Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues (Print ISSN: 1544-0036; Online ISSN: 1544-0044)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

Justice in Gradation of Female Academics in the Promotion Ladder in Jordanian Universities

Noor Albashir, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Asa’ad Al Ali, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Areiqat, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Keywords

Gradation, Promotion Ladder, Jordanian Universities

Abstract

This study aimed to verify the fairness of the inclusion of female academics in the scientific promotion ladder at some Jordanian public and private universities. To achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive analytical approach was used, and the questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data from the sample of the study consisting of (10) public and private universities, distributed questionnaire to (142) faculty members in some Jordanian public and private universities, representing the study community. For data analysis purposes to reach results, several statistical methods were used, such as descriptive statistics (mathematical averages and standard deviations), as well as the Regression Multiple Stepwise tests to identify the impact of independent variables on dependent variables, and the Simple Regression test (Regression Simple) to test hypotheses. The study reached many results, most notably the existence of a statistically significant effect at a level of significance (α≤0.05) of the factors of promotion of female academics (administrative support, social support, personal support, the role of the university, gender discrimination) on the phenomenon of slow graduation of female academics in the scientific promotion ladder. The study recommended the enactment of legislation requiring the treatment of academics (males and females) at the same level in the work of the university, and the development of common and unified policies in Jordanian public and private universities, which guarantee academic women all their rights to work and scientific participation at various levels, and the Jordanian Ministry of Higher Education is obliged to establish most public and private universities. Providing the means of comfort and job security for academic women in terms of giving them maternity leave and including her family in health insurance.

Introduction

In Jordan, women have occupied a prominent place at all levels, Jordanian society has witnessed women's movements that would have eliminated the traditional idea of women from being a housewife but went beyond that role for their contribution to the development era witnessed by each society from time to time and formed in different dimensions to contribute to that development renaissance, so the female doctor, engineer, teacher, nurse, and even the scientist became one of the most important components of Jordanian society, and despite this, the voices calling for women's equity in employment, employment opportunities and participation, and even the world have become one of the most important components of Jordanian society. In political life and leadership positions, they are weak compared to what men have.

The Jordanian women have taken good steps to trade the levels of aspirations and aspirations they seek in the way of their integration in various aspects of society and in what reflects The positively on the culture of the generation that it is growing, where the proportion of educated women who hold the first university degree is 59.9% as well as women who engage in economic activity 4.7%, which reflects positively on the economic wheel of society as a whole. The proportion of women in Jordan was 47 percent of the total population, according to the report of the General Statistics Department. 15 years of age and older 6.9% of which are uneducated, compared to educated women in the same age group 93% (Department of General Statistics, 2010)

The laws that have been fairly qualified for women in the field of various functions, where the Jordanian Constitution, the Jordanian Labor Law, and civil service systems, have equated women and men in treatment, except in some circumstances the environment of work, which requires more attention, and to take into account the physiology of women, moreover some reforms have been introduced so as not to say anything to their peer's men. The proportion of women working in the government sector was 50.8%, in the non-governmental sector 48%, in 2009, with 34.4% of women benefiting from social security, 2% of women in the agricultural sector, the industrial sector 8.12%, and the services sector 66%, distributed between education, health, banks, commercial sector, and information communications. (Department of General Statistics, 2010) This study addresses the most important problems faced by working women, as their exit to work has negative effects, and difficulties in adapting to others, and with themselves, all due to the duplication of roles between the family and the great social construction, and between the nature of working conditions and professional roles, which necessitates the necessity of a balance between them, may reflect negatively on them by feeling suffering, stress and lack of psychological and social adaptation. She summarized these problems, social, organizational, and personal problems, where she mentioned that the social problems are the lack of acceptance of society, the idea of women's work, as well as family circumstances. The personality is represented by the nature of the dual role in it, and the inadequacy of its monthly income.

Jordan is one of the countries that have concluded ilo agreements on labor rights and non-discrimination on the basis of sex, the results of a study carried out by some of the academics affiliated with the Association of Jordanian Academies to confirm that there are many obstacles to the active participation of women and their fathers for higher positions, the aim of this study was to know the reality of the academies in Jordan and the challenges they face results and showed that 53.4% are associate professors and 23.4% associate professor while 17.9% And that academic women suffer from challenges in this field of the most important scientific research and administrative work the number of subjects, and teaching them to new subjects does not have the necessary experience, which requires them to spend double time preparing for these subjects, but the laws and regulations of university at the level of the official universities suffer from some manifestations of discrimination and violation of clear texts from the practical side has shown scrutiny in some samples and studies that there is a lack of commitment of the majority of the academic universities not to cover the husband of the academy with health insurance applicable in the university and not equal to its colleague The man with regard to the expenses of the travel of the wife and children in addition to the failure of these laws and regulations to take into account the cases of widowhood and divorce.

A good number of academic women feel unfair for not having the opportunity to reach decision-making positions in universities, and it should be noted that such associations, which specialize in the role of academics in Jordan, recommend taking these problems seriously to improve their situation in Jordanian universities and seek to overcome the obstacles that prevent the advancement of academic women to their performance in all disciplines.

Hence, this paper realized that there is a disparity between the problems experienced by academies in public and private universities in Jordan, which necessitated finding a comparative study between public and private universities that shows the factors affecting the career of the Academy, especially its advancement in the academic promotion ladder.

The Problem of the Study

According to the Jordanian National Committee for Women's Affairs, the composition of the Board of Trustees of public universities continues to reflect the absence of women from the presidency of the boards of trustees of public universities, while indicating that Jordan is still in its first steps towards approaching the rate of justice, equality and equal opportunity As part of its efforts to keep pace with the countries of the world by 2030 (Annual Report of the National Commission on Women's Affairs, 2016), this was confirmed by the Jordanian General Statistics Report 2018, where it was stated that the proportion of women holding postgraduate degrees ( Master, Doctor) is 11% of the total male and female campaign. Hence the researchers touch that academic women face difficulties in terms of research and academic publishing, and the size of the burden of teaching, and administrative tasks, in a medium dominated by and dominated the male element scene, which constitutes a drain on time and effort, not to mention the scientific production required that requires continuous effort throughout the years of teaching, as it can touch the slow process of academic graduation of the faculty member (women) in Jordanian universities, compared to her male colleague in this field. Accordingly, this study seeks to address the dimensions and challenges of the process of academic promotion of faculty (women) and scientific publishing in the light of social and administrative factors in Jordanian universities. The problem of the study can be addressed by answering the main questions:

The First Main Question

What is the impact of the factors of the promotion of academies (administrative support, social support, the personal aspect, university role, gender discrimination) on the phenomenon of slow graduation of academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

Sub-questions

1. What is the impact of administrative support on the face of it, the slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

2. What is the impact of social support on the face of it, the slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

3. What is the impact of the personal aspect on the face of it, the slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

4. What is the impact of the university's role on the face of the slow graduation of academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

5. What is the effect of the distinction between the two nationalities on the face of it, the slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder?

The Second Main Question

Are there statistically significant differences between the responses of the sample of the study to the apparent slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion scale according to demographic variables (gender, marital status, specialization, university, number of children, academic rank, number of published research).?

The Importance of the Study

This study highlights the most prominent challenges facing academic women in terms of their graduation in the academic promotion ladder and shows the differences between private and official universities in the presence of this phenomenon, as well as highlighting its importance in the fact that it is a limited study - to the knowledge of researchers - which deals with the issue of academic women, pointing out that the academies possess the educational, research and scientific capacities needed by a country such as Jordan, which considers human resources one of its most precious wealth.

Study Objectives

This Study Aims to

1. Verify the existence of the phenomenon of slow graduation of academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder and highlighting the comparison between them and their male colleague.

2. Verify the main reasons that lead to the phenomenon of slow ingesting female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder.

3. Reveal the existence of demographic factors such as age, specialization, social status, the presence of children, years of experience, the university from which I graduated (national, Arab, foreign).

Study Model

To determine the purpose of this study and reach the objectives set by it, a model design showing the relationship of independent variables to the dependent variable was determined according to the following form:

Figure 1: Study Model

Source: Phyllis (2018), Natashia (2016), l.Perlingo (2016), Stem (2016), Amand (2017), Chapmanb (2018), Harford,p (2020), Julie Davies (2019), Amelia, Ismail (2018), Melhem (2015), Battah (2019), Al Harahshah (2013)

Procedural Variables

Administrative Support

Administrative support is defined as the fact that the presidents at work appreciate the efforts of academic women in scientific research in addition to attention and that decision-makers benefit from the results of scientific research (academic women) university scholarship (academic women) from the holders of a master's degree to obtain a doctorate to reduce the burden of administrative burdens on the burden of administrative on the burden of the (academic women) increases its orientation of scientific research to facilitate the policies of publishing adopted at the university for promotion and discharge (academic women) for scientific research will be reflected on the process of promotion compared to the male colleague The provision of programs to develop the skills of faculty members in the field of scientific dissemination affects the ability of (academic women) to advance the promotion ladder.

Social Support

Social support is known as the level of freedom granted (academic women) in society to help them to carry out scientific research, especially concerning the selection of the subject of scientific research or the study community and the provision of a social environment that helps academic women to complete scientific research, especially with regard to travel or late working hours.

Personal Aspect

Women's academic confidence in their ability to possess leadership and scientific research skills from graduation in promotion and acquisition (academic women) research skills constantly and knowledge of the use of technology enhances their scientific production to provide the university administration with sufficient opportunities for academic women for self-development

University role (official or private)

Providing facilities for academic women to participate in scientific conferences and seminars and providing the university with financial incentives for publication and scientific research and free subscriptions to global databases gender discrimination: the privilege of the faculty member (men) is known as opportunities for academic and administrative advancement due to considerations related to his gender more than the opportunities of the faculty member (academic women)

Variable dependent slow hierarchy of academies in the promotion ladder

There is a slowness in the evaluation procedures for scientific production, which affects the speed of promotion of academic women and the absence of clear criteria for evaluating scientific research, which is reflected in the slow process of promotion of academic women, the absence of. rewards for the researcher for his efforts and the results of his research, the high fees of scientific publishing in accredited journals, the intervention of the favoritism and the non-compliance with a specific time limit for evaluating scientific research constitutes negative factors on the promotion of the academy of women.

The Role of Academic Women in Scientific Research

Women are an integral part of the teaching system in higher education institutions, where they face some obstacles that will reduce the contribution of women to scientific research, where most studies have shown that the scientific production of women in most universities is low compared to men.

The 1994 Study (Spoils, 1994) conducted on (200) faculty members from (12) countries 75% male and 12% female, stated that the scientific productivity of faculty members in Arab universities is low compared to global averages and that there are factors that lead to reduced productivity (increased productivity, experience factor, sex factor), which is one of the most important factors leading to reducing the productivity of academics compared to men.

Taking administrative positions and reducing material return is one of the most important obstacles to scientific research, as confirmed by the researcher (Al-Huweesh, 2017), where he addressed the urgent need to organize women's efforts and activate their developmental participation in the field of scientific research.

Obstacles to Scientific Research in Front of Academic Women

It should be noted that there are obstacles in the field of scientific research in the Arab world in general and these constraints can be summarized concerning women as follows:

1. Lack of real opportunities for skills development for female researchers

2. Lack of knowledge technology by some research centers

3. Some public entities do not compensate the researcher financially in exchange for their research and advisory efforts the psychological and social factors of the woman is summarized in her domestic and family duties and the children are raised

4. The lack of assistants for the researcher is a major obstacle

5. The social environment for women's participation or for women to attend local and higher conferences and seminars

6. Lack of a policy to exchange experiences between research centers at home and abroad.

7. The lack of a systematic policy to devote the interior to the completion of scientific research within the university.

8. The more scientific production of the academy, the greater its chances of climbing the academic promotion ladder, so that this relationship can be described as an expulsion relationship.

Social Support

Social support is one of the most important factors affecting the scientific outcome of academic women,

Women generally suffer from difficulty balancing roles in this regard, the study (Amanda,2017 ) addressed (that there are social factors, negatively affecting women in the academic field and curbing their development and excellence in this field, where supportive marriage, friends, and employer are social conditions that enhance the woman's self-confidence and give her space to distinguish.

The study (Manieson,2015) is supported by previous studies that adopt the importance of having social conditions supporting the academic woman to rise to the ladder of academic promotions, where this study recommends reducing the pressure on the academic woman, because she has difficulty achieving balance in her joint role and caring for family members, and academic work, as academic work needs time and effort.

The study (Yenilmez,2016) states that the academic profession of Turkish academic women suffers from obstructive factors that limit the emergence of their role in the academic aspect and that the academic profession suffers from the stereotype of women, whether in a promotion or the presence of invisible barriers, such as their acceptance culturally and socially,

These barriers affect women's desire to choose the specialty they wish to study.

Personal Aspect

The majority of women who follow the movement of scientific research on women and leadership from the psychological field find that there are two main aspects: 1) patterns of leadership and their relationship to sex 2) obstacles to women's access to administrative positions and a study (Gohen,1996) showed that the majority of women believe that the world of politics and leadership positions is for men and only women at home but in a study (Al-Ghamdi, 2015) shows that cultural constraints are not important for women's access to administrative positions and this study revealed the results of the achievement slackening of women's leadership positions on the one hand. Despite her ability to reconcile her common role in the family and work and despite her relentless efforts to develop herself (Kaabi, 2019).

The Importance of Administrative Support

The researchers believe that the presence of a fair higher management and understands the role of women and their conditions and physiological and psychological nature is necessary for their rise to the ladder of promotions and that the entry of women in the academic milieu requires them to work hard and diligently to raise their scientific productivity, which would give them the advantage of competitiveness and pave the way for them in their quest to promote.

Hence, administrative support lies in notifying women of the psychological and physical rest at the head of their work and applying the regulations that ensured that women are equal to their male colleagues, taking into account the exceptional circumstances that necessitated their family role.

The Relationship of Administrative Support to Scientific Research

Administrative support plays an important role in increasing the scientific production of academic women by providing them with comfort and understanding their conditions and working to overcome all obstacles that conflict with their role in the family and the researchers believe that the presence of a fair, supportive, and understanding higher management of the role of academic women would mitigate the effects of social and scientific factors, thus the relationship between the dependent change, which is scientific research and support, is a proportional relationship that is proportional to the purpose of the academy, i.e. the scientific production of the Academy increases with the presence of understandable administrative support that deals with it on He appreciated the equality with her male colleague and favored her for exceptional circumstances that characterized her over the man.

The Impact of Systems, Laws, and Instructions in Universities on the Promotion of Academies

In 2014, the Association of Jordanian Women Academics was founded by a group of Jordanian academics who work in Jordanian public and private universities, with 30 academics from different academic ranks. In the preparation of Jordanian academics, leading professionals and decision-makers are changing and developing the academic and social aspect, and the report issued by this association revealed that there is gender discrimination against academics in private and official universities in the issues of appointment, scholarship, health insurance and rights granted to academics, and that The regulations, laws, and instructions adopted in some universities are constantly amended and this is evident in the absence of a unified system of promotion bases in private universities accredited by the Ministry of Higher Education, and the absence of a unified salary ladder also does not take into account the issue of academic grades. After a thorough study of the substance of the problem posed by the researchers did not mention any of the studies types of the university until it is clear the amount of administrative support in it for academic women and hence the researchers touch the need to find a comparative study between public and private universities and the extent to which the type of university affects the essence of the problem.

The study (Amelia, 2018) aimed to highlight the small role of women in academic research despite the wide participation of women in education and employment, which reflected positively on improving their economic situation and their role concerning domestic responsibilities and the role of families in conservative societies. The philosophy of multiple roles, sources of support, the impact of leadership style, identification of identity and the study was a result of in-depth telephone interviews, and the study reached several conclusions, the most important of which: several factors play a role in influencing the substance of the problem addressed by this study such as (age, social status) and the researchers benefited from this study in the development of factors that affect the work of academies.

The Chapmanb study, 2018, aimed to clarify the problem of racial discrimination of ethnic minorities in predominantly white academic circles and experimental data was used in the form of interviews where (28) individual interviews were conducted in IME Academic to see Their scientific expertise in American universities, where they focused on testing accurate and sensitive concepts that enabled researchers to capture rich and descriptive data that contribute to the development of a solution to the research problem as it enabled participants to express their living experiences as British academics at the Institute (IME Academic) and the researcher relied on The CrT method of analysis of participants' experiences surveys (PWI) and expressed their opinions on diversity and integration policies in their universities. This study reached several conclusions, the most important: that there are forms of behaviors of racial discrimination between white and brown skin, where the university tends to dominate the white skin on the privileged places in the university and that there is bias at the level of sex without looking at experiences and that there are physical and financial barriers facing academics of ethnic minorities internationally and the researchers benefited from this study that the results of interviews conducted with academics (IME Academic) that their positions are complex and depend on an unstable and unwelcome environment compared to academics Ethnic minorities and IME Academic identities are fraught with tensions in organizational structures as they argued that female academics are marginalized and excluded based on race and racism in higher education in the United States.

The study (Emily Daina Saras, 2019) aimed that academic women lag behind their male counterparts, especially in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and the study indicated that there is a stimulating climate for women to complete their studies in these areas, but this climate is called cold climate where women suffer from isolation and The researcher used the DATA SYSTEM (IPEDS) for 2007-2009 and compared the amount of information available between 2007-2008 with previous studies and found The study to the most important results: the phenomenon of cold climate affects the academic circles and the analysis revealed that the percentage of faculty members of women positively affects the production of women's certificates in science technology mathematics and engineering, which is a lot of scientific research and the study provided a number of recommendations, including the analysis of the concept of cold climate in academic circles, which would reduce the highlighting of the role of women in scientific research and thus reflect negatively on their academic promotion, especially in the disciplines mentioned above, and the researchers benefited from the analysis of the concept of cold climate and its impact. On the substance of the problem.

The study (Harford, 2020) To the most prominent challenges facing women because of their physiological nature and the impact of administrative practices in this field and highlighted a specific category that works to obtain a professorship and the factors that help them to apply for it and in the meantime the researcher Interviewing 12 women, 3 of them in national universities and 10 of them in the faculties of social sciences and humanities, the study explained that they are considered marginalized within the academy, which limits their ability to change the "center of gravity", to change the male culture that exists within the academic institutions. The researchers benefited from this study that many factors are affecting the graduation of women academics in the scale of academic promotions and that the social factor is one of the most important.

The study (Julie Davies, 2019) aimed to show the role of reliance on the factor of influence to show that women have an influential role in business studies and analyzed 395 cases based on in-depth interviews and 12 in-depth interviews that measure issues of non-equality between sexualities and show that the introduction of ref scale in The UK higher education sector noted that visual issues such as maternity leave and parenthood play an important role in academic research outcomes and recommend decision-makers and university heads to enact encouraging policies to support the research efforts of women and support them in the same way as men in the academic circles.

Method and Procedures

According to the Website of the Ministry of Higher Education for 2020 (May), researchers conducted a comprehensive survey to determine the study community consisting of (27) universities, which are mentioned in table 1:

Table 1
Universities
Public Universities: Private Universities:
Yarmouk University University of Petra
Mutah University Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
Jordan University of Science and Technology Al Zarqa University
The Hashemite University Amman Al-Ahliyya University
Al- Albayt University University of Jerash
Balqa Applied University Princess Sumaya University for Technology
Hussein Bin Talal University Jordan Academy of Music
Al-Tafila Technical University Ammon Applied University College
German Jordanian University American University of Madaba
The University of Jordan Ajloun National University
Faculty of Educational Sciences and Arts UNRWA
Aqaba University for Technology
Hussein Technical University
Luminus Technical University College
Khawarizmi College
Arab University College of Technology
Talal Abu-Ghazaleh University College for Innovation

The sample of the study was selected from the full study community where (160) was distributed based on the statistical tables of Secaran to determine the size of the acceptable sample, and after retrieving the questionnaires, (18) was excluded for statistical analysis of faculty members, due to the lack of participation of sample members in the mobilization of questionnaires, the final sample was 142 faculty members, the table 2 that shows the demographic distribution of the study members

Table 2
Distribution of Study Members According to Demographic Variables
Variable Variable Category Number Percentage
Gender Male 69 47.6
Female 76 52.4
Age Less than 30 years old 33 22.8
30 to less than 40 years old 42 29.0
40 to less than 50 years old 30 20.7
Older than 50 years 40 27.6
Social Status Single 43 29.7
Married 102 70.3
Number of Children No Children 51 35.2
One or Two Children 24 16.6
Three or Four Children 44 30.3
Five or more Children 26 17.9
Academic Specialty Scientific 67 46.2
Human 78 53.8
Type of University of Graduation Local Public 67 46.2
Local Private 21 14.5
Regional 12 8.3
American – Canadian 17 11.7
European 12 8.3
Australian 2 1.4
Other 14 9.7
Years of Teaching Experience 5 years or less 53 36.6
5 to less than 10 years 27 18.6
10 to less than 15 years 35 24.1
15 years or more 30 20.7
Academic Level Teacher 53 36.6
Assistant Professor 29 20.0
Associate Professor 33 22.8
Professor 30 20.7
Have you been Promoted to a higher Academic Level? Yes 90 62.1
No 55 37.9
How long have you spent teaching before you got a promotion? Less than 3 years 35 24.1
3 to 5 years 61 42.1
More than 5 years 49 33.8
How long did it take until the promotion decision has been issued? Less than 4 months 38 26.2
4 to 9 months 56 38.6
Longer than 9 months 51 35.2
Do you believe that the university’s dealings with promotions are suitable? Yes 91 62.8
No 54 37.2
Do you believe there's a difference between private and public universities with the time it takes a faculty member to get a promotion? Yes 112 81.4
No 27 18.6
Number of Published Research Papers First Category Journal Q(1-5) 60 41.4
Firat Category Journal Q(6- 10) 22 15.2
First Category Journal Q(11- higher) 17 11.7
Second Category Journal Q(1-> 5) 6 4.1
Second Category Journal Q(6- 10) 5 3.4
Second Category Journal Q(11-higher) 10 6.9
Third Category Journal Q(1-5) 7 4.8
Third Category Journal Q(6- 10) 7 4.8
Third Category Journal Q(11- higher) 11 7.6

Total

145

100%

The sampling unit: The sample of the study (the unit of intentional inspection) was selected in the study from the faculty members in some public and private universities in Jordan representing the study community and are as follows(Table 3 and 4):

Table 3
Study Community
Type of University Name of the University
Private University of Petra
Private Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
Private Zarqa University
Private Irbid National University
Private Jerash University
Public (Official) University of Jordan
Public (Official) Al Yarmouk University
Public (Official) Mutah University
Public (Official) Jordan University of Science and Technology
Public (Official) Balqa Applied University
td>Variable
Table 4
Cronbach Alpha Stability Coefficients for The Study Tool
Aspect Stability Coefficient
Independent Administrative Support 0.664
Social Support 0.75
Personal Support 0.732
University Role 0.662
Gender Discrimination 0.712
Dependent The slow inclusion of female academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder. 0.716
Total 0.730

The table above shows the results of the Kronbach Alpha test for independent and dependent study variables where all values were greater than the standard value (0.60) and are acceptable by Secaran and Bougie, 2016.

To test the hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was used, and the following table 5 shows this:

Table 5
Multiple Regression Analysis
Independent Variable B Standard Error Beta Calculated t- value Level of Significance
Regression
Constant
0.461 0.318 1.450 0.149
Administrative
Support
0.344 0.084 0.312 4.119 0.000
Social Support 0.184 0.070 0.210 2.614 0.010
Personal
Support
0.100 0.073 0.103 1.370 0.173
University
Role
0.208 0.074 0.220 2.799 0.006
Gender
Discrimination
0.032 0.048 0.051 0.670 0.504

It is clear from the statistical results above and the follow-up of the values of the test (t) that three of the factors; administrative support, social support, and the role of the university have an impact on the appearance of the slow gradation of academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion scale, indicating the parameters (Beta) of these variables as shown in the table In indicating the high values (t) calculated for their scheduled value at the level of the significance (α≤0.05), where the calculated (t) values were moral values at the level of significance (α=0.05). Therefore, the hypothesis can be accepted and the effect of some of these factors combined can be said to be the result.

Analysis of Study Data and Presentation of Results

Before starting to apply regression analysis to test the study hypotheses, Table (6) shows the results of these tests.

Table 6
Testing of Variability and Variability Inflation Factor
Variables VIF Tolerance
Administrative Support 1.380 0.725
Social Support 1.550 0.645
Personal Support 1.355 0.738
University Role 1.480 0.676
Gender Discrimination 1.364 0.733

The table above shows that the VIF test values for all variables are less than (10) and that tolerance is greater than (0.05) and this is an indication of a lack of a high correlation between independent variables (Multi-collinearity), besides, the validity of the model has been confirmed to test the study hypotheses through the variation test, and the following table 7 shows the result of this test.

Table 7
Varition Test
Dependent Variable Degrees of freedom Determination coefficient R2 Coefficient of determination level indication F Indication level of F
The phenomenon of slow graduation of academics in higher education institutions in the scientific promotion ladder (5?137) 0.429 20.571 0.000

* Statistically significant at (0.05α ≤) level

The above table shows the validity of the model for testing hypotheses of the study, and in view of the high value of (F) calculated from its tabular value at the level of significance (0.05α≤) and degrees of freedom (5, 137), as the factors affecting the apparent slow progression of academies in higher education institutions in the scale Academic promotions explain (42.9%) of the variation in the phenomenon of academics being ranked in the promotions ladder, and accordingly we can test the study hypotheses as follows:

The first main hypothesis: There is a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (0.05≥α) for the independent factors combined (administrative support, social support, personal support, the role of the university, gender discrimination) on the phenomenon of the slow progression of female academics in higher education institutions in the promotions ladder. Scientific.

To test the hypothesis, (multiple regression) analysis was used, and the following table 8 shows that.

Table 8
Results of Multiple Regression Analysis to Test The Effect of Factors Affecting The Application of the Wise System
Independent variable B Standard Error Beta The value of t calculated Level of significance t
Regression constant 0.461 0.318 1.45 0.149
Administrative support 0.344 0.084 0.312 4.119 0
social support 0.184 0.07 0.21 2.614 0.01
Personal support 0.1 0.073 0.103 1.37 0.173
The role of the university 0.208 0.074 0.22 2.799 0.006
Gender discrimination 0.032 0.048 0.051 0.67 0.504

It is evident from the statistical results presented in the above table and from the follow- up of (t) test values that three factors of administrative support, social support, and the role of the university) have an impact on the apparent slow progression of female academics in higher education institutions in the ladder of scientific promotions, in terms of (Beta) coefficients for these The variables as they appear in the table and in terms of the rise in the calculated (t) values over their tabular value at the level of significance (a=0.05), where the calculated (t) values were significant values at the level of significance (a=0.05)

On the other hand, the results showed that there was no effect of two factors (personal support, gender discrimination) in the apparent slowdown of female academics in higher education institutions in the ladder of scientific promotions, as the values of the significance level reached (0.05), and from the foregoing the hypothesis can be accepted. And say the existence of an effect of some of these factors combined.

To find out the effect of the independent factors alone on the dependent factor; Simple regression analysis was used to test sub-hypotheses. They are as follows:

The first sub-hypothesis: There is a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (0.05≥α) of the administrative support factor in the phenomenon of slowing female academics in higher education institutions in the ladder of scientific promotions.

The hypothesis was tested. Simple regression analysis was used. The following tables(Table 9-20) shows that:

Table 9
Regression Analysis of the Administrative Support Factor
Source Determination coefficient R2 Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Average of squares PH value Level of significance F
Regression 16.002 1 16.002
The error 0.279 41.258 143 0.289 55.462 0.000
Total 57.261 144
Table 10
Regression Coefficients to Predict the Impact of Administrative Support on the Dependent Variable
Source B Standard Error Beta T Calculated Level of significance
Constant 1.460 0.285 5.127 0.000
Administrative Support 0.584 0.078 0.520 7.447 0.000
Table 11
Regression Analysis of the Social Support Factor
Source Determination coefficient R2 Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Average of squares PH value Level of significance F
Regression 14.221 1 14.221
The error 0.248 43.039 143 0.301 47.250 0.000
Total 57.261 144
Table 12
Regression Coefficients to Predict The Impact of Social Support on The Dependent Variable
Source B Standard Error Beta T Calculated Level of significance
Constant 2.054 0.223 9.223 0.000
Administrative Support 0.436 0.063 0.498 6.874 0.000
Table 13
Regression Analysis of The Personal Support Factor
Source Determination coefficient R2 Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Average of squares PH value Level of significance F
Regression 7.810 1 7.810
The error 0.137 49.250 143 0.347 22.518 0.000
Total 57.059 144
Table 14
Regression Coefficients to Predict the Impact of Personal Support on the Dependent Variable
Source B Standard Error Beta T Calculated Level of significance
Constant 2.325 0.263 8.845 0.000
Personal Support 0.361 0.076 0.370 4.745 0.000
Table 15
Regression Analysis of the University Role Factor
Source Determination coefficient R2 Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Average of squares PH value Level of significance F
Regression 12.784 1 12.784
The error 0.224 44.276 143 0.312 40.999 0.000
Total 57.059 144
Table 16
Regression Coefficients to Predict The Impact of University Role on The Dependent Variable
Source B Standard Error Beta T Calculated Level of significance
Constant 1.904 0.261 7.287 0.000
University role 0.448 0.070 0.473 6.403 0.000
Table 17
Regression Analysis of The Gender Discrimination Factor
Source Determination coefficient R2 Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Average of squares PH value Level of significance F
Regression 7.029 1 7.029
The error 0.123 49.923 143 0.352 19.994 0.000
Total 56.952 144
Table 18
Regression Coefficients to Predict the Impact of Gender Discrimination on the Dependent Variable
Source B Standard Error Beta T Calculated Level of significance
Constant 2.725 0.192 14.161 0.000
Gender discrimination 0.224 0.050 0.0351 4.471 0.000
Table 19
Differences Tests for Demographic Variables (Gender & Marital Status)
Variable Type Standard Error differences Average F value T value Sig.
Gender Male 0.10518 3.572 4.051 0.349 0.046
Female 0.10355 3.535 0.355
Marital status Single 0.112 3.750 0.094 2.483 0.760
Married 0.114 3.470 2.452
Table 20
Differences Tests of Other Demographic Variables (Specialization, University Type)
Variable Sum of Squares Mean Squares F value Sig. Decision
Specialization Between Groups 1.119 1.119 2.850 0.094 Reject
Within Groups 56.142 0.393
Total 57.261
Between Groups 6.781 1.130 3.090 0.007 Accept
University Type Within Groups 50.479 0.366
Total 57.261
Children number Between Groups 0.966 0.322 0.807 .8070 Reject
Within Groups 56.294 0.399
Total 57.261
Academic rank Between Groups 4.480 1.493 3.989 0.009 Accept
Within Groups 52.781 0.374
Total 57.261
Number of publications Between Groups 6.442 0.805 2.155 0.035 Accept
Within Groups 50.819 0.374
Total 57.261

Results

1. The results of the study sample's response to the administrative support variable showed that there is a statistically significant effect at (α ≤ 0.05) of the following variables (administrative support, social support and the university role) personal support and gender discrimination) on the phenomenon of slow enrollment of female academics in the ladder of scientific promotions, and this result is consistent with the results of (champmanb, 2018) on the other hand personal support and gender discrimination have no statistical effect on the dependent variable.

2. The results of the study sample's response to the demographic variable (gender) showed that male academics have greater opportunities than female academics in academic promotion, and this result is consistent with the study (manisior, 5102).

3. The results of the study sample's response also showed the university’s preference for single women’s academies. This result is consistent with the study of (yefimiz, 2016).

4. The results of the study sample response showed the predominance of Canadian universities (as a source of the certificate) in the phenomenon of slow female academic progression, and this result is consistent with the study (Amanda, 2017)

5. The results of the study sample's response to the publication by faculty members, show that most of the scientific production are in the scientific journals of the third category.

Recommendations

1. Establishing policies that raise women's academic skills to increase their scientific production and work to motivate and encourage them to participate in conferences and scientific symposia, nationally and internationally.

2. Promoting the culture of the role of women complementing men and believing in their capabilities and refuting the idea that home is the right place of women.

3. Encouraging and enhancing women's self-confidence and providing them with the opportunity to develop their skills and express themselves in all fields.

4. Establishing joint and unified policies between public and private universities that guarantee academic women all their rights to work and scientific participation in various levels, and as the Jordanian Ministry of Higher Education obliges most public and private universities to provide ways of comfort and job security for academic women by granting them maternity leave and including her family in health insurance.

5. Non-discrimination between the two gender in all filed especially the academic field, and equal opportunities, and urging the enforcement of laws, regulations and legislation that guaranteed her the right to equality with men

6. Treating academics on justice especially promotion, regardless of the gender of the academics. It is important to notify that these rules are stipulated when setting instructions or decisions related to promotions.

7. Granting rewarding incentives for both academicians’ genders who publish in the first and second categories of international scientific journals.

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