancing an organization’s competitiveness and sustainability. Al-Masarwa (2011) stated that the benefits of diversity management include organizational flexibility, effective environmental dealing, structural integration and reducing group’s conflict. Moreover, managing diversity is an important source for business success because it is mix different skills that enable organizations to be more capable with environmental complexity (Brain et al., 2014). Fujimoto et al. (2013) indicated that the effect of diversity are usually recognizable in positive outcomes such as creativity and innovation, while the disadvantages of diversity are usually recognizable in outcomes such as relational conflict, higher turnover and less social cohesion. Diversity improves the quality of management’s decisions, and provides innovative ideas and superior solutions to organizational problems (Shen et al., 2009).

Diversity Management Policies

Park & Kim (2017) indicated that diversity management includes workforce diversity policies, supervisor’s commitment to diversity, and managers work well with employees from different background. Armstrong et al. (2008) stated that diversity management includes flexibility in human resources diversity management, opportunities equability, and organization commitment. Al-Ramdneh (2015) mentioned that human resource diversity management strategy include training diversity policy, work team building, diversity acceptance policy and work life balance. Cummings & Worley (2009) stated that work diversity intervention is job design, career planning, reward system, wellness programs, fringe benefits, education and training, and employee involvement. Daft (2010) stated that implementing diversity program involves three major steps: (1) Building a corporate culture that values diversity. (2) Changing structures, policies, and systems to support diversity. (3) Providing diversity awareness training. Magoshi & Eunmi (2009) mentioned that organizations can use many policies to manage workforce diversity such as compensation, promotion, training, Leadership at the managerial level and use of family friendly policies.

From the previous studies, it has been shown that numerous researchers have suggested different methods to address workforce diversity. Based on the literature, the widespread dimensions include diversity awareness training, diversity management policies (pay and rewards systems, performance appraisal and career development). Therefore, the researcher examined the effect of these dimensions on organizational justice. The four dimensions are presented as follows:

Diversity Awareness Training

Diversity awareness training is defined as a distinct set of programs aimed at facilitating positive intergroup interactions, reducing prejudice and discrimination and enhancing the skills, knowledge, and motivation of people to interact with diverse others (Pendry et al., 2007). A basic aim of awareness programs is to achieve full integration of members of minority social categories into the social, structural, and power relationships of an organization (Louise & Denise, 2007). Besides, helping workers become aware of their own cultural boundaries and stereotypes so they can learn to work and live together. Working within a multicultural context requires a person to interact with people who have different beliefs. Many diversity awareness programs help people recognize their hidden biases, and communicate effectively with one another. Effective programs help people be more flexible in their relationships with others, and communicate directly with people from other groups (Katerina et al., 2012). Therefore, we assume that there is a positive impact of diversity awareness training on organizational justice.

First minor hypothesis: There is statistically significant impact of diversity awareness training on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Pay and Rewards Systems

Pay equality contributes to effective diversity management and organizational performance. Diversity management in remuneration requires complete application of the principle of equal pay and a performance-based pay system. For example, to address age diversity for the older workforce organizations may offer increased health benefits, time off while using promotion, ownership, and pay to attract and motivate younger workforce. Regarding to gender diversity, organizations can tailored fringe benefits to offer special leaves to mothers and fathers, child-care, options, flexible working hours, and health benefits (Cummings & Worley, 2009). Empirical evidence suggests that the compensation structure, the wage determinants and the benefit schemes should be designed not only on common principles but also considering individuals in terms of their ability, knowledge and skill (Shen et al., 2009). Past research has indicated that despite legislation and efforts to ensure pay equity, discrimination in employment compensation continues to be an active issue (D’netto et al., 2014). Thus, we assume that pay and rewards systems have positive impact on organizational justice.

Second minor hypothesis: There is statistically significant impact of pay and rewards systems on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal is conducted to increase organizational performance along with employee motivation (Sharma, 2016). Performance appraisal methods should concentrate on the individual’s performance, not on personality or demographic differences, and should be as culturally neutral as possible.

Equality is achieved when organizations conduct a culture and management systems audit. D’netto et al. (2014) stated that Australian manufacturing organizations focused mainly on production targets in their performance appraisals and did not really emphasize diversity issues such as the ability to deal with diversity. Grund & Przemeck (2012) found that biased appraisal can influence future efforts. Thus, we assume that performance appraisal systems have positive impact on organizational justice.

Third minor hypothesis: There is statistically significant impact of performance appraisal systems on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Career Development

Effective organizational career development provides access to all levels of the organization for more employees. Extend career opportunities make cultural diversity an organizational reality. Equal employment opportunity legislation has demanded that minority groups and women receive opportunities for growth that will prepare them for greater responsibilities within the organization (Decenzo et al., 2010). The successful advancement of diverse group workers means that organization must find ways to eliminate the glass ceiling (Daft, 2010). One of the most successful methods of advancement is the mentoring relationship. Research indicates that women and minorities are less likely than men to develop mentoring relationships (Daft, 2010). Thus, we assume that career planning systems have positive impact on organizational justice.

Fourth minor hypothesis: There is statistically significant impact of career planning on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Methodology

Study Community and Sample

The community of the study consists of all human resources managers and other mangers in Jordanian industrial organizations at Al-Hassan industry zone. The researcher distributed (340) questionnaires, (325) questionnaires were received with the rate of return (95%). Only (5) questionnaires were dismissed because of being unusable for statistical analysis.

Study Instrument

The researcher reviewed the theoretical background and previous studies about diversity management and organizational justice. The researcher also reviewed many questionnaires that used in the previous studies, and designed one that reflects diversity management and organizational justice. The parts of the questionnaire are:

1. Part one: Background information: where respondents were asked to indicate their gender, age, level of education, job title, and experience.

2. Part two: Dimensions of the study which are:

The first dimension (independent variable): diversity management policies which contains (24) questions contain the secondary dimensions: questions from (q1 to q6) related to diversity awareness training, questions from( q7 to q12) related to pay and rewards systems, questions from (q13 to q18) related to performance appraisal , and questions from (q19 to q24) related to career development.

The second dimension (dependent variable): organizational justice which contains fifteen questions from (q25 to q34).The participants were asked to identify the degree of their agreement with each item in part two of the study, using five point Likert scale (Appendix and Appendix Table 1). The items of questionnaire were prepared after reviewing the following studies (Table 1).

Table 1: The Sources Of Questionnaire Items
Dimension Items Studies
Diversity Awareness Training q1 to q6 Al-Masarwa, 2011; Katerina et al., 2012
Pay and Rewards Systems q7 to q12 D’netto, 2014; Magoshi, 2009
Performance Appraisal q13 to q18 Armstrong et al., 2008; Buengeler & Hartog, 2015
Career Development q19 to q24 Charbel et al., 2011; Tanachia & Sandra, 2015
Organizational Justice q25 to q34 Al-Zu’bi, 2010; Fujimoto et al., 2013

Results

Study Validity and Reliability

1. Face validity: This is applied in the present study in two phases: First, the questionnaire sent to a pilot sample of (15) managers from different managerial level to assess the clarity of the questionnaire .Second, The questionnaire was reviewed by (9) referees from among the faculty members at Jordanian universities, and some items were adjusted based on their recommendations.

2. Instrument reliability: The current applied Cronbach’s Alpha measures the reliability of measurement in similar research. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient value of all dimensions of the study is (93%).

The Results Related to the Research Questions

What is the awareness degree about the diversity policies at the industrial organization, from the standpoint of managers?

To answer this question, the arithmetic mean and standard deviations were calculated for the study sample members’ estimates, about the diversity policies, as shown in Table 2:

Table 2: Arithmetic Means And Standard Deviations For The Study Sample Members' Estimates Of Diversity Management
Dimension Arithmetic mean STDEV Level/Degree*
diversity awareness training 4.06 .50 High
pay and rewards systems 3.88 .58 High
career development 3.56 .55 High
performance appraisal 3.08 .56 Medium
Diversity management 3.90 .49 High

Note: (*) indication of Likert scale measurement: the extent from (1- 5): so (less than 2.49 low), from (2.50- 3.49 moderate), and (more than 3.5 high).

We can notice from the table above that assessment level of diversity management policies, as a whole from the standpoint of study sample members is (high). This result indicates a high degree or level of awareness for the concept of diversity management policies at Jordanian industrial organization, and workforce diversity can play important role in enhancing an organization's competitiveness and sustainability. Moreover, diversity awareness training came in the first rank at a high degree. This might be attributed to the reason that diversity training and development improves employee morale and job satisfaction, and helps retain qualified employees. Dimension pay and rewards systems came after diversity awareness training with high degree, which might indicate that diversity reward and compensation management ensures pay equity and rewarding contribution of diverse employees in an equitable manner. Career development also came in the third rank at high degree, which indicates meeting the needs of diverse employees. Finally the dimension (performance appraisal) came in the fourth place with a medium estimation degree which indicates that the Jordanian industrial organization should apply effective diversity performance management practices to minimize the potential of perceived discrimination against workers.

What is the awareness degree about the concept of organizational justice its components at Jordanian industrial organizations, from the standpoint of mangers?

To answer this question, the arithmetic mean and standard deviations were calculated for the study sample members’ estimates, about the organizational justice, as shown in Table 3:

Table 3: Arithmetic Means And Standard Deviations For The Study Sample Members’ Estimates Of Organizational Justice
Dimension Arithmetic mean STDEV Level/Degree*
Procedural justice 4.41 0.51 High
Distributive justice 4.27 0.62 High
Relational justice 4.10 0.40 High
Organizational justice 4.23 0.41 High

It noticed from the table above that assessment level of organizational justice, as a whole from the standpoint of study sample members is (high) with an arithmetic mean of (4.23). Moreover, procedural justice came in the first rank with an arithmetic mean of (4.41) at a high degree, then distributive justice came after procedural justice with high degree and an arithmetic mean of (4.27), relational justice also came in the third rank at high degree and an arithmetic mean of (4.10). This result indicates a high degree or level of awareness for the concept of organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organization.

Study Hypotheses Testing

Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the presence of a statistically significant effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable at the significance level (α≤0.05). Upon inserting the independent variables into the multiple linear regression analysis. Table 4 shows that diversity management policies has a predictive power and is statistically significant.

Table 4 shows that diversity management policies had statistically significant effects on organizational justice with a statistical significance of (0.000), and suggests the acceptance of the main hypothesis which states there is a statistically significant impact of diversity management on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations. Multiple correlation coefficient value was (0.745), and the (R2) was (0.555), and the value of adjusted (R2) was (0.548), which indicates that a diversity management policy was capable of accounting for (54.8%) of the changes in the dependent variable (organizational justice).

Table 4: Multiple Linear Regressions
Source of variance Sum of squares DF Mean of squares R R2 Adjusted
R2
F-value Sig.
Regression 26.266 4 6.567 0.745 0.555 0.548 86.321 .000(a)
Residual 21.072 277 0.076
Total 47.338 281

The Table 5 shows:

Table 5: The Significance Of Standardized And Un-Standardized Multiple Linear REGRESSION Coefficient
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 1.724 0.144   11.983 0.000
Diversity Awareness Training 0.180 0.045 0.222 4.038 0.000
Pay and Rewards Systems 0.002 0.048 0.002 0.036 0.972
Career Development 0.160 0.036 0.028 0.456 0.649
Performance Appraisal 0.419 0.040 0.570 10.389 0.000

1. The presence of a statistical significance for the coefficient of the multiple linear regression formula related to the independent variable diversity awareness training, where the value of (t) was (4.038) , with a statistical significance of (0.000), which is below the significance level ( α≤ 0.05) , and suggests acceptance of the first minor hypothesis, which states there is statistically significant impact of diversity awareness training on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

2. The absence of a statistical significance for the coefficient of the multiple linear regression formula related to the independent variable pay and rewards systems, where the value of (t) was (4.038) , with no statistical significance of (0.000) , which is more than the significance level ( α≤ 0.05) , and suggests the rejection of the second minor hypothesis, which states there is statistically significant impact of pay and rewards systems on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

3. The presence of a statistical significance for the coefficient of the multiple linear regression formula related to the independent variable performance appraisal , where the value of ( t) was (0.456) , with a statistical significance of (0.649) , which is below the significance level ( α≤ 0.05) , and suggests the acceptance of the third minor hypothesis, which states there is statistically significant impact of performance appraisal systems on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

4. The presence of a statistical significance for the coefficient of the multiple linear regression formula related to the independent variable career development, where the value of (t) was (10.389) , with no statistical significance of (0.456) , which is more than the significance level ( α≤ 0.05) , and suggests the rejection of the fourth minor hypothesis, which states there is statistically significant impact of career planning on organizational justice at level (α ≤ 0.05) in the industrial organizations.

Discussion

The study confirmed that diversity management policies had statistically significant effect on organizational justice. Based on the multiple regression analysis performance appraisal systems had the biggest effect followed by diversity awareness training. Whereas, rewards systems and career development hadn’t statistical effect on organizational justice. The first research question examined manager’s perceptions of diversity policies at the Jordanian industrial organization. This study has confirmed that the assessment level of diversity management policies, as a whole from the standpoint of study sample members is high. Diversity policies such as diversity awareness training, performance appraisal pay and reward system and career development came at high degree of estimation. These findings suggest the awareness of study sample to the importance of diversity management policies in the work of industrial organization at Al-Hassan industrial estate. This result agrees with the result of Eddy & Greg (2010) study, and the study result of Armstrong et al. (2008). Furthermore, the degree of organizational justice level estimation is at high level, this result agrees with the result of Abojaser (2010) study.

The second research question explored the awareness degree about the concept of organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organizations, from the standpoint of mangers. The findings of the study indicate that the level of organizational justice is high at Jordanian industrial organizations. The analysis of data obtained, through the study tool led to a number of important conclusions, which will hopefully enrich the previous literature, open future prospects for the researchers and scholars, and help industrial organization at Al-Hassan industrial estate to cope with the changing business environment circumstances.

The first hypothesis was designed to measure diversity management impact on organizational justice. By testing the hypothesis, we found out that diversity management impact positively organizational justice. This result agrees with the results study of (Fujimoto et al., 2013; Park & Kim, 2017; and Choi & Rainey, 2014). Moreover, the first minor hypothesis was designed to measure diversity awareness training impact on organizational justice. The study arrived to the existence of statistically significant impact of the diversity awareness training on organizational justice. This result agrees with the results study of (Rynes & Rosen, 1995). Meanwhile, the third minor hypothesis was designed to measure performance appraisal impact on organizational justice. The study arrived to the existence of statistically significant impact of the performance appraisal on organizational justice. This result agrees with the results study of (Grund & Przemeck, 2012).

By testing the second minor hypothesis, we found out there is no statistically significant impact of pay and rewards systems on organizational justice in the industrial organizations. This finding was supported by previous study of (Magoshi & Eunmi, 2009). Additionally, the results showed that career development didn’t have any impact on organizational justice.

Conclusion

Contributions, Implications for Theory, Research, Practice

The findings of the research have both theoretical and practical implications. The scientific contribution of the paper is a filled literature gap in the impact of diversity management on organizational justice. While diversity management and organizational justice is popular research topic in many countries, the question of the impact diversity management on organizational justice remains relatively unexplored and stills an emerging issue in Jordan. The findings of the research indicate that diversity management policies are important factor for fostering organizational justice. The findings correspond with the findings of (Fujimoto et al., 2013; Park & Kim, 2017).

The practical implication for the study is that Jordanian industrial organizations could implement more effective diversity management policies through top management commitment and involve diversity management into the organizational strategy. Furthermore, using effective policies could increase workers’ productivity and stability. When workers perceive with fairness they will exert more effort to increase performance.

Limitations And Future Research Opportunities

The study is exploratory nature and it has some limitation. The major limitation of this study was that the respondents were all from only one industrial estate and not spread across other industries such as universities industry because of different nature. The research results cannot be generalized to any population of enterprises, as they are limited to Jordanian industrial sector.

Future research could examine the differences between more organizations and make a comparison study. Also, since this paper was conducted in the industrial sector; a replication can be done within other industries because the impact of different policies of diversity management may vary from one industry to another. Future studies are invited to add any modified variables or intermediary variable to the current study model, such as organizational culture, and management role.

Appendix

Questionnaire

Part One: Background Information

Please tick (√) in suitable square

1. Gender □ Male □Female

2. Age □ 20-29 years □ 30-39 years □ 40-49 years □ 50+ years

3. Level of Education □ Higher School □ Diploma □ Bachelor □ Post Graduate

4. Job Title □ General Manager □ Deputy General Manager □ Assistant General Manager □ Department Manager □ Section Head □ Worker

5. Experience Years □ Less than 5 years □ 5-10 years □ 11+ years

Part Two: Instrument of Measurement

Appendix Table 1: Instrument Of Measurement
Please Tick
(√) In Suitable Square
No. Items Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
1 Diversity training in the firm focuses on equal opportunities for training and development
2 This company has done a good job providing training programs that promote multicultural understanding
3 Diversity training sessions are conducted to enhance awareness about gender equality and to remove gender bias issues
4 Mentoring coaching and counseling sessions are there for career development and in taking responsibility to female employees
5 Education about diversity will enhance the company’s profitability
6 Diversity training programs sensitize employees to the impact of stereotypes on their own and others’ behaviors
7 Internal equity in remuneration
8 Equity In Benefits And Reward Systems
9 Equity in advancement opportunities
10 Equal job security
11 Equity In Status Recognition
12 Good social interaction
13 Appraisal ratings focus on performance not personality
14 Effective feedback and ongoing support are provided for ethnic employees
15 Appraiser's cultural background dose not influence ratings
16 Multicultural employees are part of appraisal panels
17 Appraisal methods in the organizations are objective and job-relevant.
18 Several multicultural employees in senior positions
19 Employees of different backgrounds are encouraged to apply for higher positions
20 There is a career development path for all employees at this company
21 Career management programs for multicultural employees
22 Development opportunities for ethnic employees
23 No discrimination in selection of employees for development programs
24 minority groups and women receive opportunities for growth
25 Employees of different ages are valued equally by this organization
26 The company's policies or procedures discourage discrimination.
27 Employees who are different from most others are treated fairly at this company
28 A fair workplace includes people from every race.
30 This company respects individuals and values their differences
31 All administrative decisions are applied to all
32 I feel the fairness of the salary when I get compared to what my colleagues get
33 My superiors reward me for the extra effort I have made
34 My monthly salary is commensurate with the efforts I make in my work

References