Research Article: 2018 Vol: 17 Issue: 4
Jerome Idiegbeyan-ose, Covenant University
Roseline Opeke, Babcock University
Nwanne Mary Nwokeoma, Covenant University
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of organizational culture on library staff turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study, the population consisted of all the 361 library staff in the private university in South-West, Nigeria and total enumeration was used. The research instrument used was a validated questionnaire. The findings revealed that there is a strong organizational culture in the libraries investigated, similarly, it was discovered that the level of turnover intention of library staff in the libraries studied was also high. The finding also revealed that there was a significant relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private University Libraries South-West, Nigeria, (r=0.018, P<0.05). hence, the study concluded and recommended that organizational culture of involvement should be more practiced, also the factors that contributed to the rate of turnover intention by library staff should be addressed by the university management so as to avoid the ugly trend of staff intentional turnover and Job insecurity in private university libraries should be addressed to reduce the level of turnover intention of library staff among others.
Organizational Culture, Turnover Intention, Library Staff, Private University Libraries, Nigeria.
Organizational culture can be described as the sum of basic assumptions, practices, principles, beliefs, norms and values that govern behaviour and actions of members of a particular organisation, community or society. It is an incorporated pattern of human behaviour that is special to a particular organisation and it is a powerful tool that influences employees’ behaviour and organisational success or failure. Organisational culture provides the fundamental values, beliefs and principles that serve as underpinning for any organisational practices and procedures. It is the pattern of shared basic assumptions which is invented, discovered or developed by a given group or an organisation as a method of doing things which have worked well enough to be considered valid and to be inculcated into new members of the organisation as the correct way to perceive, think, feel and do things in that particular organisation (Emerson, 2013). It is reported by scholars (Akhigbe et al., 2014; Bellary et al., 2015), that organisational culture is a powerful force that influences both employee dispositions and institutional success. It defines the acceptable behaviour in an organisation and at the same time, affects, the individual workforce satisfaction and turnover intention.
Turnover intention can be described as the rate to which a member of staff is willing to leave a particular organisation; it affects organisational sustainability and rating. Turnover intention is a process whereby an employee decides to quit or leave a particular organisation for another one for some reasons. It implies an employee’s personal anticipated likelihood that he or she has a deliberate intention to quitting the establishment in the near future. It can also be described as employee’s consideration or thinking to quitting a job (Long & Thean, 2011). Employee’s turnover intention has been a serious problem of organisations regardless of their size, locations or nature of business as the effect of high turnover intention on organisational objectives affects negatively the quality of organisational products or services (Long & Thean, 2011). Turnover intention may arise as a result of some factors or features directly present in an organisation such as, organisational policies, motivational strategies and organisational culture among others.
Statement of the Problem
The success or failure of any organisation to a large extent may be determined by the human factor. This is why organisations including library and information centres should take utmost attention to the human capital. The culture of any organisation may have significant influence on staff intention to leave or remain in any organisation. Organisational cultures that are not human friendly may lead to staff intention to quit the organisation. Researches revealed that the level of turnover intention of library staff in university libraries is high (Olusegun, 2012). This eventually will affect the organizational functions and services negatively, for example the negative effect of staff turnover such as cost of replacing the staff, training need, loss of investment on the staff and it will also slow down the work process in the organisations including library and information centres. This actually is a course for concern. Although some studies such as Seed et al. most of them are foreigners, there is need to investigate the case of Nigeria. Similarly, there is need to investigated the relationship between the independent of organizational culture on the dependent variable of turnover intention in the Nigerian context.
Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to investigate the influence of organisational culture on turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
1. Identify the organizational culture in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria.
2. Ascertain the level of turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria.
3. Establish the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries south-west, Nigeria.
1. What is the organizational culture in the chosen private university libraries in South-West?
2. What is the level of turnover intention of library staff in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in selected libraries.
Concept of Organizational Culture
Organizational culture can be described as the core value that defines corporate practices and behavioural pattern. It is a major factor that influences organizational decisions and actions. It represents the sum total of the assumptions, values, norms, symbols, technologies and behaviours of the organizational members (Alvi et al., 2014). In a similar way, Davoodalmousavi (2013) described organizational culture as set of beliefs, norms, values that guide the thinking and actions of employees in the organization.
In defining organizational culture, it is evident from literature that most definitions combine assumptions, values, norms, beliefs, ways of thinking and acting together to explain and discuss the concept of organizational culture. A study by Aldhuwaihi (2013) citing Quinn & Cameron (2011) reported that organisational culture has a strong relationship with the organisations values, mission, aims, goals and ways of building shared values. Similarly, organisational culture implies a system of intangible and indisputable beliefs that justify how organisational members conduct themselves. Also, Mateiu et al. (2013) pointed out that the organisational culture in any organisation is formed through the process of interactions among specific elements, such as organisation’s founder, selection criteria, top management and socialization. According to the authors, these elements in the organisation work together to create a unique organisational culture in that establishment or institution.
There are four types of organisation culture as propounded by Quinn & Cameron (2013) that can be practiced by any organisation. These are: Collaborate (Clan) Culture, Create (Adhocracy) Culture, Control (Hierarchy) Culture and Compete (Market) Culture.
Collaborate (clan) culture
This type of culture is family-like, which believes on mentoring, encouragement and working collectively. It is an open and pleasant work place atmosphere where workers share a lot about themselves. It can be compared to the extended family. Leaders are considered to be mentors or even parent like. Group allegiance and sense of practice are strong.
Create (adhocracy) culture
This type of culture is dynamic with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, entrepreneurial and creative place to work environment. A pledge to testing and thinking differently are what join the group.
Control (hierarchy) culture
An extremely planned and controlled ambience characterised by doing things right and formal. Policy and procedures guide behaviours. Leaders strive to be good coordinators. Maintaining a smooth-running organisation is most important. Official policies are what hold the group jointly.
Compete (market) culture
A result oriented and market driven organisation based on result achievement. The group is competitive and result driven. Leaders are challenging, hard-driving and productive. The emphasis on winning unifies the organisation. (Quinn & Cameron, 2013). It is possible for an organisation to have more than one organisational culture type because the different departments might be practicing different variants. Denison (2000) proposed an organisational culture theory. The theory is based on four cultural aspects in any organisation which are: involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission.
Leaders and employees are dedicated to their job and believe that they have a stake in the organisation when they have at least some contributions in decisions that will affect their work and their work is linked to the aim of the organisation and personal achievement.
Organisations are likely to be effective because they have strong cultures that are highly consistent, well-coordinated and well incorporated. Behaviours are entrenched in a set of core values and leaders and followers are capable at reaching agreement.
Denison’s theory stated that adaptability of an organisation implies the constantly changing in the organisation so as to advance the Organisations’ abilities to provide value for their clientele in an ever changing society.
According to Denison, mission defines the organisation; it gives the organisation a sense of purpose and path for achieving organisational goals. It also embroils the picture of the organisation in the future.
Concept of Turnover Intention
Turnover intention can be referred to as a situation whereby an employee decides to quit or leave a particular organisation permanently for some reasons. Oluwafemi (2013) describe turnover intention as an employee’s own projected probability or tendency to quit the organisation at some near future. In a similar way, Long et al. (2016); Tuzun (2007) defined turnover intention as a potential of employee who will be leaving the organisation in order to fulfil his/her interest and that it is a prediction by the employee as regards the period of time to work for the organisation. Turnover intention is what actually leads to turnover in organisations including library and information centres. Employee turnover are important issues in the field of human resources management, so all organisations must pay serious attention to these phenomena. Employees are the important source of success or failure for any organisation. Thus, for an organisation it is essential to acquire the right calibre of staff, at the same time sustain them for organisational success (Ahmed & Nawaz, 2015).
Phetkaew (2015) maintained that nowadays, employee turnover is a nightmare in many organisations. They further cited Balsam, Gifford and Kim and buttressed that when an employee leaves, the organisation is affected more than just the cost of recruiting and training a newcomer; they also lose the work continuity and productivity, as well as suffer from poor organisational confidence and repute. The author concluded that employee turnover can be a serious challenge for organisations, especially, when high performing employees leave the organisation and most of the time it is difficult to replace them.
Furthermore, Oluwafemi (2013) also recapped that timely discovery of employees’ job dissatisfaction through turnover intention measure would be more useful than taking corrective action after actual turnover had occurred. The author concluded that if the organisation is able to mediate in the likely reasons of turnover intention, it is likely to be able to proactively reduce the challenges of turnover in the organisation in the long run. Nyamubarwa (2013) pointed out that it is important to investigate turnover intention of employees and take appropriate action in time instead of addressing it after the employees have already left the organisation. This is because once the employee has quit the establishment; the employer has nothing to do than to undertake the cost of appointment and training another staff.
Turnover intention of workers has been a serious problem of organisations regardless of its size, locations or nature of business, as problem of high turnover intention will affect the organisational objectives. Employee turnover in organisations is costly and it affects the quality of organisational products or services negatively (Long & Thean, 2011). Researchers have shown that there are many factors that may lead to employees’ turnover intention such as organisational policies, among others. Limor (2015); Ladelsky & Catana (2013) discovered that the causes of turnover intention in an organisation are human resource management connected matters, organisational culture, job related issues, leadership style among others. Das & Baruah (2013) also stressed that the success of any organisation depends upon the retention of key employees and to a great extent customer satisfaction and overall organisational performance as well as attraction of first rate skills and manpower sustainability.
In addition, Arshadi & Shahbazi (2013) explained that workplace characteristics affect workers perceptions and behaviours in the organisation in which they work; workplace characteristics imply how the worker feels about the workplace. The feeling may be positive or negative and this may result to intention to stay or quit the organisation as the case may be; there are some workplace characteristics that are essential to the employees’ job security, remuneration equality, team information sharing and management in general as this could influence workers feeling about their work itself.
Ergado & Gojeh (2015) investigated factors that influence library staff turnover pattern and retention in academic libraries in Ethiopia. The authors concluded that there were factors that could influence library staff turnover pattern and retention in academic libraries of the Ethiopian public and private Universities. Such factors as listed in the study include: poor incentives, unfair or unequal treatment, disparity in salary between library staff and their counterparts in other jobs among others.
Studies have shown that there are various factors that can cause turnover intention of librarians. Many scholars have linked turnover intention to salary, promotion and work environment, management style among others (Ikonne & Onuoha, 2015; Long et al., 2016; Nyamubarwa, 2013) classified the factors that influence turnover intentions in organisations into three: external environmental, individual factors and organisational factors. Nyamubarwa (2013) also added facet of the work environment as factor that could influence employee turnover intentions to include employee participation and involvement. Librarians’ turnover intention should be taken into consideration by the management of library and information centres so as to avoid the effects of turnover intention of librarians especially in private university libraries.
Therefore, turnover intention and actual turnover has serious and negative impact on an organisation’s work force, expenditure, products and services. Long et al. (2016) that turnover is a scale of an employee who leaves or quit the organisation voluntarily or involuntarily and this affects the cost of expenses in the organisation including library and information centres. Similarly, Long et al. (2016) stressed that employee turnover will lead to negative impact on the organisation, especially in the area of finance in the organisation; this is true because the organisation need to spend money on advertisement, recruitment and training, at the same time, it affects the organisational performance, product and services.
Employees leaving an organisation for whatever reason must have an effect on the organisation’s products or services and the people that compose it. Employee turnover is expensive for the organisation in terms of finance, loss of competitive manpower and organisational reputation. Voluntary turnover, which represents the movement of human capital asset from organisations and the cost of replacement of staff among others, is a burden that organisations have to carry for turnover of employees (Mbah & Ikemefuna, 2012).
Organizational Culture and Turnover Intention of Librarians
Organizational culture involves the beliefs, norms and values that characterize a particular organisation. It is a vital issue that can affect the behaviours of employees in an organisation and it affects employees’ turnover intention. Studies have shown that organisational culture is related to turnover intention of employees. (Medina, 2012; Yeun & Han 2015). Kee (2010) pointed out that Employees tend to demonstrate turnover intentions when organisational culture does not match with their expectations. Emerson (2013) investigated organisational culture, job satisfaction, turnover intentions and the mediating role of perceived organisational support. The findings showed that organisational culture has significant relationship with turnover intentions. It was also found that humanistic culture that provides employees with the flexibility to respond to change, organisational support and job satisfaction influences turnover intention of employees, whereas, bureaucratic culture that is rigid in nature is positively related to turnover intention of employees. Put in another way, organisational culture is significantly related to turnover intention of employees either positively or negatively. Medina (2012); Idiegbeyanose (2018) investigated leadership style, job Satisfaction and employee turnover Intention; the findings reveal that respondents, who scored high on workplace cultural satisfaction, are likely to express lower intention to find a new job than to those with low workplace cultural satisfaction. Similarly, the culture that is accepted by the employees, are likely to produce excellent results, attract, inspire and retain brilliant employees. In other words, organisational culture is significantly related to turnover intention of employees either positively or negatively in an organisation, including library and information centres.
In a similar study, Yeun & Han (2015) investigated the effect of organisational culture on nurses’ turnover intention, the mediating effect of workplace bullying and work burnout. The findings reveal that culture was found to have an indirect and positive effect on turnover intention. The authors further pointed out that this has important implications in that it provides baseline data for a turnover intention prediction in organisations.
The Role of Organisational Culture in Reducing Turnover Intention
Human needs are insatiable and varied and organizations have the obligation to meet the needs of her employees so as to avoid the loss turnover of its staff may cost her. Positive organisational culture, entailing staff welfare, growth and development will unequivocally reduce the turnover intention of employees. A culture that is in harmony with staff expectations will produce excellent results and staff satisfaction in the organization.
To this end, organisations should not be rigid in putting just one type of culture into practice but a mixture and maintain a positive organizational culture (Figure 1).
Survey research design of correlational type was used for this study. Correlational research design involves the measurement of two or more variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among the variables. The population for this study consists of the library staff (that is professional librarians, Para-professional librarians and library assistants) in all the 27 private universities in South West, Nigeria (National universities commission). The total number of respondents for the study was 361 (Personal contact with the University librarians and friends working in some of the libraries),
Total enumeration method was used in the study. All library staff in the 27 private university libraries in South-West Nigeria that is, 361 was used for the study. Hence there was no sampling. The instrument used to collect data was the questionnaire. The corrected copies of the questionnaire were distributed to all the library staff in the twenty seven (27) university libraries for the study. It was administered to all the library staff; professional librarians, Para-professional librarians and library assistants working in all the university libraries of the study.
Data collected for this study was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), 22.0 latest versions. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics that is, percentage, mean and standard deviation for research questions 1-2, while the hypotheses was tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), these were used to test differences or relationships between two variables in the study.
Research Question 1: what is the organizational culture in the chosen private university libraries in South-West?
Table 1 reveals that there is a strong organizational culture in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria judging by the high average means score of 3.46 on the scale of 4. It can be deduced from the table that the aspects of organizational culture that were more practiced in their organizations were adaptability (average mean=3.88), that is customer focus, followed by mission (average mean=3.77), clear goals and objectives and a view of desired future, followed by consistency (average mean=3.73) implying that organizational members are able to reach agreement and work together and involvement (average mean=2.46) that is staff capacity development initiative. This implies that the private university libraries investigated have a very high culture of customer driven and organizational success but the culture of employee capacity development and personal work initiative is low.
Organizational Culture in Private University Libraries
|The organisation is able to create adaptive ways to meet changing needs||273||32||0||0||3.90||(0.31)||3.88|
|The organisation understands and reacts to their customers and anticipates their future needs||303||2||0||0||3.99||(0.08)|
|The organisation receives, translates and interprets signals from the environment into opportunities for encouraging innovation, gaining knowledge and developing capabilities||230||75||0||0||3.75||(0.43)|
|Clear strategic intentions convey the organisation’s purpose and make it clear how everyone can contribute and make their mark in the organisation||194||111||0||0||3.64||(0.48)||3.77|
|A clear set of goals and objectives can be linked to the mission, vision and strategy and provide everyone with a clear direction in their work||247||58||0||0||3.81||(0.39)|
|The organisation has a shared view of a desired future state||259||46||0||0||3.85||(0.36)|
|Members of the organisation share a set of values which create a sense of identity and a clear set of expectations||215||90||0||0||3.70||(0.46)||3.73|
|Members of the organisation are able to reach agreement on critical issues (including reconciliation of differences)||260||45||0||0||3.85||(0.36)|
|Different functions and units of the organisation are able to work together well to achieve common goals.||194||111||0||0||3.64||(0.48)|
|Individuals have the authority, initiative and ability to manage their own work||0||0||305||0||2.00||(0.00)||2.46|
|Value is placed on working cooperatively toward common goals for which all employees feel mutually accountable||181||124||0||0||3.59||(0.49)|
|The organisation continually invests in the development of employee’s skills in order to stay competitive and meet on-going customers/user’s needs.||20||2||172||111||1.77||(0.76)|
Key: SA=Strongly Agree, A=Agree, D=Disagree, SD=Strongly Disagree, M=Mean, SD=Standard Deviation, AM=Average Mean
Research Question 2: What is the level of turnover intention of library staff in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
1-1.4=VL (Very Low), 1.5-2.4=L (Low), 2.5-3.4=H (High), while 3.5-4=VH (Very High) the criteria mean=2.50 that is 4+3+2+1=10 ÷ 4=2.5. This implies that any score less than 2.5 are considering low.
Table 2 shows that library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria considered their level of turnover intention to be very high judging by the average mean score of 3.57 on the scale of 4. Availability of job alternatives (average mean=3.88) that is establishment of more universities in the countries and higher qualifications and experiences of the staff contributed more to their high turnover intention. Job stress (average mean=3.77) that is too much job demands and deadlines at work also contributed to high rate of turnover intention, Organisational injustice that is favouritism and unfair treatment of library staff is also another predictor of turnover intention (average mean=3.61). Also, hostile work environment contributed to high turnover intention (average mean=3.37) and job insecurity was also high (average mean=3.37) meaning that the fear of job loss by library staff in private university libraries contributed to their high rate of turnover intention.
Level of Turnover Intention of Respondents
|Availability of Job Alternatives|
|There is available employment opportunity in this my profession||254||51||0||0||3.83||(0.37)||3.88|
|More universities are been established so I can get another job||257||48||0||0||3.84||(0.36)|
|With my qualifications and experience I can get another job||295||10||0||0||3.97||(0.18)|
|I spend longer time at work||166||139||0||0||3.54||(0.50)||3.77|
|I get moody when I am at work||256||49||0||0||3.84||(0.37)|
|I feel that there is too much dead/life lines at my work place||233||72||0||0||3.76||(0.43)|
|I feel exhausted due to too much work at my office||269||36||0||0||3.88||(0.32)|
|I am stressed at work as a result of conflict job demands||303||2||0||0||3.99||(0.08)|
|I am stressed out at work as a result of fear of job loss||192||113||0||0||3.63||(0.48)|
|I regularly experience fatigue at my job||217||88||0||0||3.71||(0.45)|
|The reward system in my organisation cannot be compare to the work I do||174||131||0||0||3.57||(0.50)||3.61|
|Employees are not treated fairly in this organisation||170||135||0||0||3.56||(50)|
|There is favouritism in this organisation||133||172||0||0||3.44||(0.50)|
|Employees are not treated based on merit||271||34||0||0||3.89||(0.32)|
|Hostile Work Environment|
|My office is not conducive||271||34||0||0||3.89||(0.32)||3.37|
|The immediate boos is not supportive||224||81||0||0||3.73||(0.44)|
|My co-workers are not friendly||72||0||120||113||2.10||(1.14)|
LEVEL OF TURNOVER INTENTION OF RESPONDENTS
|The working conditions is not favourable||230||75||0||0||3.75||(0.43)|
|The job in this organisation is not secure||269||36||0||0||3.88||(0.32)||3.22|
|I am afraid of losing my present job.||265||40||0||0||3.87||(0.34)|
|I can keep my current job for as long as I want it.||16||4||127||158||1.60||(0.76)|
|I am not really sure how long my present job will last.||164||141||0||0||3.54||(0.50)|
Key: VH=Very High, H=High, L=Low, VL=Very Low, M=Mean, SD=Standard Deviation; AM=Average Mean
Table 3 shows that the mean of organisational culture in private University Libraries South-West, Nigeria was 3.46, SD=0.14, while that of turnover intention was 3.57, SD=0.11. The correlation of coefficient obtained was -0.018 with p-value<0.05. The result showed negative correlation between organisational culture and turnover intention of library staff. There was a negative significant relationship between the organisational culture and turnover intention as indicated in the above table as (r=-0.018, N=305, P<0.05). Null hypothesis is rejected. This indicates that there is significant relationship between organisational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private University Library, South-West, Nigeria.
Correlation Analysis Between Organizational Culture And Turnover Intention Of Library Staff In Private University Libraries South-West, Nigeria
Significant at 0.05 levels
Research question one showed that there is a strong organisational culture in the private University libraries investigated with overall mean 3.48 on a scale of 4; but the prevalent organisational culture were adaptability, that is customers focus (average mean=3.88), followed by mission, meaning organisations have a shared view of their purpose and desired future, they have a clear set of goals (average mean=3.77), followed by consistency, meaning that the organisational members share a set of values and identity, (average mean=3.73) and involvement, which implies that the organisations continuously invest in the employee’s skills (capacity building) (average mean=2.46).
Research question two showed that library staff in private University libraries in South-West Nigeria turnover intention was very high. This supported the earlier study of Olusegun (2012), who investigated the turnover intentions of library personnel in selected universities in southwest Nigeria with the purpose of finding out the level of turnover intention of the librarians. The author discovered that the turnover intention of librarians in the libraries investigated was high. The finding of this research suggests that the major contribution to their very high turnover intention of library staff in South-West Nigeria were their belief that they were not treated based on merit, neither was the reward system fair. This finding is also in support of the previous studies on the factors that may lead to employees’ turnover intention such as organisational policies, among others. Limor (2015); Ladelsky and Catana (2013) discovered that the causes of turnover intention in an organisation are human resource management related issues, organisational culture, job related issues, leadership style among others. This present study also corroborated the study of Ergado and Gojeh (2015) that also discovered poor incentives, unfair or unequal treatment, poor supervision, unsatisfactory salary, disparity in salary between library staff and their counterparts in other jobs as causes of turnover intention.
From the findings and analysis presented in Table 3, the null hypothesis was rejected. This implies that there was a significant relationship between organisational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private University Libraries South-West, Nigeria, (r=0.018, P<0.05). The finding corresponds with previous studies conducted by some scholars; Yeun and Han (2015); Emerson (2013); Medina (2012); Kee (2010). The authors affirmed the significant relationship between organisational culture and turnover intention of employee in organisations. The implication of this is that organisational culture that is human friendly lead to reduction in turnover intention of employee in private university libraries.
The level of turnover intention in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria is high because for serious concern, management of private universities in South-West Nigeria should pay serious attention on the organisational culture that is staff friendly that is involvement culture should be more practiced. That will make the staff to own the work, satisfied with the work and at the same time continue to work for the organisation, leading to low rate of staff turnover.
1. Organisational culture of involvement should be more practiced by the library and university management in private universities; this will definitely reduce the level of library staff turnover intention in private university libraries.
2. The factors that contributed to the rate of turnover intention by library staff such as job insecurity, hostile work environment, job stress, lack of social support among others should be addressed by the university library and management so as to avoid the ugly trend of staff intentional turnover.
3. Job insecurity in private university libraries should be addressed by the management in private universities in Nigeria to reduce the level of turnover intention.
4. The work environment in some private university libraries should be improved upon by library and university management in order to reduce the rate of turnover intention.
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