Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 3
Abdul Rahman Rahim, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar
Ismail Rasulong, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar
Edi Jusriadi, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar
Faidul Adzim, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar
This research paper was focused on analyzing the role of young entrepreneur to empower coastal community at Galesong District and North Galesong district. This research was conducted by analyze the special typology of coastal areas and the roles of key development actors, mapping potential business sectors within review and develop empowerment models. Some of research findings had shown that the distribution of economic resources that prospectus could be developed in the coastal region of Takalar Regency was quite diverse even though there was no maximum effort, while the potential areas of business that could be developed by young people in coastal area had focused on fishing. Here, there was no maximum effort to develop business activities on the scale of micro, small, or medium marine products. Furthermore, both the local and village government had given its role to empower community groups including young people, nevertheless, it was still less optimal. Finally, the model development for young entrepreneur’s empowerment had developed as an integrative framework by involving all the major actors.
Coastal Communities, Young Entrepreneurs, Development Models.
Galesong and North Galesong districts are two districts located on the line of West Coast of Takalar Regency. Both districts are the most densely populated areas in Takalar Regency. Based on data in Statistic Board, the population in these two sub-districts in 2013 is 76,327 people or about 27.20% of the total population while the area of 41.04 km2 or about 7.24% of the total area of Takalar Regency, thus the density in both sub-districts are 1,500 people/km2 for Galesong district and 2,477 inhabitants/km2 for North Galesong district. This situation actually characterizes the pattern of population dispersal in coastal areas that are characteristic are solid, especially in residential areas that coincide directly with the beach.
A common characteristic of coastal communities is characterized by a group of people living in coastal areas living together and meeting their life needs from coastal resources. According to Priyanto (2009), people living in coastal cities or settlements have socially economic characteristics closely related to the economic resources of the marine region. Similarly, types of livelihoods that utilize natural resources or environmental services exist in coastal areas such as fishermen, fish farmers and owners or workers of the maritime industry. Coastal communities dominated by fishing businesses are generally still on the poverty line; they have no livelihood options, have low levels of education, are unaware and are aware of the sustainability of natural resources and the environment (Lewaherilla, 2002). Furthermore, from the status of land legality, the characteristics of some residential areas in the coastal areas generally do not have legal status (legal), especially areas that are self-reclaimed by the community (Suprijanto, 2006).
Various problems in relation to the economic activities of coastal communities are generally not yet touched with the right government policy because often the programs implemented have not touched the whole root cause of the problems faced by the community, because (a) put more people as objects rather than as subjects of development, (b) prioritizes industry growth rather than agriculture and marine sectors, (c) as well as development policies that do not refer to the characteristics of each local condition in the region and (d) the fishing profession is still consider as a job that does not require a high skill and (e) from an economic point of view, fishing communities/coastal communities are positioned as marginal groups that are perceived as having very little potential to develop. This has resulted in the slow process of technological intervention, capacity building and innovation among fishermen.
Judging from the socio-economic aspect, one way of empowering coastal communities is to improve the skills, capabilities and awareness of the economic potential of coastal areas. Due to the management of coastal and marine resource areas, it should provide the greatest benefits to coastal communities as the main actors and owners of those resources. Therefore all coastal development activities should be devoted to improving the quality of life and welfare of coastal communities without sacrificing the socio-cultural aspects of local communities. The process of accelerating the improvement of the living standards of coastal communities needs to be approached with a cultural approach, which places them as actors of change. Coastal community empowerment activities strived in the framework of a harmonious approach with regard to the system and institutional values that grow and develop in coastal communities.
One way that can be done to empower coastal communities, especially the youth, is to encourage them to have the ability to identify business opportunities in the field of marine and fishery resource management. The results of initial observations made show that the average head of household has dependents of 4-7 people while their income is uncertain because many depend on the weather factor and the high operational to go to sea, especially most fishermen families only as labor level (sawi-Makassar language) the catch must be shared with the retainer or owner of the boat. In every household, the average has productive age children who have no longer school (junior high school or high school) with the main activities only helped parents to go to sea and some even have no job at all. Yet in fact around the environment there are many potential that can be developed, such as in the field of canning, alienation and floss management and various other business fields that are prospective and can be managed in home industry scale.
The main problem with poor people in coastal areas who have strong strength, workers, persistence, easy to accept new things (dynamic), but they "bother" to be poor because they do not have enough cost for Education which is higher, more than one is in school and it is assured they come from a family that is already rich because the income from their own boat. Younger numbers, occupied are those who can only finish their education until junior high school and high school will continue to grow which, if not encouraged to empower themselves will be bad for life they face and consequently damaged. Coastal, can also shift out by adding a level of social vulnerability to the environment as a whole.
With this, then the research problems were:
1. Special typology of coastal areas, especially the distribution of economic resources that can be developed as business opportunities in Galesong District and North Galesong District Takalar regency.
2. The role of key development actors in coastal areas, in this case local government, community leaders, youth leaders and youth social organizations to foster economic empowerment of communities in coastal areas.
3. Factors that cause low interest of the youth to exploit the potential of coastal resources as business opportunities that can be created professionally and profitably.
4. Model that can be developed to encourage young entrepreneurs based on local resources in coastal areas Galesong District and North Galesong District Takalar regency.
The main objective of this research is to find a framework of empowerment models that can be used as a tool to foster greater enthusiasm, creativity, innovation and access to initiate productive activities for youth in coastal communities through the involvement of key actors existing in the study area. Therefore, this deepening will ultimately find models and methods that involve key actors to provide space and support for the growing interest of young coastal people to empower themselves. In the advanced stage, the model and method will be applied, accompanied by the implementation, then make further revisions and improvements. In the end it is expected to be born young entrepreneurs, especially in the field of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) that pioneered to create incubator spreader "entrepreneurial virus" in the surrounding environment.
Understanding coastal areas is an intermediate region between the sea and the land, towards land covering areas still affected by sea or tidal splashes and toward the sea comprising the (continental shelf) (Dahuri et al., 2001). Furthermore Bengen, Eidman & Boer (2001) proposes coastal areas as land territories adjacent to the sea, the boundaries on land include areas inundated or unlogged that are still affected by marine processes such as tides, sea winds and salt intrusions, while the boundary at sea is the areas affected by natural processes on land such as sedimentation and the flow of fresh water into the sea, as well as the marine areas that are affected by human activities on the land.
Some researches on the economic life of coastal communities, among them Wasak (2010) found that fishing households whose jobs were solely dependent on catching fish earned income that only fulfilled their daily needs and if any money remained, it is usually used for school fees for children, buying clothing and improving housing. Study findings in various fishing communities’ abroad show that socio-economic organizations and other related institutions in coastal villages play an important role in improving the living standards of coastal communities. In other words, socio-economic organization can be a support in the effort to improve the living standards of coastal communities. Without socio-economic organization, fishermen will work and live alone without anyone fighting for and protecting their interests (Mantjoro, 1988).
Some efforts of empowerment can be done through three directions, as revealed by Kartasasmita in Zubaedi (2013), namely: 1) Create an atmosphere or climate that enables the potential of the community to grow (enabling). This means, awaken every individual and society that they have potential, no society that has no power. So when in the implementation of empowerment, strived to encourage and generate public motivation for the importance of developing the potentials that already exist and owned by the community; 2) Strengthening the potential or power of the community (empowering). This means that empowerment measures can be pursued through real actions such as education, training, health promotion, capital provision, employment, information, markets and other infrastructure and open access to other opportunities capable of more empowered communities. Empowerment includes not only the strengthening of individual members of society, but also the institutions. Embedding modern cultural values such as hard work, frugality, openness and responsibility; and 3) Protecting the public (protection). This means that in the empowerment of the community, there should be efforts to prevent unfair competition and the practice of exploitation by the strong/strong against the weaker parties, through the alignment or the existence of clear rules or agreements to protect the poor.
Some of the most relevant studies that are relevant to this research include (Tri, Wardono, & Suminar, 2015) with the results of the study explaining that the empowerment of fishermen families with garbage bank programs, early childhood care, nutritionally conscious counseling, marketing management training of beef jerky products through packaging and quality products, are considered effective in empowering fishermen's families. (Muhammad et al., 2015) with the results of the study explaining that cooperative, nonprofit actors and welfare in social entrepreneurship contribute to quality of life. Meanwhile, the socio-economic factors become an important mediator in welfare associations and the quality of life of coastal entrepreneurs. (Sumita & Sanwar, 2017) with the results of the study explaining that the general purpose of smart city implementation is to trigger economic growth and social development, facilitated by collaborative dialogue and innovation in technology. (Nathalie et al., 2015) with the results of the study explaining that the business activities of ornamental fish cooperatives can be good job opportunities in small communities, regardless of sex and sustainability closely linked to ecological, socioeconomic factors. (Jie, Shuaihe & Zefu, 2017) with the results of the study explaining that the National Innovation System (NIS) provides strong support for rural economic growth and coastal and inland China. (Gustavo, Willem & Guilherme, 2018) with the results of the study explaining that the quality of entrepreneurship training, in addition to close contact with applied research, encourages academics to turn their business plans into new ventures. (Alenka, Mateja & Robert, 2017) with the results of the study explaining that utility entrepreneurial openness in explaining company performance by showing strong reliability, precise dimensions, convergent validity, discriminant and nomological.
Furthermore, research results (Kageeporn, Amonmat & Porngarm, 2015) explain that jewelry industry craftsmen are passionate and determined to do business and develop their own brand after graduating with some characteristics such as involvement, social responsibility, participatory behavior and honesty in business. (Ionela, Emilian & Edith, 2014) explains that education has an important role in maintaining entrepreneurship so that in education it is necessary to motivate graduate students to choose entrepreneurship. (Tatyana, Yevgeniy & Nina, 2015) explains that educational programs in the innovative economic sector are crucial, when entrepreneurship arises on the basis of technical and technological inventions and inventors turn their work into entrepreneurial activities. (Verni & Zain, 2015) explains that the characteristics of respondents with the highest scores both before and after entering entrepreneurship education have achievement and endurance in entrepreneurship. While characteristics that have low scores have a lame tendency in risk taking and overall entrepreneurship education shows differences in entrepreneurship competence cores. And (Veronika, Baiba & Inga, 2015) with the results of his research explaining that in order to promote social entrepreneurship, more attention should be given to the training of social entrepreneurs within the framework of the education system, the development and implementation of government conceptual action plans, as well as the provision of some supporting instruments.
Research on the model of developing young entrepreneurs in coastal areas Takalar Regency was conducted in two districts of Galesong District and North Galesong District. Both areas were with long coastal areas to the west of Takalar Regency. The main location of the research was focused on 4 (four) coastal villages namely (1) for Galesong district covering Boddia Village and Palalakkang Village. (2) For North Galesong Sub district includes Tamasaju Village and Tamalate Village.
Data collection methods were adapted for research purposes. This covered:
1. Observation focuses on direct observation of the results of economic empowerment activities that had been implemented by the government as well as by others in the target area. Similarly, to observe specifically the potential and economic carrying capacity to mapping the economic potentials that can be developed as a prospective business activity in coastal areas.
2. In-depth interviews (in-depth interview) by selecting key informants in each target village. Interview activities are structured or semi-structured and carried out based on its condition to key informants of this study. In order to keep the data secure, the researchers used recording such as recorder, hand phone, digital camera, and other recorder that played back for deep results of the interview.
3. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to further explore some issues and data that were not collected in in-depth interviews, FGD activities were conducted together with community leaders and youth leaders as well as village government officials and the Young Entrepreneurs Association (HIPMI). The direction was to cross check information from interview activities and explore more in depth about the supporting factors and inhibit the low interest of entrepreneurs among the coastal youth.
4. Recording of important documents relating to research issues such as profiles of each village.
The data collected was then analyzed qualitatively. The analysis was conducted based on data collection length within a certain period. The activity of this qualitative research data analysis was done interactively and continuously to complete through several steps of activity systematically as follows:
1. Collection/Records data is an activity to collect data obtained from the field, both from the results of in-depth interviews, FGD and focused observation and data obtained from the results of documentation recording. Then the data/information that had been collected was carefully recorded by the researcher;
2. Data reduction, in this case the researchers to simplify, abstract and transform data obtained from the field continuously during the study took place. At this stage, the researcher categorized the phenomenon by studying the data closely. Categorization was carefully observed and then prepared conceptualized phenomena that had been grouped and then compiled in the list in accordance with research questions.
3. The presentation of data was done in the form of narration, matrix, scheme, diagram and drawing, aims to make it easier to make conclusions. In this case the researchers compiled the entire selected data that has been categorized based on the nature and dimensions, then search the relationship between one category and its sub-category to find some of the main categories related to the focus of this research problem.
4. Verification and withdrawal of conclusions, i.e. checking data obtained by seeking meaning, recording regularity patterns, causal relationships between core categories and other subcategories and comparison of relationships between categories, to find the core categories to be referenced as a conclusion. The next procedure in the process of analyzing this qualitative data like draw the narrative from the result of that conclusion into a whole narrative in the form of a proposition.
This research was conducted in 2 (two) Sub districts in Takalar Regency that were coastal areas, Galesong District and North Galesong Sub district. The initial plan, the research activity took samples of each of the 4 villages but given the wide range of area and considering the homogeneity of the area so it was determined to only take samples in each of 2 (two) villages in each sub district of study area. Therefore the villages included in the study area were Boddia Village and Palalakkang Village in Galesong district then Tamalate Village and Tamasaju Village in North Galesong District.
The following were the specific conditions of each village.
Distribution of Potential Economic Resources
The four villages included in the sample of the study sites were all coastal villages in Takalar regency. Therefore, the intended economic resources were economic resources based on local resources in coastal areas. In general, the potential that can be developed in coastal areas, including: mangrove forests, coral reefs, sea grass beds and fisheries. However, based on the results of field studies obtained information that the four villages referred to none of which had mangrove forests, coral reefs and sea grass beds. As for the seaweed could be developed but until the time of the study had not found any people who work it, the reason sea conditions in this region was not suitable planted with seaweed.
Therefore, the only potential that was currently utilized by the local community is the potential of marine fisheries. The problem, the potential of this coastal region, cannot be developed properly by local residents or by the authorities. This coastal area needs to be developed, because many benefits that can be obtained not only in terms of economic, from the social side also if we can develop the natural resources of coastal areas well. In addition, to change the views of people outside the coastal areas, to coastal communities who were considered a slum community and did not pay attention to the environment.
Because coastal areas had great potential in order to improve the living standards of coastal communities, and also of course can be a solution to the number of young people who just go to sea with their parents and it is done for generations. Therefore, the main community activity base in the villages included in the actual study area was only focused on capture fisheries or capture fishermen. It can also be seen from the data obtained from Takalar Fishery Sector Planning Report that the largest number of capture fisheries production is in North Galesong district with 1,273 ton catches followed by North Galesong district with total catch of 934 tons. Most of the fishery processing industry is located in North Galesong district with 66 companies consisting of 42 companies making fish pindang, fish processing/drying industry as many as 21 companies and fish fly fish processing company as much as 3 companies. In this sub-district there are 11 trawling companies and one ice-making company. So the district is very potential to be developed due to the proximity of industry with raw materials so as to minimize transportation costs.
The potential of sea fishery in this area had not been optimally utilized by the local people. Capture fisherman's profession becomes dominant and not yet developed into fish processing activities to add value added. Whereas actually the Village Head also know and understand that many business activities that can be developed by the community to process fish catch fishermen.
In the study area, there are two Fish Landing Sites (TPI) namely Boddia Fish Auction in Galesong district and Beba Fish auction in North Galesong. Fish landing place (TPI) in Boddia located in North District Galesong still low. Though TPI had been equipped with offices and some service facilities for fishermen. There is a fuel post and a kiosk for fishermen. It has been years since this area has been a mainstay of district and central government promotion as a fishery center. But it can be seen the number of visitors, the number of boats and fishermen who come to this place very little. Different things can be seen at Beba Fish Auction Place located in North Galesong district TPI Beba is the busiest TPI in Takalar regency. Dozens or even hundreds of boats went to the fish auction center. The buyers come from Gowa regency, Takalar regency to Makassar city. Whereas existing facilities were still very limited.
The Role of Related People
Efforts to improve the welfare of the coastal community are a normal situation both in terms of social, economic and psychological terms, physical and nonphysical prosperity. One of the most influential factors is the improvement of the economic capacity of the community, so the case with coastal communities in Galesong and North Galesong district. Potential marine fisheries activities that are potentially developed local economic resources require the role of various development actors, not just governments but also community groups and financial institutions, even including universities.
Efforts to create young entrepreneurs especially in coastal areas with abundant marine resources are the responsibility of all. Therefore, the understanding of the potential that can be optimized must be followed by the willingness to jointly encourage the rise of community motivation of coastal to want to know and able to perform activities to add value added (value added) from the products of sea fisheries activities in the vicinity. Potential business fields that can be done not only focus on the results of mere fisheries but also can be developed on other aspects that have a direct link with fishery products both forward and have backward effects. In the sense that a lot of business activities that can be done that can support each other in the marine fisheries sector.
The main actors in the effort to create young entrepreneurs that are intended in this study are identified as local government, village government, community leaders, youth leaders, financial institutions, industry players and universities. The seven actors referred to ideally can take a role to contribute to improving the welfare of coastal communities, more specifically through the reinvention of young entrepreneurs. Why young entrepreneurs? because based on preliminary data that has been explained that the children of fishermen in the coastal villages Galesong District and North District Galesong not many who can continue their education to the level of college because of economic factors and therefore they are generally involved "forced" in the activities of the sea by their parents. The inability to grasp the opportunity to exploit the potential of marine fisheries resources that are relatively abundant is caused by the absence of a comprehensive, systematic and massive system to encourage these young people to enter in value-added productive activities.
The development policy that directly touches the community is not easy to do. Chandra (Kusnadi & Subchan, 2007) explains that initiatives to increase community participation in local development are often external interventions into the community or local community and should pay attention to the character, manner and capacity of the poor. Basically every class of society including the poor, still has the potential of social resources that can be utilized to overcome poverty. Social resources in the form of system of values, behavioral norms and local beliefs have proven able to maintain the integration of coastal communities (Kusnadi & Subchan, 2007). Fukuyama (Pelling & High, 2005) describes social capital as an effective and flexible ability in the face of rapid changes due to capitalist intervention in various sectors of society. Social capital having trust, norm (norm), network (reciprocity) and reciprocity(s) are social resources contained in working group or social relations of patron client that exist in coastal community life between skipper or the owner of the capital with the fishermen laborers. The direction of development policy in coastal communities that breaks the chain of social relations between the skipper and his fishermen's fishermen thus creating the working fishermen into an independent society, I think is wrong. Due to the high level of confidence of the fisherman workers against his juragannya has become a culture in the life of coastal communities are very difficult to change.
In the context of community development in coastal areas of Takalar Regency, ideally a policy mix between economic policy, natural resource policy and institutional policies that is synergistic and integrated with each other. The direction of development policies and the empowerment of coastal communities by the government should involve all aspects of coastal communities. The existing institutional use policy in coastal communities in this case that is formed as a result of the social relations of the patron client between the skipper and the fisherman of the workers should be able to be utilized properly.
According to observations in the field, the presence of public figure actors in this case people who have a strong influence on the fishing community is a deep gap, obtained the fact that there really is a social relation Skipper and fisherman workers actually have a strong social capital roots, so the policy of community development in coastal areas can be through the role of the Owner or owner of Capital. The high confidence level of the fisherman's workers towards his Juragan and the norms that have been available in social relations, is a good capital in incorporating the development policies to the fisher workers to further improve their living standards in other words, Juragan can be a bridge between the stakeholders determining the direction of policy and fisherman workers as the object of development policy direction. Juragan in coastal communities can act as a financial institution that can provide assurance both in capital and social to the fisherman workers so that it can create capital investment that can be utilized later by the fisherman laborers and indirectly coastal consumptive coastal mindset will shift slowly switch to a mindset for saving.
The fact that the potential of large coastal areas is not supported by good infrastructure, extensive employment opportunities and of course entrepreneurial spirit in the individual community. In fact, socially, culturally, the majority of fishermen catch, are people who are friendly and very open. But there are a few problems that are difficult to move, let alone change the habit of catching into cultivation.
Actually the government had rolled out programs, projects and activities to alleviate fishermen from poverty, including encouraging more and more business groups in coastal communities, but the results had not shown encouraging results. The result of deepening in the field increased the notion that many factors were causing why coastal communities are unable to exploit opportunities from potential economic resources in the surrounding environment. One of them was due to misperception of any government-initiated projects, programs or activities. People still think that initiation by the government is only for short-term or simply to show the government's good intentions.
There was an inadequate understanding of the project objectives or government-initiated empowerment activities in the coastal areas. The statement indicates a "misunderstanding" of the target group of empowerment activities, generally assuming that the project is a "good mind" of the government alone, so that the spirit to expand on a wider and more sustainable scale does not occur at all.
In the empowerment of fishermen community in Takalar, the government involved in empowering the fishing communities had different roles; all of them had a role in the capacity of each institution. First, the Marine and Fisheries department of Takalar regency are responsible for all programs that the government has introduced to fishermen at the district level. As a technical implementer, department organizer as program organizer has a role as a determinant of policy in fishery sector including in empowering fisherman community.
Determination of policies, departments tend to be authoritarian, service was too dominant in determining the policy without involving the participation of the community and consequently the community just runs it although the possibility is not appropriate for the specific conditions of the local community. This kind of thing often happens and of course the achievement of goals is often not achieved optimally. This can be interpreted that the role of government in the empowerment of fishermen community in Takalar District especially in the study area is very dominant; the dominant role of the government causes the failure of a community empowerment. The program tends to be top-down, which tends not to provide enough space for community groups to participate because the empowerment policy does not pay attention to what the community really needs.
The Young Entrepreneur Development Model
Based on the observation, deepening and problem study at the study site, confirmed by Focus Group Discussion (FGD), the model of young entrepreneurs development for coastal communities was built in an integrated manner by enlarging all the main actors of regional development, i.e. local government, financial institutions, the organization of the business profession of youth, community leaders and community groups, to encourage the growth of business ideas for young people in coastal areas. The form that can be done was to establish a business incubator that involved all the main actors actively to conduct an assessment of the business ideas of young people. The framework of the model of developing young entrepreneurs for coastal communities in Takalar Regency is as follows (Figure 1):
First, local governments must play a role in providing wider and more sustainable space to encourage the growth of young entrepreneurs. The profile of coastal communities, especially in the study area, suggests the need for a special policy touch based on economic policy that favors the growth of initiative, creation and motivation for entrepreneurship for the young. The policy should involve local actors such as financial institutions, youth business profession organizations and vessels (papalele-Makassarese) to provide young people with a wider space to create their business ideas through institutional strengthening of incubators business in coastal areas.
Second, financial institutions (banks and non-banks) through local government policies must take a role through initiation of credit programs specifically for the growth of micro and small enterprises in coastal areas. For the second actor, the financial institution can serve as a mutually beneficial partner with the business venture to be built. The position of a financial institution is "waiting" for the reconciliation of a business incubator related to what business ventures can be financed through program credit from a financial institution. Recommendation from the incubator becomes a guarantee for the bank about the business feasibility of youth groups or individuals who will start up the business.
Third, the organization of the youth business profession which in this context is the Association of Young Indonesian Entrepreneurs (HIPMI). The organization is tasked with encouraging and assisting new youth business ventures to start up (embark) to reach a wider market, as well as related to mentoring and business coaching through sustainable programs. HIPMI in its function as a business profession organization for youth can be a "foster father" for the new businesses to begin.
Fourth, community leaders and youth organizations in this case are Papalele (community leader) and Karang Taruna are involved in the field of business incubator that formed. Papalele's role becomes one of the local wisdom groups that should be encouraged to take part encouraging the growing awareness of young people to start their business. The effort is to provide a wider space by allowing young people to participate in the business flow that has been absolute in the mastery of the Papalele group in coastal areas. While youth groups such as the Karang Taruna organization play a role in extending the range of their duties not only in the form of social activities but also developing their responsibilities in the form of organizing young people to be creative in real business.
The four main actors each perform its role in one container or institution established in this case is the Coastal Business Incubator Center. This institution is managed by people who are considered to be competent through local government policy by involving elements of government and youth in it. In principle, the business incubator function is a container that can facilitate the initiation of creative business ideas from young people including activities/campaigns that can encourage the changing mindset of young people, facilitate coaching and mentoring activities, ongoing assessment of business feasibility, coaching and assistance for potential businesses for young people in coastal areas. Therefore, the involvement of universities in the Business Incubator is intended for resources for training, coaching and mentoring activities including business feasibility assessments conducted together with universities so that the results can be more accountable.
If all the main actors are involved in the Business Incubator department, the access to capital and market access were done more easily and integrated. Therefore, the creation of policies from local governments to encourage and encourage financial institutions to take on the role of growing micro and small enterprises in coastal areas will give expectation that micro and small enterprise activities can grow significantly and sustainably in the future.
The distribution of economic resources that can be developed in the coastal region of Takalar Regency is quite diverse. However, the optimum effort is still less to utilize it. Potential field of business that can be developed by young people in the coastal region of Takalar Regency is very prospective. Although the society is currently more dominant focus on fishing only, there is less effort to develop business activities on the scale of micro, small or medium in the processing of marine products. The local government and village government in the coastal region of Takalar Regency has given its role to empower community groups including young people, but has not maximum because the programs implemented are relatively misunderstood by the beneficiary group so that the effectiveness of the sustainability cannot be guaranteed. And the model of developing young entrepreneurs is built in an integrative framework by involving all the major actors in the region, including involving universities in business incubator to prepare, orientation, coach, train and help the youths’ business groups to start up in a micro, small and medium enterprises.
Our thanks go to all those who have provided assistance so that this research can be done. Especially to the Directorate of Research and Community Service or Kemenristek Dikti who have been willing to fund this research activities as well as to the Research Institute for Development and Community Service (LP3M) Muhammadiyah University of Makassar that help and encourage the growth of research activities. To the Takalar District Government, we also thank you for the permit and also to the implementation team who conducted research on coastal area in Galesong Sub-District and North Galesong Sub-district. To all the village heads in the research area, community leaders, youth leaders and BPC HIMPI Takalar, who had been actively role in providing information, clarification and thought contribution so that this research can be done well.