Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 18 Issue: 3

Jordanian Housewives' Attitudes towards Home-Made Products Compared with Imported Produce

Ahmad Zamil, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University

Abstract

The main goal of this study is to identify housewives’ attitudes towards locally-made products in comparison with imported produce. Furthermore, it aims to detect the degree of their satisfaction with each product regarding its quality, advertising tools (the media) and targeted groups (Jordanian housewives) with a more focus on their attitudes towards home-made products, namely baby’s diapers. This study focused on collecting primary and secondary data through a structured questionnaire which was handed out to a sample consisting of 519 respondents and distributed all throughout Amman. The questionnaire included (4) items: the first item tackled the demographic factors of the Jordanian housewives, the second and the third items included different types of questions to explore housewives’ attitudes towards home-made baby’s diapers. The fourth item included specific statistical techniques that were used to achieve the research objectives and to examine related hypothesis such as the descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation frequencies and percentages), multiple regression, t-test for Paired Samples, and Two-Way ANOVA) test. The following results were concluded: 1) The attitudes of the Jordanian housewives showed negative attitudes towards home-made baby’s diapers in comparison with the imported produce. 2) Every independent variable regarding the quality, advertising tools, (the media), and the targeted groups affected the three components of the attitudes including the cognitive, effective, and perceptive components. 3) The correlation between the quality, the advertising tools, the targeted groups and the Jordanian housewives’ attitudes towards locally-made baby’s diapers do differ according to the difference in demographic variables. 4) The relationship between all independent variables (quality, the advertising tools, and the targeted groups) and Jordanian housewives’ attitudes towards locallymade baby’s diapers do differ with the difference of the demographic variables. The study focused on four main parts including: the theoretical framework of the study, consumers’ attitudes, and data analysis and finally the results and recommendations. 

Keywords

Housewives’, Home-Made, Imported Produce.

Introduction

Consumers are exposed to a variety of effects or external stimulations, which act as a source of information about a product or a particular brand, and thus affect the consumers’ desires, trends and their behavior towards certain product or brand (Al-Dossry, 2012; Badri, 1995). Among the external factors are those that are associated with components of the marketing and promotional mix of the manufacturing company which they are trying to make easy access to consumers, in order to persuade them to purchase and use those goods. The impact of these marketing and promotional efforts must be generally linked with the consumers’ convictions and desires (Angel & Blackwell, 1990). The second type of external factors is associated with social and cultural environment which has significant impacts on consumers’ attitudes and behaviors. The diapers are considered one of the essential commodities required by all families, and known for their familiar characteristics. Many housewives commonly prefer certain diapers rather than others and their attitude towards such products depends on several factors including: the brand name and its reputation in the market, the country that manufactured it, the attractive packing, the price, advertising and promotional activity. Moreover, the information and feedback which housewives get from published leaflets, free samples, and educational groups and public relations activities followed by the production or the marketing company of these diapers. Diapers’ market is characterized by its large size, which increases the difficulties of the marketing task of such goods as they are considered very important and essential items in all houses. In light of the importance of trends and their role in determining the extent of the individuals’ preferences to the purchase certain goods and services of all kinds, the researcher opted to study the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers for the purpose of improving and identifying effective marketing and promotional strategies that satisfy the needs and desires of consumers and respond seriously to face stiff competition from imported goods manufactured by the developed industrial countries.

Study Objectives

1. Identify housewives’ trends in Amman towards locally-made diapers compared with imported diapers from foreign countries.

2. Recognize the impact of the quality of the goods, the means of advertising and the targeted groups on Jordanian housewives’ trends towards home-made diapers compared with the imported items.

3. Find-out the nature of the relationship between the perceived quality of the goods and means of advertising and targeted groups on one hand, and the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers in comparison with those imported on the other hand.

4. Providing proposals and recommendations that aim at stimulating and strengthening the competitive position of the locally-made diapers.

Study Significance

The study stresses the need to increase studies that focus on consumers’ behaviors in various countries all over the world, especially in the developed countries. The research aims to highlights trends of some Jordanian women’s behavior concerning locally-produced goods such as “diapers” and compare them with the imported items.

The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:

1. What are the trends of Jordanian housewives towards national diapers compared with imported foreign made diapers?

2. What is the impact of perceived quality means of advertising and reference groups on Jordanian housewives’ trends towards home-made diapers compared with imported diapers?

3. Are there any differences in the relationship between the perceived quality of the goods, means of advertising and targeted groups and the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-produced diapers depending on demographic factors (such as educational level, age, marital status, employment status, category of monthly income and the number of family members)?

Study Hypotheses

This study is based on the following hypotheses:

1. Housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers were negative compared with imported items.

2. The perceived quality of the goods, the media, targeted groups, independent variables (perceived qualitymedia- reference groups) did not affect Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with imported produce.

3. The relationship between the perceived quality of the goods, the media, targeted groups, independent variables (perceived quality-media-reference groups) and the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers is not different, in terms of demographic factors (educational level, age, sociooccupational situation-monthly income-the number of family members).

Study Determinants

There was a poor cooperation from some Jordanian housewives in filling up the form of the research tool, in addition to the lack of awareness and understanding of the meaning of scientific research or the field study, which require a longer time in the distribution of questionnaires and collecting the papers.

Literature Review

A Study of (Al-Musawi & Btol, 1998) about (made in Bahrain) and its impact on public perception and purchasing decisions of consumer goods which results indicated that most the public felt that the country of origin is not a key factor that determines the purchase of consumer goods, but there are other factors such as: quality, price and packing. The study also confirmed that there was no strong relationship between public opinion and their demographic characteristics of the importance of the trade name of the product. Al-Otaibi (1998) focused on the targeted groups’ impact which was most influential in rural and urban areas, and the similarities and differences between the impacts of the targeted groups in consumer choice of brand of those goods. The findings revealed that there was an effect of the targeted groups on the selection brand of durables and this impact differs between rural and urban areas, however, targeted groups influence was not different in the choosing process of the brand of goods by different demographic factors individually (educational level, age group, choose the brand of durables, (a study on the rural and urban areas in Jordan), to identify the targeted groups influence on the choice of the brand of durables (cars, fridges and TVs) and to identify which groups, income level, gender, number of members Family).

Targeted groups in rural and urban areas play an important role in choosing the brand that was attributed to financial and social risks. Sumaida'ie (1996), conducted a research on the impact of the product properties on the consumer acceptance (a study applied on soda drinks): studying the relationship between the characteristics of the product and consumer acceptance & targeted groups. Among the main results was that consumer's interest in the characteristics of the product as they have a strong impact on the level of assessment, (as far as the product had high properties, it had a better assessment). Taani (1997) conducted a study regarding the Jordanian consumer trends towards consumer goods (a case study of coffee) to determine if there was a difference between Jordanian consumer trends to boycott according to different demographic factors (gender, age, and educational level, the housing and monthly income). Main results the relationship between coffee consumers’ region and the components of trends (cognitive component, willingness component, and feeling component) separately differ by different demographic factors. And also the relationship varies between Jordanian consumers’ boycott of coffee goods and their trends according to different demographic factors.

Tamlih (1996) made a study on the impact of promotional tools on Jordanian women trends in use of skincare lotions (a comparative study between working women and unemployed women). The objectives of this study were to identify Jordanian women trends (workers and non-workers) to use skincare lotions, as a result of their exposure to various promotional tools, the impact of each mean to the trends of Jordanian women. The researcher also focused on identifying means of promotion used in skincare’s’ lotions marketing in the Jordanian market.

The results showed that there was a positive trend of Jordanian women towards the use of these products and that there were no statistically significant differences between these trends among working and non-working Jordanian women. Moreover, Jordanian women believed that promotional methods used in the Jordanian market, especially by local producers of skincare lotions were unconvincing and not up to desires of the members of the target market. Jordanian women were still loyal to imported brands for their conviction of the quality of these brands and their fear of making a risk by using local brands. The study stressed the importance of combined promotional tools in influencing attitudes of working or non-working Jordanian women. The order of means by their influence of Jordanian women trends was at the top the personal selling style followed by advertising, public relations activities and sales activation methods (educational groups and samples and brochures) and finally packing.

A study of Maria (2000), aimed at identifying Palestinian housewives’ trends towards women's locally ready-made clothing compared with those imported, also aimed to assess the impact of perceived quality, means of advertising and targeted groups on Palestinian housewives’ trends towards local clothing and garments. The study found those Palestinian housewives’ trends towards locally-produced clothing was negative compared to those imported. The perceived quality, means of advertising and targeted groups affect the three components of trends. The relationship was not different between each of the perceived quality and means of advertising and targeted groups separately and between Palestinian housewives’ trends towards locally ready made clothes by differing demographic factors. The relationship varies between the compounded independent variables and Palestinian housewives’ trends towards women’s locally readymade clothing compared with imported ones by the changing demographic factors.

Conceptual Framework

Solomon (2018) defined the trend as “a general and permanent evaluation for things by individuals, whether its material or a moral intangible thing such as: commodity, brand, retail stores, and brand reputation”.

Schiffman et al. (2012), defined trends as “those tendencies caused by learning which makes the consumer Act in a positively or negatively manner towards something that may be a commodity, brand, advertising ... etc.”

Trends’ Measurement

Researchers measured behavior using some or all of the measuring tools such as Obeidat (2004:2008):

1. Behavior observation: Relying on direct measures we identify consumer trends where we as individuals cannot enter into their minds and identify their patterns of behavior. One important measure is to observe consumers’ behavior and to conclude their attitudes. Where the observation method can be seen as one of the important methods whether directly or indirectly used in identifying consumers’ trends in addition to their opinions and beliefs. However, there is a great difficulty in reaching acceptable results on consumers’ trends depending on the method of observation. Generally speaking, the method of observation, whether directly or indirectly, is a human mechanism which makes it a reason for other research methods.

2. Qualitative research methods: These methods include in-depth interviews, focus groups and others, as they are useful in configuring different themes of theoretical frameworks, as well as understanding the nature of the components of consumers’ trends. Qualitative methods for these methods have deep roots in social psychology, through open-ended answers obtained through the process of stimulating respondents to indicate their beliefs, thoughts, feelings and real experiences.

3. Self-report attitude scale: With regard to consumers’ behavior as well as to other domains such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, this method was adopted by preparing a questionnaire which was directly oriented to a sample of consumers to detect their opinions and feelings about a product, service or a theme, on a condition that this questionnaire contains a number of open and closed questions that are answered by the targeted group, to ensure reliability and validity of the tool to measure the trends regardless of circumstances and attitudes.

Trademark Effect on Consumers’ Trends

Consumers’ trends towards a particular service or commodity brand clearly affect the decision to buy them, and accordingly, salesmen often care about marketing trends in consumers’ goods to determine the mental image held by consumers of these goods, a major impact on the success or failure of the commodity in the market Kotler et al. (2016); William & Ferrell (2017). Many studies, Al-Fetyan (1988); Bahaddad et al. (2013); Al-Shudukhi & Habib (1996); Chawla et al. (1995); Md Afnan (2015); Johansson et al. (1985); Obeidat (1992) on the trends demonstrated that mental image held by consumers about the source of the goods where the product’s country of origin shows the industry’s development and advance reached by that country also and the extent of the influence of the characteristics and main features of this commodity, on the consumers’ mental image of commodities produced in that country.

Methodology

Study Population

This study population included Jordanian housewives who use diapers in Amman the capital, and a (Convenient Sample) was chosen taking into account certain conditions: the comprehensiveness of the study sample of different age groups of women, it comprised housewives who live in different places in the region of Amman the capital .These housewives were selected with different income levels and different educational and occupational situations, with different number of family members. This selection took into account the factual status of the economic and social characteristics of products in the diapers’ market.

600 questionnaires were distributed in different parts of Amman. (48) Questionnaires were returned and (33) were rejected for reasons related to conflict or incomplete. (519) questionnaires were collected and applicable for the analysis.

Reliability

The test (Alpha Kronbakh) was applied to measure the stability of the measurement tool, which is considered appropriate measurement if the value of Cronbach Alpha was over 60% then it is acceptable Knier & James (1993). Alpha value reached 90.26% which is excellent and higher than the accepted 60% ratio.

Normal Distribution Test

Test (Kolmogorov Smirnov) was used to measure the extent of the questions’ normal distribution, where (p-value) reached zero which is lower than the level of significance (5%).

Test Multi-Colleniority

Correlation matrix was applied between the independent variables with the highest value for (r)=8801, between the variables perceived, the targeted groups and by compensation in the equation:

VIF=1/1-r2

=4.44

So, the value VIF<5 means that there was no multi-colleniority. This indicates that the study model was appropriate.

Collecting Data Methods

There were two kinds of data:

1. Secondary data, which contained the survey theory and the field studies.

2. Primary data which was obtained directly through the preparation of the questionnaire showing the various variables and assumptions of the study, and demographic information for the sample terminology.

Analytical Unit

Distribution and orientation of the questionnaires in order to study attitudes of Jordanian housewives who lived in the area of Amman as they were considered the most capable of taking the decision to purchase the product.

Statistical Analysis Methods

Statistical methods were used:

1. Analytical Descriptive statistical methods (arithmetic means, standard deviations, redundancy, and ratios), to treat the descriptive data relating to age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income, marital status and number of family members.

2. Method of (t-test for Paired Samples) to test the hypothesis 1, Jordanian housewives trends towards locallymade diapers were negative in comparison with those imported.

3. Simple regression test (t-test) to test hypotheses 2-4, in order to test the relationship between all independent variables and the dependent variable.

4. Multiple regression test (Multiple regression) to test 5 and 9 hypotheses in order to identify the relationship between all independent variables and the dependent variable.

5. Binary Variance Analysis test (Two-way Anova) to test 6-8 hypotheses.

Test (Kolmogorov Smirnov) to test the normal distribution.

1. Correlation matrix: to find the relationship within the independent variables.

2. Cronbach’s alpha test for measuring the stability and credibility of the measurement tool (questionnaire).

Hypothesis Test

The following test examines hypotheses and their results:

Hypothesis 1

Ho: (Trends of female Jordanian towards locally-made diapers were negative compared with those imported).

Ha: (Jordanian housewives trends towards home-made diapers were positive compared with those imported).

T-test for (paired samples), was used when the trust level (95%), we found the results of computer in Table 1, the calculated value of t=(-1.54) less than their scheduled value when the degree of freedom is 518, since the resolution is: accept the null hypothesis (Ho) if the calculated value is lower than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis (Ho) if the calculated value is higher than the scheduled value

Table 1: Hypothesis 1 Test Results
Hypothesis No. Mean of answers Mean of Measurement tool  mean T
Calculated
T
Schedule
2- TAIL
SIG
Null Hypothesis Result
G.H.1 * 2.8974 3 1.54- 1.96- 1.25 acceptable

Thus, we accepted the null hypothesis (Ho) and rejected the alternative hypothesis (Ha). We also found that the answer’s mean was (2.8974) which was less than the measurement tool’s average 3, this means that the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers were negative compared with those imported. That reflects the inability of locally-made diapers to satisfy the needs and desires of Jordanian housewives.

Hypothesis 2

Ho: (perceived quality does not affect Jordanian housewives’ trends towards home-made diapers compared with the imported ones).

Ha: (perceived quality affects Jordanian trends’ towards home-made diapers compared with imported items).

The simple regression test (t-test) was applied at the level of confidence (95%), the results of computer are illustrated in Table 2, the value (calculated t=9.111) was higher than the scheduled t-value when the degree of freedom was (518), as the base resolution: accept the null hypothesis (Ho) if the calculated value is lower than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis if the calculated value is greater than the scheduled value. In light with the above mentioned results, we reject the null hypothesis (Ho) and accept the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that the perceived quality influence Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locallymade diapers as compared with those imported.

Table 2: Hypothesis 2 Test Results
Hypothesis no. T
Calculated
T
Scheduled
SIGT Null Hypothesis Result
G.H.2 9.111 1.96 0.001 refusal
S.H. a 7.314 1.96 0.001 refusal
S.H. b 9.573 1.96 0.001 refusal
S.H. c 9.612 1.96 0.001 refusal

Hypothesis 3

Ho: Media does not affect the trends of Jordanian housewives towards locally- made diapers as compared with those imported.

Ha: Media does affect the trends of Jordanian housewives towards locally- made diapers as compared with those imported.

T-test was applied at the level of confidence (95%), and we found the results of the computer in Table 3 where the value of (calculated t=5.678) which was higher than the scheduled value when the degree of freedom was (518), and as the resolution states: accept the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis Ho if scheduled value is higher than the calculated value. So, we rejected the null hypothesis Ho and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha. This means that the media affects trends of Jordanian Housewives towards locally-made diapers as compared with the imported ones.

Table 3 : Hypothesis 3 Test Results
Hypothesis no. T
Calculated
T
Scheduled
SIG T Null Hypothesis Result
G.H.3 5.678 1.96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. a 5.639 1 . 96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. b 5.696 1. 96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. c 5.353 1 . 96 0.001 Refusal

Hypothesis 4

Ho: (Targeted groups do not affect the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally- made diapers compared with those imported).

Ha: (Targeted groups do affect the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally- made diapers compared with those imported).

Using the (t-test) at the level of confidence (95%), we found the results of the computer in Table 4, the value of (calculated t=7.932) was greater than the scheduled value when the degree of freedom (518), and the resolution stipulates: accept the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is greater than the scheduled value. So, we rejected the null hypothesis Ho and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha. This means that the targeted groups influence Jordanian housewives’ trends towards the locally-made diapers as compared with those imported.

Table  4 : Hypothesis 4 Test Results
Hypothesis no. T
Calculated
T
Scheduled
SIG T Null Hypothesis Result
G.H.4 7.932 1.96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. a 6.216 1.96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. b 9.214 1.96 0.001 Refusal
S.H. c 7.526 1.96 0.001 Refusal

Hypothesis 5

Ho: The independent variables together: perceived quality, the media, targeted groups, does not affect the trends of Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported).

Ha: The independent variables together: perceived quality, the media, targeted groups, do affect the trends of Jordanian housewives towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported).

This hypothesis was tested by (Multiple regression) test at the level of confidence (95%), we found the results of computer in Table 5, the value of (calculated F=28.4277) was greater than the scheduled value when the degree of freedom was (515.3). Since the resolution is: accept the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is greater than the scheduled value, thus, we rejected the null hypothesis Ha and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ho.

Table 5 : Hypothesis 5 Test Results
Hypothesis No. F Calculated F Scheduled SIG F Null Hypothesis Result
G.H.5 28.4277 2.50 0.001 Refusal

This means that independent variables together affect Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported. This result supports the validity of the previous hypothesis results that the perceived quality of the goods means of advertising used and targeted groups affects Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers.

Hypothesis 6

Ho: The relationship between the perceived quality and Jordanian trends towards locally-made diapers did not change depending on demographic factors (age, education level, marital status, and gross monthly income group, and employment status, number of family members).

Ha: The relationship between the perceived quality and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locallymade diapers does change depending on demographic factors (age, education level, marital status, gross monthly income group, employment status, number of family members).

The Two-Way ANOVA test was used at level of confidence (95%), and the resolution says: accept the null hypothesis Ho if calculated F value is less than the scheduled value and reject the null hypothesis Ho if calculated F values is higher than the scheduled value, so, we rejected the null hypothesis Ho and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha, and this is evident through the computer results in Table 6. This means that the relationship between perceived quality and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers depending on demographic factors (age, education level, marital status, gross monthly income group, employment status, and number of family members). This result refers to the changing trends of Jordanian housewives towards quality, performance and appearance of locally-made diapers depending on demographic factors, this demonstrates the differences between various population groups in terms of attitudes and assessments of locally- made diapers, especially in terms of changing negative attitudes towards home-made diapers compared to those imported.

Table 6: Hypothesis 6 Test Results
Variable F
Calculated
F
Scheduled
SIG F Null Hypothesis Result
Age 9.289 2.37 0 refusal
Educational level 9.077 2.10 0 refusal
Employee status 15.259 2.50 0 refusal
Monthly income category 7.427 2.21 0 refusal
Social status 14.888 2.21 0 refusal
Number of family members 9.289 2.37 0 refusal

Hypothesis 7

Ho: The relationship between the media and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers did not change depending on demographic factors: age, education level, marital status, gross monthly income category, employment status, and number of family members.

Ha: The relationship between the media and among Jordanian housewives trends towards locally-made diapers does change depending on demographic factors: age, education level, marital status, gross monthly income category, employment status, number of family members.

The Two-Way ANOVA test was used at the level of confidence (95%). and base resolution: accept the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is greater than the scheduled value, so, we rejected the null hypothesis Ho and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha. This means that the relationship between the media and among Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers changes depending on demographic factors (age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income class, social status, and number of family members), as clarified by computer results in Table 7. This result refers to the changing trends and assessments of Jordanian housewives’ trends towards media of locally-made diapers depending on demographic factors, this demonstrates the differences between various population groups in terms of their assessment of the media on local made diapers, especially in terms of changing negative attitudes towards locally-made diapers compared to those imported.

Table 7: Hypothesis 7 Test Results
Variable F
Calculated
F
Scheduled
SIG F Null Hypothesis Ho Result
Age 9.057 2.37 0 refusal
Educational level 4.81 3.84 0 refusal
Employee status 14.572 2.50 0 refusal
Monthly income category 7.595 2.21 0 refusal
Social status 8.98 3.00 0 refusal
Number of family members 9.057 2.37 0 refusal

Hypothesis 8

Ho: The relationship between the targeted groups and Jordanian housewives trends towards locally-made diapers doesn’t change depending on demographic factors such as age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income class, marital status, number of family members).

Ha: The relationship between the targeted groups and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers do change depending on demographic factors such as age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income class, marital status, number of family members).

The Two-Way ANOVA test was applied at the level of confidence (95%), as the resolution states: accept null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value was greater than the scheduled value, we rejected the null hypothesis and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha (Table 8). This means that the relationship between the targeted groups and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers changes depending on demographic factors, this result refers to changing trends and assessments of Jordanian housewives’ trends towards the targeted groups in relation to locally-made diapers by the change in those demographic factors.

Table 8: Hypothesis 8 Test Results
Variable F
Calculated
F
Scheduled
SIG F Null Hypothesis Ho Result
Age 5.141 1.67 0 refusal
Educational level 3.399 1.57 0 refusal
Employee status 5.124 1.75 0 refusal
Monthly income category 4.158 1.57 0 refusal
Social status 6.661 1.83 0 refusal
Number of family members 5.141 1.67 0 refusal

Hypothesis 9

Ho: The relationship between the independent variables together: perceived quality, media, and targeted groups, and between Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported doesn’t change depending on demographic factors such as age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income class, marital status, number of family members.

Ha: The relationship between the independent variables together: perceived quality, media, and targeted groups, and Jordanian housewives trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported changes depending on demographic factors such as age, educational level, employment status, gross monthly income class, marital status, number of family members.

The (Multiple Regression) test was used at the level of confidence (95%), and the resolution says: accept the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is less than the scheduled value, and reject the null hypothesis Ho if the calculated value is greater than the scheduled value, so, we rejected the null hypothesis Ho and accepted the alternative hypothesis Ha (Table 9). This means that the relationship between the independent variables relationship vary together (which is the perceived quality, the media, and the targeted groups) and the Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported changes depending on demographic factors, and this is consistent with the results of the aforementioned hypotheses. This was due to the importance of the impact of perceived quality, means of advertising and targeted groups all together on Jordanian housewives trends towards locallymade diapers depending on demographic factors, and this underlines the need to take all these variables as an integrated unit when working to improve and develop local made diapers with the goal of transforming negative attitudes to positive trends to consumers to support the success of national goods in the market.

Table 9 : Hypothesis 9 Test Results
Variable F
Calculated
F
Scheduled
SIG F Null Hypothesis  Ho Result
Age 8.765 3.84 0.03 Refusal
Educational level 9.047 2.01 0 Refusal
Employee status 16.582 2.50 0 Refusal
Monthly income category 12.066 2.21 0 Refusal
Social status 16.582 2.50 0 Refusal
Number of family members 8.765 3.84 0.03 Refusal

The second part of the questionnaire was based on the descriptive statistical method to access each of the following results:

1. The number of Jordanian housewives who prefer to buy locally-made diapers was (173) ladies and their preferences for locally-made diapers ratios were as follows as shown in Table 10

Table 10: Jordanian housewives who prefer to buy locally-made diapers vs. Locally-made diapers
Preference Ratio No.
50% ≤ 60% 8
60% ≤ 70% 8
70% ≤ 80% 26
80% ≤ 90% 128
90% ≤ 100% 3

2. The number of Jordanian housewives who prefer to buy foreign made diapers was (346) ladies, and their preferences for foreign made diapers ratios were as follows as shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Jordanian housewives who prefer to buy foreign-made diapers vs. Locally-made diapers
Preference Ratio No.
50% ≤ 60% -
60% ≤ 70% -
70% ≤ 80% -
80% ≤ 90% 159
90% ≤ 100% 187

3. Arithmetic mean for the number of Jordanian housewives who buy locally-made diapers was (2.33); this means that Jordanian housewives had negative trends towards locally-made diapers. This supports the conclusions reached earlier in the analysis of the hypotheses.

4. The impression of Jordanian housewives towards imported diapers was good, with the arithmetic mean of their answers at (3.45) compared with the impression on locally-made diapers trend which was low and thus the Jordanian housewives had strong and positive impressions towards imported goods than on domestic ones.

5. The impression of Jordanian housewives towards locally-made diapers was low, with the arithmetic mean of their answers at (2.33), which was lower than the average measurement tool.

The Jordanian housewives’ most important principles and priorities were taken into account on the degree of preference when they intend to buy locally-made diapers, as follows as shown in Table 12.

Table 12: The Main Principles And Priorities Of The Jordanian Housewives When They Intend To Buy Locally-Made Diapers
Factors Percentage Arithmetic mean ranking
Packing quality 6.13 4
Design quality 5.69 5
Material quality 6.66 1
Performance quality 6.58 2
Variety of color, size and measurement 5.08 7
Reasonable price 6.56 3
Market reputation 3.92 11
Trade mark reputation 5.10 6
Country of origin 4.99 8
Media activities effectiveness 4.55 9
Reactions & thoughts of colleagues, relatives and acquaintances 4.04 10

Results

The researcher concluded the following findings:

1. Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers were negative compared with those imported.

2. The perceived quality influences Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers as compared with those imported.

3. That means of advertising affect Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported.

4. Targeted groups affect Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with imported.

5. The combination of independent variables influences Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers as compared with those imported.

6. The relationship between perceived quality, means of the advertising (media), targeted groups, independent variables, and Jordanian housewives’ trends towards locally-made diapers compared with those imported changes depends on the changes of the demographic factors (age, education level, marital status, gross monthly income category, employment status, and number of family members).

Discussion

The present research was aimed to compare the consumers’ perception and preference towards the local or imported products. Further, quality, and media of advertisement of the product were also inquired. To serve the purpose, data was collected from the 519 respondents through a well-prepared questionnaire. After the comprehensive analyses, we observed that Jordanian housewives have preferred the imported diaper over the local one. Further, the significant effects of quality, advertisement media and targeted group were found on the cognitive, effectiveness and perception constructs. These results are in line of the some of the previous studies (Al-Musawi & Btol, 1998; Al-Otaibi, 1998; Maria, 2000). Moreover, the demographic variables significantly affected the relationship among quality, advertising media, targeted group and housewives’ attitude towards the local diapers which is also matching with the finding of some past literature (Badri, 1995; Sumaida'ie, 1996; Taani, 1997).

Conclusion And Implications

In conclusion, the study concentrated on the need to adopt more comprehensive scientific research and studies in order to identify productive, marketing and promotional strategies in order to change the negative attitudes and perceptions towards home-made products. Same recommendations were also proposed. Based on the results, the present study suggests that it is imperative to work seriously towards improving and developing the quality and characteristics of the home-made products, and increase the effectiveness of the promotional tools and intensive marketing campaigns of the home-made products by publishing true information which helps build-up customers’ trust in domestic products in order to motivate them to purchase these homemade items.

References