Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict (Print ISSN: 1544-0508; Online ISSN: 1939-4691 )

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 3S

Leadership in Practice-Contemporary View

Ratish Gupta, Daly College Business School

Citation Information: Gupta, R. (2021). Leadership in practice - Contemporary view. Journal of Organizational Culture Communications and Conflict, 25(S3), 1-3


Management and leadership exist together having to accomplish a specified objective in both and considered synonymous. Leadership being a vital part of effectual management, focuses upon creating an environment in which an individual or employee excels and develops skills. It is a crucial component of management, utilizing the ability to influence and motivate the group members in attaining goals. This influence is derived through the provision of managerial position in an organization. Organizations require robust leadership and management for optimal organizational efficiency. There is diversification in the two simultaneously, in leadership people are guided in order to achieve a specified objective whereas in management efforts are solicited to manage work. Management is the issuance of scarce resources against an organization’s aim, on the other hand, leadership is the formation of a similar vision. Leadership requires one to take risks, in contrast, management controls the risks taken. Relationships are made where leadership exists, systems are built where management plays a significant role. This paper will focus on various facets of leadership and its impact on organization culture.


Leadership, Organization, Management, Employee.

Leadership is significant, for a company to work smoothly and flourish with the passing years, all of this depending upon a leader who is efficient in making it achieves the required objectives. It is an important function of management facilitating systemized efforts in accomplishing the aim. Leadership helps a company in recognizing various issues and making amendments in order to improve (Arruda, 2016).

Organizational values are conceptual propositions guiding actions and cognition in an organization. These values classify principles, core ethics and morals which the company shall abide by. Research indicates that corporations exhibiting such core values are more likely to be successive and profitable. The two-core values Marks and Spencer is committed to, Integrity and Innovation, where integrity is translated into doing the right thing, honestly and in a responsible manner which helps in building a trust worthy relationship with customers, employees. Innovation, simultaneously strives them into aiming for improvement and being ahead of their competitors while introducing new lines in the market. Employees are dynamic in such a business environment, emerging with innovative opinions for products and the company development ultimately. The organizational values devise a foundation for leadership principles which can be implemented there after (Watt, 2012). The two leadership principles, one being integrity which tends to develop credibility and trust, embracing within great leaders. Authentic integrity signifies importance providing a customer base and having an impact on the organization. It is the very cornerstone of a company’s foundation, so much so that distinct institutions create their own system of ethics as a measure of the group and members’ integrity.

The other principle is courage and inspiration, where both phenomenon possess similar properties. If a leader beholds courage, he or she can inspire the members in their respective groups, in order to encourage them, give hope, and provide wisdom and forgiveness. Marks and Spencer follows the two above mentioned principles significantly. Integrity, the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, company strives to do the right thing in acquiring the customers trust and building honest relationships. While this has been accomplished, the company has a tendency to develop with succeeding years of advancement. M&S is motivated to make the firm sustainable, by following company policies and procedures. Inspiration is the springboard for creativity, the company aims to inspire their targeted customers. This creates a rare feeling of establishment amongst the workers and builds excitement between customers, eventually leading to a healthy and victorious outcome for the company (Twin, 2020).

The evolution of leadership theories has brought in good understanding of the characteristics a leader possesses. It has provided individuals a device to learn their own leadership abilities. The analysis of theories has led to the discovery of diverse leadership styles. The phraseology style slightly indicates a person’s behaviour. Leadership styles are perspectives utilized to motivate and inspire followers. The styles should be selected and adapted to fit respective organizations, situations, groups and members of that particular group. Henceforth, it is useful to enthral a thorough understanding and thus interpret diverse styles such as gaining knowledge and making use of available tools to lead effectively to attain the objective. Leadership styles essentially concern the strategy of a leader and functions carried out by the same. Few of the recurrent styles are democratic, bureaucratic, autocratic and laissez-faire. In autocratic leadership, leaders possess complete power over the working force, benefit being that it’s an effective leadership process. In bureaucratic leadership, leader follows the rules rigorously, making the employees proceeds with precision, it is useful in organizations where members conduct routine tasks. In democratic leadership, leaders make final decision while involving the team workers in the decision making. In laissez-faire, leaders abdicate responsibilities while avoiding decisions, can be efficacious if the leader monitors performance and provides feedback. The implementation of leadership styles requires organizational objectives which help in systematic management of a company (Huo, 2016).

The Organizational objectives are vision, mission, purpose and overall goals in a firm initiated by the management committee, transmitted to its employees. The objectives commonly stress over business philosophy and long term ambitions that can provide guidance to the workforce seeking to satisfy their managers. When an organization seeks to achieve short-term goals, the denomination is supposed to be Organizational objectives. Such objectives play an important role in governing the allotment of organizational resources and developing policies in the organization. Attainment of the objectives supports a firm in reaching the overall strategic planning. Marks and Spencer aims to retrieve leadership in clothing and specialising in food. Their objective is to improvise on quality in clothing in order to attract more customers into purchasing products (Collins, 2011). There is demand for sequential management, as such paving a career path for the workers. Delivering improved performance and retaining high calibre workforce to transform the business into getting positioned in the marketplace has been a key organizational objective M&S.

The two leadership styles are democratic and laissez-faire, wherein democratic style the leader’s decision is concluded but the members are involved in the decision making procedure. This learning style is effective and leads to higher productivity since the employees have contributions and group morale is increased. Creativity is encouraged and rewarded, provided that the members are engaging into the process. Laissez-faire describes leaders who let the employees make their own decisions, giving the team an opportunity to determine regulations and deadlines. Leader’s role is to advice and provide resources, if needed (Campbell, 2016).

This style can be effectual if there is trust on the way team members work and manage time. Marks and Spencer executes Democratic and Laissez-faire style of leadership. Group HR Director, Tanith Dodge, a democratic leader, has been successful in transforming people effectively in the framework of the organization, ensuring the rigorousness and practicality of the firm by seeing potential individuals as leaders. Participation of the team workers in decision making makes them feel encouraged and a part of the organization, Dodge possesses such qualities, being a dynamic leader. The company’s managers who retain knowledge are permitted to acquire Laissez-faire leadership style, where they are provided complete freedom to decide and work for themselves, with efficient management of time and space. The leader here guides or recommends, contributing towards materials required, when necessary.


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