Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 1
Sadi Taha, Al Dar University College
Mahwish Sindhu, Al Dar University College
Ahmad Albloush, Amman Arab University
Tareq M. Osaili, University of Sharjah and Jordan University of Science and Technology
Eslam Alhogaraty, Al Dar University College
Op Bohra, Al Dar University College
Citation Information: Taha, S., Sindhu, M., Albloush, A., Osaili T.M., Alhogaraty. E., & Bohra, O. (2022). Investigating the role of job commitment and satisfaction in the correlations between knowledge, attitude and behavior among the food handlers in Dubai, UAE. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 20(S1), 1-16.
Issues concerning food safety required a vigilant consideration by the management executives in the foodservice sector to mitigate risks relative to user's tourism, economy, and health. The current study sought to analyze the statistical correlation between behavioral intentions towards hygienic food practices, attitude and knowledge exhibit by the food safety personnel working in Dubai-based restaurants; the implications of knowledge and attitude concerning food safety on incumbent's workplace commitment and, eventually, on the food handler's attitude concerning food safety. In addition to this, the implications of the attitude and knowledge concern food safety on personnel work satisfaction and, ultimately, food handler's behavioral practices concerning food safety. For data collection, a self-administered survey-based questionnaire comprising food safety behavior, knowledge, attitude, workplace commitment and job satisfaction was executed among the food safety handlers working at 90 restaurants across Dubai, UAE. The SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) techniques have been adopted for wide-ranging results in the quest for analyzing obtained data. The findings demonstrated that the correlation between food handler’s behavioral intention towards hygienic workplace practices, knowledge and attitude with the food handler's workplace commitment and the correlation between workplace commitment and behavioral practices among the food handlers were significant and positive (PË-0.05). Last but not least, the empirical relationship knowledge and attitude concerning food safety with workplace satisfaction among food handlers and the correlation between behavioral practices and workplace satisfaction among the food handlers were significant and cheerful.
Restaurants, Management, Structural Equation Modelling, Food Safety, Mediator.
The food safety handlers must have a distinctive approach to ensure that cross-contamination could be mitigated, preventing users from food-borne illnesses Seow et al., 2021). The handlers concerning food safety should build knowledge through practical job training to ensure practicing the correct way of handling food in restaurants Martins et al., (2012).
In the context of food handlers, there are several significant factors: the significance of personal hygiene, acute exposure to the predictors of food-borne illnesses, and the transmission agent coupled with the appropriate practices concerning food handling Bas et al., 2006) . Some bacteria could be spread from the personnel to the food if the personnel neglected the significance of hygienic practices during the food processing.
Job Satisfaction convinces organizational personnel to mitigate their turnover intention and nonappearance, increase their efficiency and job responsibility, and optimize their enthusiasm level at the workplace Islam & Ahmed, (2018), Joanna & Jerzy, (2020). A plenty of past studies investigated and measured the implications of behavior, knowledge and practices among the food safety handlers Aquino et al., (2021); Taha et al., (2021).
Some empirical studies indicated the association among knowledge, behavior and attitude concerning food safety. However, few empirical studies investigated the correlation between behavior, attitude and knowledge concerning food safety and the level of job satisfaction among food safety handlers. The current study investigated the attitude, knowledge and behavior of food safety handlers associated with restaurants located in Dubai. This study also explores the correlation between knowledge and attitude concerning food safety and the job behaviors of food handlers through the mediating impact of job satisfaction and commitment.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Food Safety Behavior
H Food consumption and lifestyle behaviors have changed dramatically. The rate of eating has increased in different catering establishments compared to preparing food at home. 48.7% of food-borne diseases resulted from the growth of food services. The potential risks of food-borne diseases are relatively more across developing regions, including Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), compared to the developed regions resulting from the inadequate control policy manuals and monitoring data. In addition to this, knowledge concerning food safety along with food handler's attitudes was investigated across the different parts of the world with a strong emphasis on the related practices adopted by different suppliers, health sector organizations, hospitality firms as well as higher education institutions Ncube et al., (2020); Tuncer & Ako?lu, (2020).
Food safety is evolved around KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) framework that contemplates food safety as a precursor that disrupts behavior and manipulates attitudes. Sani & Siow (2014) pointed out that general knowledge of food safety, attitudes, and practices among food handlers in Malaysia was excellent. Such findings demonstrated that food safety knowledge significantly affects practices and behaviors. Moreover, food safety handlers attributed with adequate knowledge concerning hygienic workplace practices have infrequently implemented the insights during food processing of the food Sani & Siow (2014). Additionally, it has been asserted by Baser et al. (2017) that both a medium and high correlations level between attitude and knowledge concerning food safety and behavior and attitude concerning food, respectively. Therefore, the proposed hypothesis is as follows:
H1 Food handler's knowledge significantly affects food safety behavior.
H2 The food handler's attitude significantly affects food safety behavior.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Employee Commitment
Undoubtedly, knowledge is an essential workplace predictor that enables organizations to experience a sustainable competitive edge over the market Wang & Noe, (2010). It has been asserted by Tuglo et al. (2021) that organizational ability concerning knowledge management could significantly affect the firm's overall effectiveness along with the workplace commitment. Additionally, knowledge management practices foster organizational Commitment Razzaq et al., (2019).
Food Safety knowledge alone will disrupt the behaviors of food handlers concerning food safety. Robust and dynamic training about food safety executed with corporate support, sufficient resources, and peer support will elevate GHP (Good Hygiene Practices) at the workplace Silva et al., (2021). Moreover, knowledge and reinforcement coupled with appropriate behaviors can mitigate the likelihood of food-borne illness. Undoubtedly, sustainability in GHP mainly relied upon the capacity to integrate productive attitudes, behaviors, and continual education of food safety handlers. Particular food handling and managing associated risks and hazards more effectively require that both the owners and managers possess comprehensive know-how concerning food safety challenges and positive behavior relative to personnel training and development, management frameworks, and food safety practices. Consequently, food safety personnel pose no harm to clients owning to their grievances concerning GHP in the food supply chain process Ko & Ni, (2020). Hence, food safety handlers might ensure that production, processing and distribution of food exhibit compliance with benchmarks and standards concerning GHP regulatory frameworks.
There have been three focal predictors of food poisoning occurrences concerning food handlers, including knowledge, attitude, vigorous training activities that significantly enhance the knowledge curve among food safety personnel. Nevertheless, adequate knowledge about practices concerning hygienic food practices does not essentially lead to significant disruptions in food handling attitudes and behaviors. Consequently, plenty of studies have been conducted about the knowledge, attitude, and food handlers' practices worldwide. These studies reinforce the significance of executing a fundamental training needs assessment and assessing training activities' robustness. Hence, these demonstrate that constant development practices are required to ensure continuous good hygienic food safety.
The most common reasons for food-borne diseases are infected workers, insufficient heating, utilization of toxic ingredients, cross-contamination, improper heat treatment, inadequate cooling, cooking, and unclean equipment & food contact services. Knowledge itself is not capable of automatically directed to food safety practices and behaviors. Still, the customer experiences likelihood to choose how to react concerning food safety practices and behaviors. Plenty of studies demonstrated disparities in food handlers and consumer knowledge and their food safety behaviors.
Unlike various consumers who have been trained to at least high school grades, most of the unclean food safety handlers have been reported to have inadequate training and developmental opportunities and any formal education concerning food safety behaviors which would play a crucial role regarding their fragmented and unhygienic knowledge, behavior and practices concerning food safety. Moreover, the building blocks of knowledge management, for instance, knowledge-centric HRM tool-kit and smooth managerial relations, foster workplace commitment by cultivating workplace satisfaction Kaldeen et al., (2021). Hence, we propose the following hypothesis:
H3 Food handle's knowledge significantly affect employee commitment.
H4 Food handler's attitudes significantly affect employee commitment.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction refers to the degree to which administrative personnel dislikes or like their workplace positions Usmanova et al., (2020). Knowledge management processes in organizations help individuals establish a mutual comprehension and extract value from Knowledge Bayona et al., (2020). Undoubtedly, knowledge acquisition optimizes the overall job satisfaction level resulting from the accessibility of new knowledge, improving productivity in executing tasks. In addition to this, the process of knowledge classification also enables incumbents to detect the particular piece of information they required to execute their tasks efficiently and effectively Kianto et al., 2016).
Undoubtedly, workplace satisfaction significantly contributes to the elevation of overall personnel wellbeing, sense of competence, freedom, and workplace commitment de Andrade et al., (2020). Plenty of experiences can also stimulate job dissatisfaction based on negative moderation, for instance, inadequate rewards, a mismatch between work-oriented efforts and compensation, a lack of career recognition and advancement, and a lack of workplace facilitation by the corporate leadership coupled with a fragmented relationship nature with peers and clients Akabanda et al., (2017). For instance, in hospitality sector organizations, transformational organizational leadership was negatively associated with corporate incumbents' psychological turmoil. Transformational leadership at the workplace indulges in the firm's scenarios and performs with a strong emphasis on affective and charismatic components of leadership, enhancing personnel satisfaction and aggregate performance Alqurashi et al., (2019). In contrast, a passive/absent leadership (i.e., laissez-faire leadership, etc.) was positively correlated with emotional turmoil among the organization's personnel.
The study conducted by Lee & Lee (2020) examined the correlation between organizational knowledge management practices and the incumbent's workplace satisfaction. The findings indicate a reciprocally significant positive correlation between the incumbent's workplace satisfaction and organizational knowledge management practices Singh & Sharma (2011). Moreover, the study of Nurdiaman et al. (2020) pointed out that organizational practices concerning Knowledge sharing positively affect personnel workplace satisfaction.
Researchers have done a lot of work in the past, but plenty of studies exhibit an insignificant correlation between workplace satisfaction and productivity; it is required to conduct more studies concerning personnel behavior, workplace satisfaction, and performance. These constructs are significantly correlated Awan & Islam, (2015). Incumbents who exhibit positive behavior at the workplace are perceived to be a focal contributor towards a firm's sustainable performance Celik, (2011) “job satisfaction is an emotion that comes out of climate and identification of management bound to managers' fair behaviors.” Individual competencies, smooth working relationships with colleagues, and commitment to work are essential for an organization's good performance. Awan & Islam (2015) pointed out a significant relationship between workplace satisfaction and the incumbent's behavior and performance. Also, they indicate that a positive workplace behavior demonstrates job satisfaction and other predictors, including rewards, career advancements, coworker's attitude and positive workplace climate also engender personnel performance. We propose the following hypothesis:
H5 Knowledge of food handlers positively influences job satisfaction.
H6 The attitude of food handlers positively influences job satisfaction.
Commitment and Food Safety Behavior
Firms must create a positive environment, commit incumbents to survival, and be focal competitors Taha et al., (2020). Undoubtedly, firms required committed personnel to establish and execute their policies because workplace commitment transforms incumbent behaviors towards the systematic and organized path Wu et al., 2020).
Commitment found has a good relationship with organizational personnel performance Srivastava & Dhar (2016). Workplace commitment among the food safety handlers could elevate workplace performance Griffith et al., (2010). Management support can be influenced employee work behaviors and performance Taha et al., (2020). Leadership support would enable incumbents more dedicated and satisfied with their organizations and jobs Simosi, (2012); Wilkins et al., (2017). Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:
H7 The commitment of food handlers significantly influences food safety behavior.
Job Satisfaction and Food Safety Behavior
Plenty of studies exhibit that organizational management executives want to have committed and satisfied incumbents who demonstrate psychological bonding with their workplace and feel good about their organizations; they choose to work with employees who positively perceive their workplace Taha et al., (2020). Organizational personnel who exhibit a greater degree of workplace satisfaction often love their organizations. In addition to this, incumbents who feel happiness at their workplace often dedicate their personnel time, exhibit extra-role behavior, adopt more innovative and creative approaches to prevent any hurdle in accomplishing their tasks, and facilitate their tasks to coworkers Silva et al., 2021).
A study conducted in Croatian companies found a clear link between the incumbent's workplace satisfaction and firm performance. Moreover, an in-depth evaluation indicates that the correlation between workplace satisfaction and a firm's performance is relatively significant than the relationship between a firm's performance and workplace satisfaction Bakoti?, (2016). Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:
H8 Food handler’s job satisfaction significantly influences their food safety behavior.
Job Commitment and Satisfaction as a Mediators
The mediating variable is the variable that mediates the impact of independent construct on dependent construct. Suppose the direct impact from variables such as knowledge or attitude on variable Y, such as food safety behavior, does not exist. The effect of the existing indirect variable is another variable, M, such as job satisfaction and employee commitment. In that case, M is a mediating variable Hair et al., (2006).
The incumbent's workplace commitment serves as a mediator between employee involvement and firm performance. Furthermore, Taha et al. (2020) reported an insignificant relationship between food handlers' attitudes and food safety. Also, they indicated that workplace commitment among food safety personnel partially mediates the correlation between each attitude and knowledge concerning hygienic food practices. Whereas Rahman et al. (2014) state that workplace satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between OCB and organizational personnel self-efficacy. In addition, they reported that workplace satisfaction significantly contributed to mediating the relationship nature of OCB and self-efficacy. The study conducted by Erum et al. (2020) was also demonstrated that workplace satisfaction had been served as a mediating construct; however, it mediated the relationship between OCB and job hallmarks. It has been evident that organizational personnel attributed with a greater degree of self-efficacy tends to be more satisfied with their jobs and thereby exhibit more OCB in return.
Therefore, the suggested proposition is as follows:
H9 The commitment of food handlers mediates the relationship between food handler’s knowledge, attitude, and behavioral intentions towards hygienic food practices at workplace.
H10 Job satisfaction of food handlers mediates the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and food safety behavior.
Based on an extensive review of the previous studies and proposed hypothesis, this study presents a research model shown in Figure 1.
Four hundred ninety-seven food handlers working in Dubai -UAE were expediently convinced to participate in the current cross-sectional study through an online self-administered survey-based questionnaire. The questionnaire involved a short brief about the study objectives. A statement that showed that contribution in this research is voluntary and that the participants may refuse to contribute or stop involvement at any point without any fear or consequence has also been explicitly mentioned. In addition to this, an illustration concerning the survey instrument is unidentified, and a secret was provided to the respondents. The participants have signed an agreement form regarding the consent to participate in this research.
As mentioned earlier, the adopted research instrument was a self-administered survey-based questionnaire. The validated copy of the research instrument in English language has been borrowed from formerly validated instruments in the studies aiming to assess included variables (i.e., workplace satisfaction, commitment, knowledge. behavior and attitude, etc.) by using a 5-point Likert scale among the food handlers, where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree. The research instrument has been translated into Arabic by using an authentic back translation approach suggested by Acar (2020) The questionnaire items involved 36 questions, including respondents' socio-demographic data analyzing each food handler's attitudinal practices, behaviors, knowledge, work satisfaction, and workplace commitment.
The academicians reviewed the developed questionnaire for additional optimization and pre-evaluated it on 30 personnel concerning food safety randomly selected from five food establishments. The participant's feedback was essentially positive as each of the survey questionnaires has been obtained within 15-20 minutes with zero missing values.
Aiming to assess the item's variance adequacy, the researcher performed Bartlett's test of sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin tests. The consequent values were evident at 0.940 (> 0.60) and level of significance at (P-value 0.000), demonstrating the presence of partial correlation between the observed constructs along with a nonappearance of the identity correlation matrix. Later on, both the CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) and EFA (Exploratory Factor Analysis) were performed to obtain and validate the reliable items concerning workplace commitment, knowledge, behavior, attitude, and workplace commitment. The item's factor loadings at > 0.4 have been selected as proposed by Taha et al. (2021). The adopted items loading concerning workplace commitment, behavioral practices, attitude, knowledge and workplace satisfaction lied in the range of 0.796-0.574, 0.827-0.743, 0.913-0.664, 0.895-0.461, and 0.843-0.607 (Table 1).
To confirm the reliability of the items coupled with the Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient concerning workplace commitment, behavioral practices, attitude, knowledge and workplace satisfaction are evident 0.701, 0.881, 0.885, 0.933, and 0.850 (> 0.70) (See Table 1). Harman's one-factor analysis was executed in this regard to verify that there is no likelihood of problem concerning common method bias in the dataset. It has been evident that one factor explained 37.594% of the variance relative to 33 observed variables as compared to the variance of 61.483% predicted by five variables, which indicates the nonappearance of common method bias in the dataset (Table 1).
Discriminant validity was obtained in the dataset by ensuring that AVE (Average Variance Extracted) exceeded S.V. (Shared Variance) for correspondent constructs. This showed that variable’s items are correlated to each other; the assessment of discriminant validity has been carried out by adopting an approach asserted.
The established conceptual model demonstrated in Figure 1 and the hypothesis relative to the research constructs has been proposed.
The obtained data has been analyzed and interpreted by using an approach called descriptive analysis of statistics. In addition to this, SEM (Structural Equation Modeling), CFA and EFA were performed by using different statistical software such as AMOS and SPSS. SEM was conducted to measure the suggested propositions, identify and exhibit the causal relationships between the observed variables, define the correlations exist between them, and analyze the goodness of the structural model fit. Empirically, the values said to be significant were established at P <0.05.
As evident from Table 2, 29.2% of the respondents were males, while 70.8% were female. Most of the respondents responded were unmarried (94.5%), and only 5.5% were married. Those who had training (50.6%) and 49.4% of the respondents had not experienced training exposure. In addition to this, Table 3 exhibits the correlation between socio-demographic hallmarks of the study respondents and their knowledge score. The knowledge concerning hygienic food practices by the food handlers was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with marital status, gender and training exposures. Compared to those with no training, the food handlers with training had the highest score (82%) than those with no exercise (76 %). The married food handlers had relatively the lowest (76.00%) than the available food handlers (83 %, highest score). On the other hand, female respondents demonstrated the highest score (82%) than the male respondents (73%).
|Table 2 Socio-Demographic Hallmarks of Food Safety Personnel (N = 497) Associated with Dubai-Based Food Establishments|
|Training /Awareness||Have training
Have no training
|Table 3 Association Between Socio-Demographic Hallmarks and Knowledge Score Among Food Safety Personnel|
Knowledge score (%)
|Have no Training||3.81||76.2|
|**Means with different letters in the same column are significantly different at <0.01
*** Means with different letters in the same column are significantly different at <0.001
A wide-ranging structural framework has been used to test the proposed hypothesis that includes various constructs such as workplace commitment, knowledge, behavioral practices, attitude and workplace satisfaction was established (Figures 2-4). Table 4 exhibit the findings from the structural framework exhibit that the obtained dataset has a good fit the suggested framework, χ2 of the framework was 2095 with 483 degree of freedom (df) (χ2/df=4.3), RMR was 0.047, CFI was 0.916, TLI was 0.908, IFI was 0.916. Lastly, the value associated with RMSEA was 0.058.
Figure 2 SEM: Knowledge (F5), Attitude (F2), Job Satisfaction (F3), Commitment (F1), and Behaviors (F4)
|Table 4 Goodness of Fit Indices for Structural Model|
|Fit indices||Model value||Accepted value||Reference|
|χ2/df||4.339||χ2/df ≤ 5||Schumacker and Lomax (2004)|
|RMR||0.047||RMR ≤ 0.08||Browne and Cudeck (1993)|
|CFI||0.916||> 0.90||Byrne (2010)|
|TLI||0.908||> 0.90||Bentler (1990); Byrne (2001)|
|IFI||0.916||> 0.90||Bentler (1990); Byrne (2001)|
|RMSEA||0.058||< 0.10||Bentler (1990); Byrne (2001)|
Assessments were made to test whether quantitatively significant relationship exist among behavioral practices, workplace satisfaction, knowledge, attitude, and organizational commitment among food safety personnel. The execution of SEM indicates that all of the suggested propositions are accepted. Hence, we may argue that food safety attitude and knowledge have positively related to work commitment and job satisfaction among the food handlers. Food handlers' attitude towards has a relatively more substantial impact on their job satisfaction than the knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge of food handlers has a more significant impact on commitment than attitude.
Knowledge, attitude, job satisfaction, and workplace commitment significantly correlated with behavioral practices among the food handlers. In addition to this, findings also exhibit a direct and correlation between food handler's attitudes and knowledge (β=0.54, P<0.001). It has also been evident that workplace satisfaction and commitment among the food handlers partially mediate the association among food handler’s knowledge, attitude and behavioral intentions towards hygienic food practices, as evident.
Indeed, food safety is a focal element to all key stakeholders such as state, health industry and restaurants as well Taha et al., (2021). Unhygienic and unsuitable practices concerning food handling at workplace consequence in food-borne illnesses Seow et al., 2021). The association between training, gender, and marital status with food handlers' food safety was significant (p<0.05). The result related to gender was contracted to a study carried out by Taha et al. (2020) that found an insignificant relationship with food safety and explained both males and work in the same working environment. The results related to training, marital status was agreed with by Osaili et al. (2017) that single, female, and training have more time to obtain knowledge and increased knowledge through their experience at homes and training sessions.
Taha et al. (2021) found that education and training programs does not essentially contributed in nurturing and cultivating hyenic food safety behaviours and attitudinal intentions among organizational personnel Aquino et al., (2021); Ncube et al., 2020). However, only a limited literature was investigated the predictors of behavioural intentions towards unhygienic food practices at workplace. The current research found that food safety personnel have been sufficiently inspired to be loyal with their organization. Besides, it confirmed that the provision of education and training opportunities at workplace significantly influence the incumbent’s behavioral intention towards hygienic practiced.
In addition to the provision of secure and safe working climate, leadership may require to elevate incumbent’s engagement level through comprehensive training programs and participation in the process of decision-formulation besides motivations to respond to the convictions concerning superior working climate. Creating such a positive and friendly environment will enhance employee job satisfaction and affect employee commitment accordingly.
Optimizing the incumbent’s level of work satisfaction through engagement undoubtedly has a significant implication on the incumbent’s loyalty and behavioral intentions towards hygienic work practices. The findings are in line with the existing literature which evident that the participation of personnel in organizational decisions making process significantly contributed in elevating their ultimate job satisfaction, which is essential to ensure that food safety personnel must have an in-depth contemplation about workplace challenges. They enthusiastically involve in the process of organizational decision making concerning remedial measures for further improvements. Thus, incumbents perceive more respected and valued in the provided workplace atmosphere. These practiced at workplace will eventually enhance incumbent’s loyalty and behavioral intentions towards hygienic practiced Erum et al., (2020). Moreover, the findings exhibit that motivation from the immediate managers significantly influence the mantra of loyalty and satisfaction among the food safety personnel.
Also, the results indicate that the management's encouragement directly affects the mantra of incumbent’s behavioral intentions and loyalty towards hygienic practices at workplace. A plenty of past studies’ results are in line with such results Wilkins et al., (2017). When incumbents attribute their leadership meeting their requirements, their loyalty would be optimized, and they perceive valued simultaneously at workplace. Hence, leadership support undoubtedly is a focal predictor that engenders work satisfaction and commitment and thereby direct incumbent’s behavioral intentions towards hygienic work practices.
The obtained outcomes demonstrate that loyal organizational personnel are more likely to adopt hygienic work practices. Such outcomes are consistent with the past literature that verifies the significance of incumbent’s job commitment and its focal implications on elevating firm sustainable performance. Incumbents may exhibit such behaviors looked-for leadership through LMX when they perceive greater level of loyalty and workplace dedication (Islam et al., 2020). Thereby, the managers require detecting such kind of work practices that satisfy incumbents and optimize their behavioral intentions towards hygienic performance. In addition to this, the incumbents would also anticipate their organizations to indulge with robust communication patterns, empower them to regularly participate in organizational decision-making process, adequately train them, satisfy them and give them respect thereby elevate the ultimate level of incumbent’s job commitment and satisfaction.
Undoubtedly, the mantra of job satisfaction and loyalty among the food safety personnel positively affect their behavioral intentions towards their jobs. The perception of greater level of job satisfaction and loyalty among food safety personnel would ultimately help management ensure that food safety behavior is practiced. Therefore, food handlers with food safety knowledge and a positive attitude would enable them to practice hygienic behavior through appropriate job satisfaction and commitment levels. Food safety management should emphasize driving the job satisfaction and workplace commitment among the food safety personnel to increase optimizes organizational food safety performance. The current research also sheds light on the importance concerning personnel job satisfaction and loyalty in guiding the employee’s attitudinal intentions towards upholding hygiene at workplace.
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