Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 6S

Indonesian Village Tourism Development: A Legal Analysis

Ristina Yudhanti, Universitas Negeri Semarang


Tourism village is a form of tourism development that has tourism products including cultural value and has strong traditional characteristics. Wonogiri Regency is a district that is enthusiastically promoting the potential of tourism villages. Therefore, paying attention to the tourism potential of villages in Wonogiri Regency and find the accurate strategy to realize an advanced and sustainable tourism village in order to help improve the regional economy by not eliminating local wisdom. This research is a qualitative research that produces descriptive data of tourism locations in Wonogiri Regency’s villages using interview techniques, field observations, documentation, and other physical evidence. The obtained and collected data will be analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the potential of tourism villages in Wonogiri Regency various in type and quantity. This result also resulting any obstacles that arise during the implementation of activities. The obstacles that arise in the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency most likely caused by human resources, inadequate infrastructure, least of promotion, and the legal vacuum on governing the tourism villages. Hence, a general strategy is needed based on the classification of pioneering, developing, and advanced tourism villages and a specific strategy in accordance with the obstacles that are the inhibiting factors.


Expenditure budget, Tourism development, Energy trigger, Indonesia


Tourism is an activity that directly involves the community and it has various impacts on the local one, even the tourism is recognized to have extraordinary energy trigger, which makes the local community experiencing a metamorphosis phase in various aspects. In line with the dynamics, the movement of tourism development penetrates into various terminologies such as: sustainable tourism development, village tourism, and ecotourism, tourism development approach that seeks to ensure that tourism able to be carried out in non-urban tourist destinations. One of the alternative tourism development approaches is village tourism for sustainable rural development in the tourism sector.

The village is the lowest government organization in the structure and system of government of the Republic of Indonesia. Villages are regulated in Law Number 6 of 2014 on the Villages and Government Regulation Number 43 of 2014 on the Implementing Regulations of Law Number 6 of 2014 on the Villages. Nowadays, village has begun to be noticed by the Government through the revolving of village funds sourced from the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget (APBN) which is regulated in Government Regulation Number 60 of 2014 on the Allocation of Village Funds Sourced from the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget as amended by Regulation Government Number 22 of 2015 on the Amendments to Government Regulation Number 60 of 2014 on the Village Funds Sourced from the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget.

The advantage of village funds made the government can utilize in accordance with the village administration and the public demand were arranged through the planning process conducted by village and defined by Regulation village of Medium Term Development Plan Rural (RPJMDes) and the Government Work Plan Village (RKPDes). Although the village has begun to receive substantial funds, the Central and Regional Governments do not fully hand over the responsibility for accelerating development and improving community welfare to the village, yet the Central and Regional Governments still have a role. One that can be developed by the regional government for development in the village is tourism.

The existence of tourist villages in tourism development in Indonesia as well essential. Tourist villages have been able to draw more dynamic variety of destinations in a tourism area and thus made not trapped in the trend of developing mass tourism patterns. Through tourism villages, tourism proves its alignment with the pro-job, pro-growth, and pro-poor spirit (tourism as an absorber of rural labour, as a generator of regional economic growth, and as a tool for alleviating poverty). The main component of a tourist village is manifested in the lifestyle and quality of life of its people. Authenticity is also influenced by the economic, physical and social conditions of the rural area, such as space, cultural heritage, agricultural activities, landscapes, services, historical and cultural tourism, as well as unique and exotic regional experiences. Thus, tourism village modelling is obliged to continue and creatively develop regional identities or characteristics.

Another important component in the effort to develop a sustainable tourism village is the involvement or participation of local communities, fostering appropriate business groups and developing the quality of rural tourism products, such as ensuring the originality of tourism products. The main elements of originality of tourism products are original quality, uniqueness, regional characteristics and regional pride embodied in the lifestyle and quality of life of the community, specifically related to the behavior, integrity, friendliness and sincerity of the people who live and develop into the property of the village community. Therefore, modeling of tourist villages for sustainable rural development must continue to creatively develop new identities or characteristics for villages to meet problem-solving goals related to the economic crisis of rural areas, increasingly due to various complex forces, which cause both reducing employment opportunities and increasing the wealth of rural communities, one way out that can overcome the crisis is through the development of small-scale tourism village industries, in order to compete and excellent in rural area development, and in creating new jobs and improving community welfare.

The principle of developing a tourist village is as one of the alternative tourism products that can provide impetus for sustainable rural development and has management principles, including:

1. The provision of facilities and infrastructure owned by local communities which usually encourages community participation and ensures access to physical resources is a milestone for the development of tourist villages.

2. Encourage increased income from the agricultural sector and other traditional economic activities.

3. The local community has an effective role in the decision-making process about the form of tourism that utilizes the environmental area and the local community obtains an appropriate share of income from tourism activities.

4. Encouraging the development of local community entrepreneurship.

The development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency is one of the concrete steps of the Wonogiri Regency Government in the field of improving the tourism sector, where the tourism sector inviolability bringing a lot of increase in terms of economic income. However, the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency still has many problems including the absence of regulations governing tourist villages, public awareness and concern for tourism potential in the village environment is still low, adequate infrastructure has not been fulfilled, and the local government and community have not been open to accept partnerships or the entry of investors in the development of tourist villages. Therefore, this study will discuss the potential of tourism villages in Wonogiri Regency and what are the obstacles in its development, as well as what strategies are needed in realizing the development of tourist villages that can have an impact on welfare for the people in Wonogiri Regency.

Study of Tourism Village Development in Wonogiri Regency in accordance with the Mandate of Legislation

A tourism village is an area or rural area that has a special attraction resulted in become a tourist destination. In tourist villages, residents still maintaining original heritage of traditions and culture. As well as several supporting activities such as farming systems, gardening and traditional cuisine also contribute to variating the existence of the tourist village itself. In addition to these factors, environmental factors that are still original and maintained are paramount factors that should to exist in a tourist village. According to the Ministerial Regulation of Culture and Tourism Number: KM.18/HM.001/MKP/2011 on the Guidance of National Community Empowerment Program (PNPM) Tourism, tourism village is a form of unity between accommodation, attractions, facilities and tourism supporting infrastructure that is presented in an order of community life that blends with the prevailing tradition.

The tourist village must have tourism potential, arts and customs in the local area, the village area is included in the scope of the tourism development area or at least is in the tour package travel routes that have been sold, the availability of managers, coaches, and art actors who can support the sustainability of the tourist village, accessibility which can support the tourism village program and ensure security, order and cleanliness. The components that must be met as a tourist village are as follows:


In can be interpreted as tourism attractions for appeal tourists to visit the destinations such as natural, cultural, social, and built attraction. Tourist attraction is the variety of things that have beauty, uniqueness and cultural values, natural and man-made result is the purpose of tourist visits. Generally there are three types of attractions there are natural, cultural and special interest one.


Amenities are supporting facilities needed by tourists in tourist destinations. Amenities include a variety of facilities to meet accommodation needs, provision of food and beverages, entertainment venues, shopping areas, banks, hospitals, security and insurance.


Access includes facilities that are important in the component of tourism activities. Accessibility or smoothness of a person's movement from one place to another. According to Sugiama, accessibility is the level of intensity of a tourist destination or destination that can be reached by tourists.


The state of the organization that aims to facilitate and encourage tourism of the destination concerned. Some ancillary organizations include the government (e.g. the tourism department, tourism office), tourism associations (among others associations of hoteliers, travel businesses, tour guides and others).


Relates to what kind of experience that will be given to the tourists. This depends on what tourist’s activities do on the site. Tourist activity is an intinerary that listed on tourists lists on their visit to a tourist destination within a certain time. There are many activities that can be done in tourist villages, thus make the villages provide more experiences for to visitors. For instance, by packaging farming activities into enjoyable educational tours.

Existing Tourism Potential in Villages in Wonogiri Regency

Wonogiri Regency is one of the regencies in the province in Central Java which being intensively developing its tourism, especially in the village environment. The development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency cannot be separated from the aspiration that the development of the tourism sector at the village scale in Wonogiri Regency will be directly proportional to the economic improvement of the local community, in order to realizing community welfare. Wonogiri Regency has six Tourism Villages that have been designated by the Regent's Decree Number 566/247/HK/2020 dated September 25, 2020, which are as follows:

Table 1
Determination of the Classification of the Wonogiri Regency Tourism Village in 2020
No Tourist Village Name Address Information
1 2 3 4
1 Sendang Tourism Village Selected Sendang Village, Kee. Wonogiri Secretariat : JI. Raya Wonogiri - Praeimantoro Km 7 Postal Code 57651 Start-up Tourism Village
2 Example Tourism Village Conte Village, Kee. Bulukerto Secretariat: JI. Overview No. 01 Bulukerto Bcrkcmbang Tourism Village
3 Suberejo Tourism Village Sumberejo village, Kee. Batuwarno Secretariat: JI. Batuwamo - Baturetno Km 03 Wisat Village.a Stub
4 Kampung Puphsari Tourism Village Kepuhsari Village, Kee. Manyaran Developing Tourist Village
5 Karanglor Tourism Village Desa Karang or, Kee. Manyaran Start-up Tourism Village
6 Paranggupito Tourism Village Paranggupito Village, Kee. Paranggupito Secretariat: Ji. Raya Paranggupito Dcsa Wisat.a Stubs

Source: Youth and Sports and Tourism Office (Disporapar) Wonogiri Regency/ Youth and Sports and Tourism Office (Disporapar) Wonogiri Regency.

Department of Youth And Sports And Tourism (Disporapar) Wonogiri Wonogiri Regency Village Tourism in assessing rural tourism into different categories depending namely pioneering tourist village and the developing one. It is seen from several indicators where the indicators were also regulated in Article 9 paragraph (3) of Local Government Regulation of Central Java Province No. 2 of 2019 on the Empowerment of Rural Tourism in Central Java, where Disporapar Wonogiri set the village that could be categorized village tourism based on the delineation of the area that will be proposed to become a tourist village; area data profile; tourism potential that will be developed; institutional candidate for tourism village; conformity with the spatial plan; attraction tourism; local village cuisine; local crafts; village events; local art; local cultural source (arts, heritage, history, art, architecture); infrastructure ; amenities (accommodation and homestay), food and beverages, retail, souvenir shops; meeting hall; and preservation.

Based on data from the Wonogiri Regency Disporapar as many as 95 villages have been identified as having ideas for developing a tourist village. A total of 72 villages were identified in terms of: the type of tourism offered, the size of the location or tourist area, the condition of the road to the tourist attraction, the distance, information of community institutions that were prepared to guard it to turn their village into a tourist village, had identified land ownership and potential support, constraints in terms of natural conditions, infrastructure, funding and others as well as an overview of the development plan towards a tourist village. In general, the tourism potential in each village offers tourism objects based on natural beauty and charm such as caves, mountains, forests, beaches, and some cultural tourism. The existence of 72 potential tourist villages that have emerged in Wonogiri Regency has answered that Wonogiri Regency on a village scale alone can improve the economic sector. The development of tourism development in addition to bringing many benefits to the community economically, socially and culturally. Tourism is one of the leading potentials and the basis of economic growth in Wonogiri Regency. Therefore, the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency needs to be realized immediately.

Special Strategy for Tourism Village Development in Wonogiri Regency

The tourism village development strategy in Wonogiri Regency is a breakthrough to response the existing tourism village development obstacles. Based on the research in the field, there are still many obstacles faced in the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency. The inhibiting factors are then tried to be solved with strategies that will be taken in realizing the Development of Tourism Villages in Wonogiri Regency. These strategies include:

Community Empowerment

One of the principles of tourism is contained in Law No 10 of 2009 on Tourism is to empower local communities in which the public deserves to play a role in the process of tourism development and is obliged to maintain and preserve the tourist attraction; and help create a safe, orderly, clean atmosphere, behave politely, and preserve the environment of tourism destinations. Public participation is also stated explicitly through the implementation of Law No 12 of 2008 on Regional Government has provided an opportunity for local governments to manage and optimize the potential of the area independently, including managing the tourism sector.

The management of a local-based tourism village requires the care and participation of the community itself to always innovate and be creative in developing the village area which is used as a tourist village. The development of this tourist village must concentrate to the ability and level of acceptance of the local community which will be developed into a tourist village. This is intended to determine the character and capabilities of the community that can be utilized in the development of tourist villages, determines the type and level of community empowerment appropriately.

Community-based tourism is tourism where the community plays an important and major role in tourism development. The principle of community-based tourism development or what is meant here is tourism that can provide encouragement for community development which has the following principles: a) utilizing local community facilities and infrastructure, b) benefiting the local community, c) small-scale to facilitate the establishment of reciprocal community relationships, d) involving local communities, e) implementing tourism product development. Conditions in Wonogiri related to people who still lack awareness of its participation in the development of rural tourism to do through innovation as follows:


Creating an atmosphere that allows the potential of the community to develop. The formation of public awareness of the potential and seeks to develop it. Build power by providing encouragement and motivation to develop their potential.

2. Empowering

Increase capacity by strengthening the potential or power possessed by the community. Provision of various inputs for the development of their potential. Opening access to various opportunities that can result the community more empowered.

3. Protecting

Protecting interests by developing a protection system for communities that are the subject of development. Efforts to prevent unequal competition and exploitation of the strong against the weak.

Therefore, community involvement in tourism development is indeed necessary. In development activities, community participation is an embodiment of awareness and concern as well as community responsibility for the importance of development that aims to improve their quality of life.

The form of participation is thought contributions given by the community for tourism development in the form of citizen involvement in attending various meetings, people exchanging opinions, sharing experiences, and exchanging information on strategies, management, and development of climbing tourism. The form of participation in the form of funding is the consumption of community service, and community service infrastructure facilities using the community's own property. Every citizen becomes an important part in the process of identification, planning implementation in tourism development and evaluation to make decisions in terms of tourism development, because every decision is made based on mutual deliberation.

2. Infrastructure Development

The development of Tourism Villages in Wonogiri Regency is currently still not visible in real terms. This is caused by the lackness of optimal access to villages that have potential as tourist villages. Not to mention the problem of the availability of inadequate infrastructure as a support to serve as a tourist attraction. Local governments need to build adequate infrastructure to support the development of tourist villages. In addition, the government must make a plan for the development of a slightly different tourism so that it can attract tourists to visit. Innovations that can be made include the following:

The role that becomes the responsibility of the regional government is the providement of tourism infrastructure, such as roads, information centers, clean water facilities; Development of tourism village infrastructure requires a large investment value, it is necessary to publish and disseminate information to various tourism stakeholders, so that this opportunity can be utilized optimally for the benefit of promoting investment in the tourism sector.

The development of infrastructure and facilities in the tourist village area will support all rural tourism activities in the Tourism Village in Wonogiri Regency as a unified whole and good tourism product while maintaining the authenticity and uniqueness of culture in the Tourism Village in Wonogiri Regency.

3. Institutional Strengthening

According Prafitri & Damayanti (2016) the institutional capacity of the system level explain that the policy of the Provincial Tourism Office and District and village government policies relating to the development and management of tourist villages, and village government partnerships undertaken with other institutions outside the village . The establishment of several tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency is the willingness of the community to explore tourism potential in their village, these groups are often called Pokdarwis (Tourism Awareness Group). Then the existence of Pokdarwis was confirmed by a Village Head Decree as an organization that manages tourist villages. The strengthening of tourism village management institutions is important, since this organization consists of solid members who have thoughts for the progress of their villages, especially from the tourism sector, besides Pokdarwis also involves a lot of people as one of the supporters of the development of tourist villages. The capacity of Pokdarwis in Wonogiri Regency shows outstanding performance, it can be seen from the leadership and coordination, external partnerships, capacity to develop tourist attractions and the capacity to promote tourism villages.

4. Desa Wisata Developing Policies Related to Tourism Village Development

Policy is guidance in the implementation of an activity by a government which expressed in a common statement of goals that urgent to be achieved, which guides the actions of the executive, whether in government or outside one, in realizing the expectations that have been determined. Tourism organizers (stakeholders) consist of government, private sector and community. These three pillars are considered essential in their involvement in a development, in this case tourism development. It is because a tourism development will not be able to be carried out in harmony if there is no involvement from each of these stakeholders. The government as a policy maker should be able to regulating policies that involve the community as an important component in development. The realization of good governance is a must for the effectively government management and development. Where good governance is characterized as democratic, decentralized, transparent and community empowerment. Likewise, the importance of the role of the private sector, in this case those who are directly involved in the activities of the tourism industry, such as owners of hotels, restaurants and other tourism businesses. Without these private investors, tourism industry activities will also not be able to perform.

Obstacles in the Development of Tourism Villages in Wonogiri Regency

Wonogiri Regency nowadays is developing tourism sector, one of them stay at the village scale has many challenges to create a tourist village that is able to have attractiveness and competitiveness, therefore able to build jobs opportunity, able to bring economic prosperity in the village community, and be able to empower rural communities for. However, the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri is also faced with several obstacles, where this is an inhibiting factor in the development of tourist villages. The following are the obstacles in developing a tourist village in Wonogiri Regency:

Human Resources (HR)

Many people in Wonogiri Regency in terms of developing tourist villages have not been participated to support this program, the people are settle in difficulties to be empowered to take part in the development of tourist villages, on the other hand, the stakeholders have not involved the community much in making decisions related to the development of tourist villages. The obstacles in the form of community participation in the development of tourist villages are divided into several stages as follows:

Community Participation in the Planning Stage

Most of the village communities in Wonogiri Regency have not been much involved in problem identification and not involved in decisions-making related to the development of tourism villages. This is occured because the awareness and sensitivity of the community to develop the tourism potential in their village is still on the lackness level, therefore the idea of developing a tourist village is mostly carried out by the Village Government and does not involve the community as resource owners, this is creating people do not understand the background of developing a tourist village; and local communities only carry out what is programmed by the government, for example, willingness to accept tourist arrivals and hand over land to build tourist facilities.

Local Community Participation in Implementation Phase

Parameters community participation in the implementation phase is involvement in the management of tourism businesses, for example, as an inn manager, restaurant manager, tour guide, hotel employee, and tourist attraction manager. The involvement of local communities in the implementation phase in terms of taking advantage of opportunities seems minimal. Even if there is a form of participation, it is more in the management of small-scale businesses.

Local Community Participation in Supervision Phase

Local communities have a very substantial control role in the development of tourist villages because control over the decision-making process must be given to those who will later bear the consequences of implementing development including failures or negative impacts that occur due to the development of tourist villages. Therefore, decision-making authority should be given to local communities. The parameters of community participation in supervision are involvement in the supervision team and the authority they have. The involvement of local communities in supervising the development of tourist villages is still in minimal. This is because the community considers the burden of management and supervision to be on the Village Government, so that the community feels that they have no responsibility in developing tourist villages.

2. Lack of Infrastructure

In general, the tourism potential in each village in Wonogiri Regency offers tourism objects based on natural beauty and charm such as: caves, mountains, forests, beaches, and some cultural tourism. Meanwhile, the main obstacle for the development of tourist villages is the condition of the road infrastructure to tourism objects and promotion. One of the most crucial infrastructures in the tourism sector is access or roads to these attractions. Based on the data on access conditions to objects that become potential tourist villages, there are still many objects whose road conditions are not good or even damaged this is certainly an obstacle to the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency, because visitors tend to be reluctant to go to these objects if the access conditions are inadequate.

3. Promotion

The success of developing a tourist village unable to be separated from the role of promotion in introducing tourist villages. Tourism village marketing is a promotional activity carried out to introduce to the public both domestic and foreign tourists about the existence of a tourist village with all its potential, conditions, and tourist attractions. Wonogiri Regency which basically has a tourist attraction in the form of natural tourism. However, promotional activities related to the attractiveness of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency are still lacking, it is resulted in beauty of tourism potential in all villages in Wonogiri are not widely known. In this case, it is necessary to have many roles involved in marketing and promotion activities, both government and community. However, there are no integrated promotional activities. This is indicated by the low number of tourist visitors in villages that have tourism potential, which is caused by a lack of promotion.

4. Legal Vacuum


In general, the tourism potential in each village in Wonogiri Regency offers tourism objects based on natural beauty and charm such as: caves, mountains, forests, beaches, and cultural tourism. The potential of Tourism Villages in Wonogiri Regency has 95 Villages identified having ideas for developing tourism villages, 72 identified villages are classified as tourism villages, and 6 tourism villages have been designated as tourism villages based on SK BUPATI NO 566/247/HK/2020 dated September 25, 2020 .

Wonogiri Regency in developing the potential of tourism villages requires general and specific strategies to solve the obstacles that are inhibiting factors for the development of tourist villages. Obstacles in the development of tourist villages in Wonogiri Regency are human resources, inadequate infrastructure, very minimal promotion, and the legal vacuum governing on the tourist villages. Therefore, a general strategy is required based on the classification of pioneering, developing, and advanced tourism villages and a special strategy in accordance with the obstacles that are inhibiting factors for the development of tourism villages in Wonogiri Regency, including support from each element, called the community and stakeholders, infrastructure development as a support, activated promotional activities, and formed regulations related to tourist villages.

Acknowledgment and Funding Information

Special thanks go to the Dean of the Faculty of Law and the research team and the community service center of the Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Semarang for all their support. The research that forms the basis of this article was funded by the Faculty of Law, Semarang State University and Central Java, Indonesia with the University Research Grant scheme.

Data Availability

All materials and data used in this study were obtained lawfully from reliable sources and were approved by the research supervisor at the Universitas Negeri Semarang’s Research Centre and Public Services.


The views and opinions expressed in this article pure from the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated institution of the authors.


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