Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict (Print ISSN: 1544-0508; Online ISSN: 1939-4691 )

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 1

Level of Effectiveness of the Organizational Communication Patterns of Lyceum De Cebu, Philippines: Bases for Enhancement

Juneth L. Fiel-Miranda, Keimyung University

Asterio T. Miranda, Keimyung University

Abstract

This study delved to determine the level of effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns manifested in Lyceum de Cebu, Philippines in order to recommend proposal for enhancement to the school's administration. Specifically, it determined how effective the organizational communication patterns manifested by teaching and non-teaching personnel along the downward, upward, and lateral dimensions; determined whether or not a significant difference existed in the assessments made by the teaching and non-teaching staff as to the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns; and recommended proposals for enhancement to the administration of Lyceum de Cebu to improve its organizational communication patterns. The descriptive survey method of research was used in this study. A questionnaire was used as the primary instrument of data collection. This instrument pertained to the level of effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns in Lyceum de Cebu. The null hypothesis was tested at the 0.05 level of significance in this study. The assessment revealed that the downward communication pattern in the school was regarded by both teaching and non-teaching staff to be generally effective, and the upward communication pattern was viewed by both groups of respondents to be effective, while the lateral communication was appraised by the teaching staff to be effective but very effective by the non-teaching staff. The results of the Fisher's t-test of differences between the means of the two groups showed that there were no significant differences in the evaluation made by the two groups of respondents concerning effectiveness of the following communication patterns upheld in the school in the three dimensions of downward, upward and lateral communication. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers designed a proposed scheme to enhance the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns of Lyceum de Cebu.

Keywords

Organizational Communication Patterns, Level of Effectiveness, Downward Communication, Upward Communication, Lateral Communication.

Introduction

Over the years, The Lyceum de Cebu had been in operations purposely to provide educational opportunities not only to the children of the members of Cebu CFI Community Cooperative, but also to non-members within the area. It actually started offering pre-school and primary education, and then years after, secondary and college courses have been offered eventually, after getting an approval from the appropriate government bodies.

In the past, the school administration focused its traditional approach towards human learning-that of having a predictive cause and effect model, hinged on the precept that every aspects or parts of school management can be observed and measured, thus administrators viewed that by understanding these aspects or parts, they would be able to see the whole picture of certain events or phenomena happening in the school environment. However, with the current trend and situation, the school leaders realized that human system cannot be predicted, change is imminent and indirect, and more importantly, learning evolves over time. Hence, school administrators had stronger resolve of creating a new learning environment involving the school stakeholders that will pursue their efforts and resources that will lead to a stronger collaboration and dynamism in the learning process.

Organizational communication being an important facet of the school’s learning environment is an area that needs to be assessed and looked into, if the administrators would be serious in its push toward developing a new learning environment that will provide greater benefits not only to the students but to the faculty, staff and other stakeholders as well. Hence, the need for the creation of an institutional communication system that promotes free expression of ideas on how to achieve such goals.

It is on the foregoing premises that prompted the authors to conduct this study.

Theroretical Background and Literature Review

Communication is the process of sharing information with other individuals. The view that communication is critical to organizational excellence dates back for a long time. It is a fact of work a day life that managers and employees alike must solve increasingly complex problems. And, increasingly, researchers and practitioners are examining the role that effective communication has, in propelling individuals to overcome barriers, work through problems, and achieve goals (Dumler, 2008).

Nostrum & Davis (1993) further averred that Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. It is a process by which people share information, ideas and feelings. It is a way of reaching others to transmit ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values. Its goal is to have the receiver understand the message as it was sent. When communication is effective, it provides a bridge of meaning between people so that they can share what they feel and know. By using this bridge, parties can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that sometimes separates people.

Many managers today consider open communication as a means of improving organizational effectiveness and quality. Ewald & Burnett (1997) insisted that the success of an employee depends on his/her ability to communicate with people and to present their thoughts and ideas to them so they will both understand what they are driving at and be persuaded. The goal of constantly improving quality can be achieved only if it supersedes differences, jealousies, competition between individuals and departments, and turf battles (Clarke & Crossland, 2002). Silence has been attributed to failed products, broken processes, and poor career decisions and indeed, breaking the silence can lead to a flow of ideas from all levels of the organization.

However, open communication requires more than simply maintaining open offices. It also involves managers’ accessibility to workers, day to day interaction with employees, and breaking down barriers and resistance to change. If an organization decides to implement changes, communication is essential. Resistance to the change process is expected. Hence, communication helps people deal with change, work through it, and adapt to the new way of doing things, whether it be working in teams or some other change. In short, communication, Aldag & Stearns, (2006) commented- pervades every aspect of the organization–every individual, team or department, and each external relationship with customers, suppliers and competitors. The organization cannot achieve its goals without open, two way communications.

The ten commandments of good communication according to Certo (2006) are as follows:

1. Seek to clarify ideas before communicating. The more systematically a person analyzes the problem or idea to be communicated, the clearer it becomes. This is the first step toward effective communication. Many communications fail because of inadequate planning. Goal planning must consider the goals and attitudes of those who will receive the communication and those who will be affected by it.

2. Examine the true purpose of each communication. Before one will communicate, he must ask himself what he really wants to accomplish with one’s message–obtain information, initiate action, change another person’s attitude and a lot more. The sharper the focus of one’s message, the greater its chances of success.

3. Consider the total physical and human setting whenever one communicates. Meaning and intent are conveyed by more than words alone. Many other factors influence the overall impact of a communication, and managers must be sensitive to the total setting in which they communicate.

4. Consult with others, when appropriate, in planning communications. Frequently, it is desirable or necessary to seek the participation of others in planning a communication or in developing the facts on which to base the communication. Such consultation often leads additional insight and objectivity to one’s message.

5. Be mindful while one communicates of the overtones rather than merely the basic content of one’s message. One’s tones of voice, expression, apparent receptiveness to the responses of others–all have a significant effect on those one wishes to reach. Frequently overlooked, these subtleties of communication often affect a listener’s reaction to a message even more than its basic content. Similarly, one’s choice of language–particularly one’s awareness of the five shades of meaning and emotion in the words one uses–predetermines in large part the reactions of one’s listeners.

6. Take the opportunity, when it arises, to convey something to help or value to the receiver. Consideration of the other person’s interests and needs–trying to look at things from other person’s point of view– frequently points up opportunities to convey something of immediate benefit or long range value to the other person. Subordinates are most responsive to managers whose messages take the subordinates’ interests into account.

7. Follow up one’s communication. One’s best efforts at communication may be wasted, and one may never know whether one has succeeded in expressing one’s true meaning and interest, if the person does not follow up to see how well one has put his message across. One must make certain that he gets feedback for every important communication so that complete understanding and appropriate actions result.

8. Communicate for tomorrow as well as today. Even though communications may be aimed primarily at meeting the demands of an immediate situation, they must be planned with the past in mind if they are to be viewed as consistent by the receiver. Most important, however, communications must be consistent with long range interests and goals.

9. Be sure one’s actions support one’s communications. In the final analysis, the most persuasive kind of communication is not what one says, but what one does. When one’s actions or attitudes contradict one’s words, others tend to discount what one has said.

10. Last, but by no means least: seek not only to be understood but also to understand–be a good listener. When one starts talking, one often ceases to listen, at least in that larger sense of being attuned to the other person’s unspoken reactions and attitudes. Even more serious is the occasional inattentiveness, one may be guilty of when others are trying to communicate to the person. Listening is one of the most important, most difficult and most neglected skills in communication.

To be effective communicators, managers must understand not only general interpersonal communication concepts but also organizational communication patterns. There are three basic types of communication patterns, to wit: downward, upward, and lateral (Goldhaber, 2005).

Downward organizational communication pattern is communication that flows from any point on an organization chart downward to another point on it. This type of formal organizational communication relates primarily to the direction and control of employees. Job related information that focuses on what activities are required, when they should be performed, and how they should be coordinated with other activities within the organization must be transmitted to employees. This downward communication typically includes a statement of organizational philosophy, management system objectives, position descriptions and other written information relating to the importance, rationale and interrelationships of various departments (Clarke & Crossland, 2002).

Downward communication follows the formal lines of authority prescribed by the chain of command. It is not always adequate, because workers need information than just job instructions. They also need to know, for instance, what other members of the organization are doing. Goldhaber (2005) commented–downward communication is nevertheless considered important because the lack of communication from superiors can leave workers misinformed, feeling disconnected, and less satisfied with their jobs.

To communicate downward, some executives rely on expensive and colorful booklets, sophisticated multimedia presentations and well-planned employee meetings. These approaches tend to get the attention of the employees, but often fail to achieve understanding between the lower ranks- one of the goals of effective comm8iunication. The key to better communication lies not just in the use of color, action, and electronic gadgets but also in presentation done by people-oriented managers who carefully prepare and convey their messages with sincerity and candor. They are sensitive to the employee’s needs and open to true dialogue with their workers (Abelos, et al., 2005).

Most of the information that flows downward is geared toward helping employees do their jobs. Typical messages include briefings on the organization’s mission and strategies, instructions on how to perform various jobs, explanations of policies and procedures, feedback on employees’ performance, and motivational pep talks (Bovée & Thill, 1992).

The key to effective downward communication is that employees react most effectively to those matters that they judge to be of greatest personal interest to their superior. However, downward communication should ensure that employees also act in the best interest of the company (Goldhaber, 2005). Too much faith in downward communication may blind the manager as to actual rumors abounding in the organization, thereby creating problems instead.

Downward communication, is used mainly to communicate messages from the more powerful to the less powerful, is perhaps the most common form of communication in organizations. Such communication involves instructions, budget approvals or no approvals, policy statements, variations in standard operating procedures and notification of other changes, general announcements, briefings, and expression of goals, objectives and mission statements. These messages may be transmitted via memos, email, notices and other individual-to-group or individual-to-individual channels; or they may be conveyed indirectly, passed on by others in the hierarchy. During the transfer, the original message may be edited, augmented, reduced, explained or distorted. Upward communication may in some circumstances be even more important than downward communication. It channels convey data about and from customers, data about production of goods and services, and the intelligence that is needed in the day–to-day operation of the organization. This intelligence can be gathered if those at upper levels of an organization are skilled in listening and gathering feedback, and are committed to strategic listening to customers and to organizational transparency. If there is no commitment to such approaches, then a “culture of silence” will probably prevail, which may well have serious consequences for the organization. However, upward communication can also be a fertile source of new ideas and creative problem solving, primarily because people in the lower parts of the hierarchy are closer to specific problems and may be more aware of practical solutions than people further up the hierarchy. On the other hand, it is sometimes quicker and more effective for messages to travel horizontally than upward, downward or across an organization. Nevertheless, good horizontal communication is often impaired by rivalry, territorial behavior and over-specialization of job functions, which erects barriers leading to in-group/out-group exclusion, the use of jargon and other excluding codes, and a reluctance to share information (Eunson, 2005).

Upward organizational communication is communication that flows from any point on an organization chart upward to another point. This type of organizational communication contains primarily the information managers need to evaluate the organizational area for which they are responsible and to determine if something is going wrong within it (Kreps, 2006). Techniques that managers commonly use to encourage upward organizational communication are informal discussions with employees, attitude surveys, the development and use of grievance procedures, suggestion systems and an “open door” policy that invites employees to come in whenever they would like to talk to management. Certo (2006) commented that organizational modifications based on the feedback provided by upward organizational communication enables a company to be more successful in the future.

Many workers face a dilemma concerning what they should communicate to superiors. In any event, upward communication should be encouraged, because it helps to drive fear out of the organization. Upward communication is often disclosed in one way or another to make it more acceptable to managers. The basic assumption behind upward communication is that employees should be treated as respected partners in searching for better ways to achieve goals (Kreps, 2006).

If the two-way flow of information is broken by poor upward communication, management loses touch with employee needs and lacks sufficient information to make sound decisions. It is therefore unable to provide needed task and social support for employees. Management needs to be accustomed to employees in the same way a person should be used to his personal routine. This requires initiative, positive action, sensitivity to weak signals, and adaptability to different channels of employee information. It primarily requires an awareness of and belief that upward messages are important (Abelos et al., 2005). There are, but not limited to, some of the difficulties in upward communication which were identified by Nostrum & Davis (1993), these are the following:

1. Delay. This problem refers to the unnecessarily slow movement of information up to higher levels. Managers hesitate to take a problem upward because doing so implies an admission of failure; therefore each level delays the communication while trying to decide how to solve the problem.

2. Filtering. This problem refers to the partial screening out of information. It occurs because of the natural tendency for an employee to tell a superior only what the employee thinks the superior wants to hear. There may be legitimate reasons for filtering. The total message maybe technically overwhelming or the information may be speculative and require additional confirmation.

3. Short circuiting. In an effort to avoid filtering, employees’ short circuit around their superior which means that they skip one or more steps in the communication hierarchy. On the positive side, this reduces filtering and delays; on the other hand, since it upsets those who are bypassed, employers usually discourage it.

4. Need for response. Since employees initiate upward communication, they are now the senders, and they have strong expectations that feedback will occur. If management provides a quick response, further upward messages will be encouraged. Conversely, lack of response suppresses future upward communications.

From the organization’s standpoint, upward communication is just as vital as downward communication. To solve problems and make intelligent decisions, management must learn what’s going on in the organization. Because they can’t be everywhere at once, executives depend on lower-level employees to furnish them with accurate timely reports on problems, emerging trends, opportunities for improvement, grievances, and performances (Bovée & Thill, 1992).

The last type of organizational communication pattern included in this study is lateral communication. It is a pattern of communication that flows from any point on an organization chart horizontally to another point on the organization chart. Communication that flows across the organization usually focuses on coordinating the activities of various departments and developing new plans for future operating periods. Only through lateral communication can this departmental relationship be coordinated well enough to enhance the attainment of management system objectives (Certo, 2006).

According to Eunson (2005), it is necessary for job coordination with people in other departments. It is also done because people prefer the information of lateral communication, rather than the up-and-down process of the official chain of command. Lateral communication is often the dominant pattern within management.

Employees who play a major role in lateral communication are called boundary spanners. These workers have strong communication links within their department, with people in other units, and often with the external community. These connections with other units allow boundary spanners to gather large amounts of information, which they may filter or transfer to others. This gives them a source of status and potential power (Eunson, 2005).

In addition to transmitting messages up and down the organization, the formal communication network also carries messages horizontally from one department to another. The amount of horizontal communication that occurs through formal channels depends on the degree of interdependence among departments. If each department operates independently, official communication between departments is minimal. But if the business requires coordinated action by its organizational units, horizontal communication may be frequent and intense.

As messages flow between persons at the same level through horizontal communication, this includes staff meetings, face to face interactions and sharing of information through memoranda and reports (Dumler, 2008). Horizontal communication is needed to coordinate the activities of diverse but independent units or departments. Traditionally, horizontal communication took place more among managers than non- managers. But, as organizations have begun to utilize work teams and quality aides; workers from different units or departments, are often called together to work on a project on problem. In other words, many organizations are placing increasing emphasis on horizontal communication (Clarke & Crossland, 2002). It is often regarded as the strongest of all flows in terms of information understanding.

The literature, which has been reviewed, has provided the proponents of this study a clear sense of direction. In the conduct of this research, the researchers found a number of studies which are related to this investigation.

Condes (1989) made a study on the effectiveness of the management communication patterns among the administrators, teachers and students of selected Daughters of Charity Schools. Her findings revealed that the D.C. schools have succeeded in promoting the downward, upward and lateral communication. In other words, the communication management techniques utilized in the school enabled all its members to coordinate their efforts better to attain the school’s goals.

Initially greater emphasis was directed at vertical organizational communication as compared to lateral communication but that is no longer the case. Diagonal communication is an even more recent emphasis in the organizational communication literature. Vertical communication occurs between hierarchically positioned persons and can involve both downward and upward communication flows. Downward communication is more prevalent than upward communication. Larkin & Larkin (1994) suggest that downward communication is most effective if top managers communicate directly with immediate supervisors and immediate supervisors communicate with their staff. A wealth of evidence shows that increasing the power of immediate supervisors increases both satisfaction and performance among employees. This was first discovered by Pelz (1952) and is commonly referred to as the Pelz effect. Pelz was attempting to find out what types of leadership styles led to employee satisfaction (informal/formal, autocratic/participative, and management-oriented/frontline-oriented). He found that what matters most is not the supervisor’s leadership style but whether the supervisor has power.

A survey of 32,000 employees conducted by the International Association of Business Communication and the firm of Towers, Perrin, Forster, and Crosby, Foehrenbach & Rosenberg (1982) found somewhat higher satisfaction with downward communication: about 71 percent reported that their organization tried to keep employees well informed; 65 percent agreed that they had been given sufficient information to perform their jobs; 51 percent agreed that their organization’s downward communication was candid and accurate. They also found that employees want to hear more organizational news directly from the top executives-a finding that potentially conflicts with the Pelz effect and associated studies cited above.

Furst’s research (2004) aimed to identify specific relationships between employee perceptions of managerial influence tactics, their beliefs regarding an expected organizational change, and their commitment to change. The findings suggested that managers may be more likely to shape their beliefs when they rely on supportive influence behaviors, including rational persuasion. These tactics communicate to employees why the change is necessary and provide evidence that the change will be successful.

The fore cited studies are related to this investigation. However, this research does not duplicate any of the studies that have been conducted as it involves a different research environment and groups of respondents.

Flow of the Research Process

The inputs of this study consisted of determining the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns existing in Lyceum de Cebu which encompasses upward, downward, and lateral directions.

The process involved the use of the descriptive survey method of research. Researcher made questionnaire was used as the main instrument of data collection. The items in the questionnaire were formulated, subjected to a dry run, finalized and administered. After the instruments have been retrieved, the responses have been tallied, and the data were processed, presented, analyzed and subsequently interpreted.

The output of the study consists the basis for recommending proposals for enhancement to the administration of Lyceum de Cebu.

The Problem

The purpose of this study was to determine level of effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns manifested in Lyceum de Cebu, in order to recommend proposals for enhancement to the school’s administration.

The following sub-problems were served as the guideposts for undertaking the study.

1. As determined by the teaching and non-teaching staff, how effective is the organizational communication patterns in Lyceum de Cebu based on the following dimensions: 1) Downward; 2) Upward; 3) lateral.

2. Are there significant differences in the assessments made between the teaching and non-teaching staff of Lyceum de Cebu as to the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns?

3. Based on the findings of the study, what proposals for enhancement can be recommended to the administration of Lyceum de Cebu to improve its organizational communication patterns?

The null hypotheses were tested to find out whether there were no significant differences existed between the assessments made by the teaching and non-teaching staff of Lyceum de Cebu as to the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns.

Research Methodology

This study is a descriptive survey method which utilized researcher-made questionnaire as the main source of data, and for verification and validation of the data gathered from the respondents, unstructured interviews have been conducted by the researchers.

Research Environment

The locale of the study is Lyceum of Cebu, Inc., in Cebu City, Philippines. Formerly known as Cebu Court of First Instance (CFI) Coop Learning Center, Inc., it was named first as 4C’s Child Development Center. It was founded in March, 1995 through the initiative of Judge Esperanza F. Garcia, the Founder of Cebu CFI Community Cooperative and Board of Directors.

The school was registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a private, non-sectarian, educational institution offering pre-school and primacy education to children of the cooperative members as well as to non-members within the area. It was granted the temporary permit by the Department of Education on April 14, 1997 to operate pre-school and grade our classes. All throughout those years the school has expanded its offerings for elementary and high school classes.

In 2002, the school was relocated to its present location in Capitol Hills, Barangay Kalunasan. A new school building was constructed to accommodate the new students enrolling in the high school department. Last January, 2006 the school was granted full recognition in the pre-elementary and elementary levels. Plans are undergoing to offer college courses. This was initiated by the preliminary evaluation conducted by the College School of Evaluators from the Commission on Higher Education (CHEDRO) VII.

In June, 2008, the college department received its permit to open the following courses: Bachelor of Science in Accountancy, Bachelor of Science in Office Administration and Bachelor of Science in business Administration.

The vision of Lyceum de Cebu is to be a center of excellence that serves as a catalyst of change for the formation of Integrated Young Filipino who is professionally competent, service oriented, productive and with deep faith in Almighty God and form the humanity. Its mission is to commit itself to offer programs and services within the context of sustainable development and challenges of a diverse globalized society by living and transmitting the values of unity, honesty, integrity, competence, commitment and charity while pursuing the integral formation of students into young Filipinos inspired and impelled by an abiding faith in God, conscious and appreciation of their cultural heritage and uphold the ethics of excellence in institution and production for the fullest development of human potentials.

Lyceum de Cebu commits itself to the lifelong process of facilitating the growth of persons toward their full dignity. It upholds the philosophy of life rooted in the spirit of life rooted in the spirit of Christ contoured by the cooperative principles and practices. The education in Lyceum de Cebu centers on Christ and His Gospel. Its various stakeholders commit themselves to this conviction as they undertake the integral formation of students into young Filipinas, inspired by a deep faith in God and committee to the evangelizing mission of the church through cooperative movement.

Research Respondents

The respondents of the study were the teaching and non-teaching staff of Lyceum de Cebu assigned in the various levels and offices of the school.

The total population of teachers and non-teaching staff were included in this study. Only those with regular employment status were involved as they have been with the school for some time, hence are in a better position to assess the management functions and organizational communication patterns. Twenty or 76.92 pecent teaching and six or 23.08 percent non-teaching staff partcipated in the study (Figure 1).

Figure 1 The Research Respondents

Research Instruments

A researcher made instrument was utilized in this study. A panel of experts determined the validity of the instrument. The questions in this instrument are asked for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of the communication patterns in Lyceum de Cebu. The questions in this instrument are followed by a number of possible responses. Each corresponds to four (4) numeric scales. The scales have qualitative equivalents with the following meanings:

• 4-Very Effective (VE)–means, the communication pattern promotes task accomplishment in all cases.

• 3-Effective (E)–means, the communication pattern promotes task accomplishment in majority of the cases.

• 2-Less Effective (LE)–means, the communication pattern promotes task accomplishment in some cases.

• 1-Ineffective (I)–means, the communication pattern cannot promote task accomplishment at all.

The teaching and non-teaching staff was asked to encircle the numeral corresponding to their answers to each item.

Dry Run Procedures

In order to ensure the functionality of the instruments, the researcher administered the questionnaires to four (4) employees of Lyceum de Cebu as dry run respondents who have a probationary status and were involved in the actual study. The incidence of non-response to any question and the trend of responses were noted. Since the dry run respondents were able to answer all the questions with a reasonable range of variation, the instruments were then finalized.

Data Collection Techniques

Permission to conduct this study was sought from the President of Lyceum de Cebu. After the approval, the researchers asked the assistance of the various heads of the school in the administration of the survey instruments. These were done during the department meeting of each unit and the researchers made themselves available to explain the purpose of the study and to answer the queries that were raised by the respondents.

Data Analysis

The accomplished questionnaires were collected and the responses to the instrument were tallied. The data were then processed and tabulated. The weights assigned to the scales were noted. The weighted mean of each item was determined. The following formula was applied:

image

Where,

μ = Weighted mean.

Σ = Summation.

f = The number of responses under each scale.

χ = The weight assigned to each scale.

N = Number of respondents.

For interpretation purposes, the researchers assigned a hypothetical mean range to the scales in the questionnaires as follows:

Range Scale
3.26–4.00 Very Effective (VE)
2.51–3.25 Effective (E)
1.76–2.50 Less Effective (LE)
1.00–1.75 Ineffective (I)

The null hypothesis was tested at the 0.05 level of significance, by using the Fisher’s T-test of differences between the means of the two groups of respondents. The following formula was used:

image

image

Where,

t = computed t.

image = mean of the first group.

image = mean of the second group.

n1 = size of group 1 .

n2 = size of group 2.

S1 = standard deviation of group 1.

S2 = standard deviation of group 2.

The basic and statistical data were presented, analyzed and interpreted. They were used as the bases for designing proposals for evaluation.

Results and Discussion

This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data which were collected in this study. The information pertained to the effectiveness of the organizational communication patterns manifested in Lyceum in Cebu as assessed by its teaching and non-teaching staff. The data are presented in tables revealing the weighted mean and the qualitative equivalent of each item.

This research was concerned with ascertaining the effectiveness of the communication patterns manifested in Lyceum de Cebu as determined by its teaching and non-teaching staff.

Downward Communication

Table 1 presents data on the effectiveness of the downward communication pattern of Lyceum de Cebu as determined by its teaching and non-teaching staff. As shown by the factor mean of 3.40 taken from the group mean of 3.30 from the teaching staff and 3.50 from the non-teaching staff the downward communication pattern was rated to be very effective.

Table 1 Downward Communication n=26
Indicators Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff Composite
Mean Int. Mean Int. Mean Int.
Calling of meetings between heads and subordinates to discuss school matters. 3.55 VE 4.00 VE 3.78 VE
Using inter-office memorandum to announce important events. 3.75 VE 4.00 VE 3.88 VE
Formulating guidelines for the completion of school projects. 3.15 E 3.33 VE 3.24 E
Reviewing individual department goals and objectives by department heads 3.05 E 3.00 E 3.02 E
Discussing school objective between the heads and subordinates. 3.30 VE 3.33 VE 3.32 VE
Controlling the activities undertaken by all sectors of the school through progress reports, budgets and others. 3.00 E 3.33 VE 3.17 E
Factor mean 3.30 VE 3.50 VE 3.40 VE

Considered very effective (μ=3.78) was the calling of meetings between heads and subordinates to discuss important school matters. For many, this was a very good avenue for both management and employees to share ideas or inputs when it comes to school concerns. This further affirms what Nostrum & Davis (1993) contention about the importance of transferring and sharing information, ideas and feelings from one person to another so as to minimize, if not avoid, misunderstanding which sometimes separates people.

Another very effective downward communication pattern (μ=3.88) was the use of inter office communication to announce important school events. This is considered as an essential tool to inform all employees of the various programs supported by the school. Workers need information other than job instructions. They need to know what other members are doing, hence, Goldhaber (2005) averred that downward communication is important because the lack of it, can leave workers misinformed, feeling disconnected and less satisfied with their jobs. Furthermore, Eunson (2005) emphasized that it is important that communication should to be transmitted down the line through memos, email, notices and other individual-to-group or individual-to-individual channel or they may be conveyed indirectly, passed on by others in the hierarchy.

Formulating guidelines for the completion of school projects was considered an effective way to ensure the conclusion of the identified programs (μ=3.12) on time. This was considered of great importance especially if the project involves a significant amount of money. Clarke & Crossland (2002) affirm that job-related information that focuses on what activities are required, when they should be performed, and how they should be coordinated with other activities within the organization, must be transmitted to employees.

Discussing school objectives between the heads and subordinates were deemed by the two groups of respondents to be a very effective (μ=3.32) scheme of promoting, cooperation and unity in the school. This supports the claim of Clarke & Crossland (2002) that downward communication, should discuss and clarify statements of organizational philosophy, system objectives, position description and other written information relating to the importance, rationale
and interrelationships of various departments.

Reviewing individual department goals and objectives was an effective (μ=3.02) strategy of reviewing each department’s performance in view of the standards set. Once deviations were noted, the required corrective resources were adopted. Bovée & Thill (1992) affirm that information that flows downward is geared towards helping employees do their jobs, which include among others, briefings on the organization’s mission and strategies, instructions on how to perform various jobs, explanation of policies and procedures, and feedbacks on employees’ performance.

Controlling activities undertaken by all sectors of the school through progress reports, budgets and other records were viewed to be effective (μ=3.17) devices to supervise and monitor the various departments. This implied that the people in Lyceum de Cebu were accountable for their work and thus, were requirement to submit periodic reports to their heads.

Upward Communication

The data concerning the effectiveness of the upward communication pattern in Lyceum de Cebu is exhibited in Table 2. The factor mean of 3.21 derived from the group mean of 3.19 from the teaching staff and 3.22 from the non-teaching staff showed that the said flow of information showed was considered to be operating in an effective way.

Table 2 Upward Communication n=26
Indicators Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff Composite
Mean Int. Mean Int. Mean Int.
Encouraging informal discussion between heads and subordinates 3.00 E 3.33 VE 3.17 E
Soliciting suggestions/inputs from the subordinates for improving the school services 3.05 E 3.00 E 3.04 E
Empowering employees to solve problems within their department 3.10 E 3.00 E 3.05 E
Using of grievance procedures if disagreements or conflict occur between and among heads and subordinates 3.85 VE 3.33 VE 3.59 VE
Providing a feedback mechanism for relaying appraisal results 3.00 E 3.00 E 3.00 E
Adopting an open door policy encouraging employees to talk to the administration anytime 3.15 E 3.67 VE 3.41 VE
Factor mean 3.19 E 3.22 E 3.21 E

Specifically, encouraging informal discussion between heads and subordinates was considered to be effectively applied in the school as reflected by the composite mean of 3.17. This means that the message line traveling from the lower echelon to the higher up was conducive for the two groups to keep an open flow of data necessary to resolve common problems. Kreps (2006) averred that workers need to ease out their dilemma toward communicating to their superiors. According to him, this should be encouraged because it helps to drive fear out of the organization. Thus, employees should be treated as respected partners in searching for better ways to achieve objectives. Soliciting suggestions/inputs from the subordinates was assessed to be effective (μ=3.04) in improving the school’s services. This practice enabled the administration to touch base with problems and exceptions to routine performance that required their immediate attention. This affirms Eunson (2005) claim that upward communication can be a fertile source of new ideas, and creative problem solving, primarily because people in the lower parts of the hierarchy are closer to specific problems or more aware of practical solutions than people further up the hierarchy.

The composite mean of 3.05 revealed that empowering employees to solve problems within their department was regarded as an effective mechanism for upward communication. This provided the subordinates the leeway to give suggestions/ideas for improving task related procedures to increase quality or efficiency.

The use of grievance procedures was assessed to be a very effective tool (μ=3.59) in settling conflicts or disagreements between/among heads and subordinates. Through this process, disputes were be settled at the lowest level and they went up the hierarchy if no viable resolution was made in the lower level.

The composite mean of 3.00 evidences the fact that the school has an effective feedback mechanism for providing appraisal results. This was looked upon as a useful activity for management to monitor performance levels in the school. This is further reinforced by Kreps (2006) contention that in organization, one of the techniques to encourage upward communication is to have information about the results of the evaluation in areas for which workers are responsible, determine if there is something wrong within, and grievance procedures are in place.

Finally, adopting an open door policy was considered to be very effective (μ=3.41) in encouraging employees to talk to the administration anytime. This was considered by many sectors in the school as a sincere effort by the administration to build healthy channels for upward communication. Open communication can be a good means of improving organizational effectiveness and efficiency, Ewald & Burnett (1997) stressed that the success of workers is dependent upon their ability to communicate with people and present their thoughts and ideas to them so they will understand what they are driving at, and be persuaded.

Lateral Communication

The data regarding the extent of effectiveness on the lateral communication channel in Lyceum de Cebu is reflected in Table 3. The factor mean of 3.24 obtained from the group mean of 3.15 from the teaching staff and 3.33 from the non-teaching staff shows that the lateral communication flow of the school was deemed to be generally effective.

Table 3 Lateral Communication n=26
Indicators Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff Composite
Mean Int. Mean Int. Mean Int.
Sharing of vital information between/among the various departments on matters affecting school operations 2.95 E 3.33 VE 3.19 E
Coordinating the activities and flow of information for diverse but related work units 3.25 E 3.33 VE 3.29 VE
Encouraging workers to solve school problems among themselves 3.20 E 3.33 VE 3.27 VE
Encouraging workers to consult others concerning the school’s activities 3.15 E 3.33 VE 3.24 E
Promoting teamwork among all employees in the school 3.20 E 3.33 VE 3.27 VE
Factor mean 3.15 E 3.33 VE 3.24 E

The composite mean of 3.19 unveils the fact that sharing of vital information between/among the various departments on matters affecting school operations was regarded as effective interdepartmental. This regarded as the way of coming up with possible solutions to problems confronting the school. This affirms Dumler (2008) claim that sharing of information with other individuals could propel to overcoming barriers, work through problems and achieve goals.

Coordinating the activities and flow of information for diverse but related work units was regarded as very effective based on the composite mean of 3.29. It can be construed from the finding that interdepartmental messages were regarded as an appropriate means of facilitating the accomplishment of joint projects or tasks. This reinforces the claim of Certo (2006) that communicating across the organization should focus on coordinating the activities of various departments and developing new plans for future operating periods leading towards the attainment of management systems objectives. Eunson (2005) confirms that there is a necessity for workers to coordinate closely with people in other departments, because according to him, people prefer the information derived from lateral communication rather than the up-and-down process of the official chain of command.

The composite mean of 3.27 indicates that the school’s practice of encouraging its workers to solve problems among themselves was a very effective way of initiating change and improvements that can help the school to change grow and improve.

The practice of encouraging workers to consult others concerning the school’s activities was assessed to be effective (μ=3.24) in promoting upward communication. Hence, the employees were given the chance to involve other stakeholders in the organization in looking for the most viable explanation for problems.

Finally, the method of promoting teamwork among all employees in the school was considered to be very effective as shown by the composite mean of 3.27. It can be inferred from this finding that in a learning organization like Lyceum de Cebu, horizontal communication is particularly important in nurturing teamwork and cooperation.

Summarized Data on the Effectiveness of the Communication Patterns

Table 4 highlights the summarized data on the extent of effectiveness of the communication patterns existing in Lyceum de Cebu as assessed by its teaching staff and non-teaching staff. The general average of 3.28 based on the group mean of 3.21 from the teaching staff and 3.25 from the non-teaching staff reveals that the school has a very effective communication flow permeating in all three directions–upward, downward and lateral.

Table 4 Summarized Data on The Effectiveness of the Communication Patterns n=26
Indicators Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff Factor Mean
μ Int. Μ Int. μ Int.
Downward communication 3.30 VE 3.50 VE 3.40 VE
Upward communication 3.19 E 3.22 E 3.21 E
Lateral communication 3.15 E 3.33 VE 3.27 VE
General mean 3.21 E 3.35 VE 3.28 VE

Specifically, the downward communication pattern adopted by Lyceum de Cebu was assessed to be generally very effective (μ=3.40). Here, information passed through the chain of command–that is through the hierarchical status structure. These messages reaffirm the chain of command and reinforce control.

With regard to upward communication pattern, it was rated to be effective as evidenced by the factor mean of 3.21. The school has a well-developed network which helps the administrators gain timely information to make sound and prudent decisions in relation to various concerns to be addressed in the school.

Lateral communication in Lyceum de Cebu was likewise rated to be very effective as shown by the factor mean of (μ=3.27). It indicated that communication moves across organizational members at the same hierarchical levels without too much filters nor the threat of distortion. This channel was designed not only to inform but also to request support and coordinate activities.

Tests of Hypotheses

These hypotheses in this study were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. The succeeding table presents the results.

Test of Hypothesis on Downward Communication

Table 5 presents the data on the results of the Fisher’s t-test as applied to the downward communication channel of Lyceum de Cebu.

Table 5 Test of Hypothesis on the Downward Communication
Indicators Mean t computed t critical Decision Interpretation
Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff
Calling of meetings between heads and subordinates to discuss school matters. 3.55 4.00 1.3275 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Using inter-office memorandum to announce important events. 3.75 4.00 2.0323 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Formulating guidelines for the completion of school projects. 3.15 3.33 0.5941 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Reviewing individual department goals and objectives by department heads. 3.05 3.00 0.1237 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Discussing school objective between the heads and subordinates. 3.30 3.33 0.0829 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Controlling the activities undertaken by all sectors of the school through progress reports, budgets and others. 3.00 3.33 0.7554 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference

As reflected in the table, there were no significant differences between the assessments of the teaching staff and non-teaching regarding the effectiveness of the downward communication channel existing in the school, as the critical t values was lesser than the computed t value of 2.08. To wit: calling of meetings between heads and subordinates to discuss school matters–t-value is 1.3275; using inter office memorandum to announce important events–t-value is 2.0323, formulating guidelines for the completion of school projects–t-value is 0.5941, reviewing individual department goals and objectives by department heads–t-value is 0.1237, discussing school objectives between the heads and subordinates–t-value is 0.0829 and lastly controlling the activities undertaken by all sectors of the school through progress reports, budgets and others t-value is 0.7554.

Data on Table 5 further showed that, as observed by both groups of respondents, the downward communication pattern adhered to by the school was effective in giving both the administrators and subordinates performance reviews. Thus, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Test of Hypothesis on Upward Communication

Table 6 evidences the results of the Fisher’s t-test as applied to Lyceum’s upward communication pattern.

Table 6 Test of Hypothesis on the Upward Communication
Indicators Mean t computed t critical Decision Interpretation
Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff
Encouraging informal discussion between heads and subordinates. 3.00 3.33 0.8381 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Soliciting suggestions/inputs from the subordinates for improving the school services. 3.05 3.00 0.36972 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Empowering employees to solve problems within their department. 3.10 3.00 0.80943 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Using of grievance procedures if disagreements or conflict occur between and among heads and subordinates. 3.85 3.33 1.3317 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Providing a feedback mechanism for relaying appraisal results. 3.00 3.00 0 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Adopting an open door policy encouraging employees to talk to the administration anytime. 3.15 3.67 1.4235 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference

As reflected in the table, there were no significant differences in the assessments made by the teaching and non-teaching staff concerning the effectiveness of the upward communication pattern prevailing in Lyceum de Cebu as the critical t-value of 2.08 is higher than the computed t-values of the various factors involved. To wit: encouraging internal discussion between heads and subordinates–t-value is 0.831; soliciting suggestions/inputs from the subordinates for improving the school services, t value is 0.36972, empowering employees to solve problems within their department–t value is 0.80943; using of grievance procedures if disagreements or conflict occur between and among heads and subordinates–t value–1.3317; providing a feedback mechanism for relaying appraisal results–t value is 0, and lastly adopting an open door policy encouraging employees to talk to the administration anytime–t value is 1.4235.

These findings could be traced back to Table 6 which revealed that both the teaching and non-teaching staff considered the prevailing upward communication pattern of Lyceum de Cebu to be generally effective in providing higher level administrators feedback about the school’s performance. Thus, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Test of Hypothesis on Lateral Communication

Table 7 depicts the results of the Fisher’s t-test as applied to the lateral communication pattern pervading in Lyceum de Cebu.

Table 7 Test of Hypothesis on the Lateral Communication
Indicators Mean t computed t critical Decision Interpretation
Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff
Sharing of vital information between/among the various departments on matters affecting school operations. 2.95 3.33 0.9149 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Coordinating the activities and flow of information for diverse but related work units. 3.25 3.33 0.2435 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Encouraging workers to solve school problems among themselves. 3.20 3.33 0.4074 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Encouraging workers to consult others concerning the school’s activities. 3.15 3.33 0.4470 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference
Promoting teamwork among all employees in the school. 3.20 3.33 0.4074 2.080 Accept No Significant Difference

As shown in the table there was no significant differences between the evaluations made by the teaching and non-teaching staff in terms of the effectiveness of the lateral communication pattern existing in the school as reflected by the computed t-values which are all lesser than the critical t-value of 2.08.

Specifically, sharing of vital information between/among the various departments on matters affecting school operations t-value is 0.9149. coordinating the activities and flow of information for diverse but related work units, t value is 0.2435, encouraging workers to solve school problems among themselves-t-value is 0.4074, encouraging workers to consult others concerning the school’s activities t value is 0.4470 and lastly promoting teamwork among all employees in the school-t-value is 0.4074.

Reference to Table 7 demonstrates the fact that based on the assessments made by the two groups of respondents, the lateral communication pattern adopted by Lyceum de Cebu was deemed effective in ensuring that information comes across organizational members at the same hierarchical level. Thus, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions:

1. The extent of effectiveness of the communication patterns existing in Lyceum de Cebu as assessed by its teaching staff and non-teaching staff revealed that the school has a very effective communication flow permeating in all three directions–upward, downward and lateral. Specifically, the downward communication pattern was assessed to be generally very effective (μ=3.40). Here, information passed through the chain of command–that is through the hierarchical status structure. These messages reaffirm the chain of command and reinforce control. With regard to upward communication pattern, it was rated to be effective as evidenced by the factor mean of 3.21. The school has a well-developed network which helps the administrators gain timely information to make sound and prudent decisions in relation to various concerns to be addressed in the school. Lateral communication in Lyceum de Cebu was likewise rated to be very effective as shown by the factor mean of (μ=3.27). It indicated that communication moves across organizational members at the same hierarchical levels without too much filters or the threat of distortion. This channel was designed not only to inform but also to request support and coordinate activities.

2. As to the test of hypothesis whether a significant difference existed between the assessments made between the teaching and non-teaching staff in terms of the effectiveness of the channels used and are existing in the school, all the organizational communication patterns of downward, upward and lateral communication channels proved to have no significant differences existed. Thus, the null hypotheses are all accepted.

3. The researchers further concluded that even though the school manifested an effective organizational communication pattern all throughout the hierarchy, still, there were certain areas where improvements can be made.

Recommendations

Taking into account the findings of the study, the researchers recommend that:

1. The proposal for enhancing the organizational communication patterns of Lyceum de Cebu is considered for implementation by the administration of the said school.

2. A strong collaboration between the administrators and subordinates is exhibited to ensure the successful implementation of the proposed program.

3. The mechanisms used for evaluating the program proposed in this study are reviewed periodically to serve its purpose.

Further Recommendations

Topics that future researchers may consider for further study are recommended. They are as follows:

1. School Effectiveness, Accountability and Improvement in Lyceum de Cebu: Basis for Redirection.

2. Transformational Leadership, Shared Decision Making and Problem Solving Among the head of Lyceum de Cebu: Agenda for Development.

3. Power and Politics in Lyceum de Cebu: Basis for a Rationalization Program.

Appendix

Proposals for Enhancement

This part presents the proposal formulated by the proponents taking into account the results of the study which revealed that although the prevailing organizational communication patterns were viewed to be generally effective, yet, improvements can be done to sustain such conditions.

Program Management

This highlights the strategies for implementing the proposed enhancements which are intended to improve the communication flow in Lyceum de Cebu.

Program Description

This is a development program designed to enrich the existing organizational communication pattern in the school. It is composed of three modules that will be conducted for three consecutive days. It will be participated by all the teaching and non-teaching staff of Lyceum de Cebu.

Rationale

Organizational effectiveness now plays such a central role in the theory and practice of education that a thorough understanding of the concept is essential. From a social system perspective, effectiveness is not one theory but is comprised of indicators from inputs or resources from the environment, harmony among and quality of the school organization’s transformational components, and the relative attainment of feasible standards that can be exchanged for other resources and incentives.

To improve school effectiveness and loosen the constraints, there should be a coherent systematic approach to educational reform. Lyceum de Cebu cognizant of this dictum tries to establish systems of improvement using a set of critical environmental, transformational and performance outcome variables. The critical components of the model include a unifying vision in transforming internal processes and structures such as communication flows to maximize school effectiveness.

Lyceum de Cebu in its desire to become an effective learning organization, continuously strives to find ways to create structures that enhance organizational adaptation; create a school climate that is open, collaborative and self-regulating while at the same time attracting people who are amenable to change. Furthermore, it also nurtures the maintenance of an open and continuous communication, and shared decision making which are mechanisms deemed to enhance organizational learning in schools. Hence, this program is intended to build a school that has the capacity to respond effectively not only to contemporary problems but also to new and emerging issues of school effectiveness.

Program Objectives

After the implementation of the program, the participants are expected to:

1. Understand how each stakeholder of the school can create competitive advantage though effective internal processes and structures.

2. Describe the concept of channel richness, and explain how communication channels influence the quality of communication.

Program Content

This section presents the content of the program focusing on enhancing the communication patterns in Lyceum de Cebu. The sessions are designed in modules where the attendees’ participation is assured. This will be conducted in the three (3) consecutive days.

Module I

Improving Downward Communication

Data base

Table 2 revealed that the downward communication pattern pervading in Lyceum de Cebu was regarded as very effective by both groups of respondents. However, there were certain areas which were rated to be effective.

Objective

To enhance, the information flow in the organizational hierarchy from the top to the lowest level.

Theory Input

Messages do not sit down waiting to be discovered, nor do they float around randomly to be picked up by some lucky accident. Communication in organizations flows directionally through the formal and informal network.

In downward communication, information passes through the chain of command that is through the hierarchical status structure. These messages typically reaffirm the chain of command and reinforce control. This communication pattern is relatively easy to send, but subordinates often misunderstand the message. To ensure that the intended meanings are understood, administrators must develop two way communication channels and use extensive feedback processes up and down the hierarchy.

Suggested Topics

• Tips in giving instructions about specific tasks.

• Rationalizing as to why tasks need to be done and how it relates to other tasks.

• Effective relaying of information about organizational procedures and practices.

• Indoctrination of the school’s vision, mission and goals.

Activities

• Lecture.

• Sharing.

• Role playing.

• Case analysis.

• Group dynamics.

After the lecture, the participants will be grouped to ask questions on the topics discussed.

Group Exercise

• The participants are asked to divide into three (3) groups.

• Each group will select a rapporteur who will synthesize the output of the group.

• Each group will be asked to do the following activities.

As the college dean, you are directed by the school board to implement a new program in your department. To prepare from the program, implementation you are to do the following:

• Create a plan to communicate the initiative to the teaching and non-teaching staff. Consider the following factors: the information to be relayed, the channel and media to be used in sending the message, and the senders’ availability.

• Prepare samples of memorandum and presentations that one will use to communicate the changes to all stakeholders in the school.

Synthesis of the Findings

The assigned rapporteur from each will present the group’s output.
Wrap Up: Time Frame: one (1) day

Module II

Enhancing Upward Communication

Data Base

Table 3 shows that the two (2) groups of respondents viewed the upward communication channel of the school to be generally effective.

Objective

To improve those areas in the upward communication pattern which were assessed to be not effective to facilitate the flow of information from the lower to the top level of the school.

Theory Input

Upward communication is one means by which subordinates are made accountable to superiors. Such communication is often viewed as an instrument of administrative control. Consequently, subordinates have a tendency to emphasize positive information and withhold negative data, communicate what they think the “boss wants to hear”, or simply remain silent.

Because many decisions are made at the top of the hierarchy, the quality of the decisions will depend on the accuracy and timeliness of the communication that moves through the formal system. In general, the more tangible and objective the information, the more likely that subordinates will communicate accurately with their supervisors. Frequent two-way exchanges also improve accuracy.

Suggested Topics

• Preparing routine operational messages.

• Proper reporting on problems.

• Creative suggestions for improvement.

• Soliciting information on how subordinates feel about each other and the job.

Activities

- Lecture.

- Role playing.

- In-basket exercise.

- Business game.

- Experiential sharing.

After the activities, the resource speaker will encourage the participants to ask questions. All concerns will be properly addressed to.

Group Exercise

• The attendees will be asked to rejoin their respective groups.

• They have the option of having the same rapporteur or may choose a new one.

Going back to the group exercise on downward communication, this time the college dean is asked to develop methods to assess the effects of the communication by soliciting feedback (two-way communication) on the new program and its development using both verbal and non-verbal channels and formal as well as informal networks.

Synthesis of the Groups’ output

The assigned rapporteur will discuss the output of his/her group.

Wrap-up: Time Frame: one (1) day

Module III

Promoting Lateral Communication

Data Base

The lateral communication pattern in Lyceum de Cebu was rated to be very effective by the non-teaching staff and effective by the teaching personnel.

Theory Input

Horizontal flow indicates that communication moves across organizational members at the same hierarchical level. This kind of communication is the strongest and most easily understood. The purpose of this communication pattern is not only to inform but also to request support and coordinate activities.

Horizontal communication is needed to coordinate the activities of diverse but independents units or departments. Traditionally, this pattern took place more among heads. But as organizations have begun to utilize work teams and quality circles, workers from different units or department are often called together to work on a project. At present, many organizations are placing increasing emphasis on horizontal communication.

Suggested Topics

• Creative intradepartmental problem solving.

• Interdepartmental coordination.

• Change initiatives and improvements.

• Team communication.

Activities

- Message relay.

- Lecture.

- Role playing.

- Group dynamics.

- Case analysis.

Questions will be entertained after the various topics are discussed. The resource speaker will expound on the concerns raised.

Group Exercise

• The same grouping will be done among the participants.

• A rapporteur will be tasked to wrap up and synthesize the output of the group. This is the activity that they will do.

What is the relationship between group member communication and group tasks? For example, how should communication differ in a strategic planning group and a group of employees who stock? Shelves in a grocery store.

Summary: Wrap-up: Time Frame: one (1) day

Evaluation

For the purpose of determining the relevance of the training modules, the proponent presents an assessment scheme for the program. The criteria for evaluation are presented in the foregoing section. This is the first phase of the evaluation process. The second phase will be done one year after its implementation.

Evaluation Form for the Organizational Communication

Pattern development program

Please assess the training modules by encircling the numeral which best represents your appraisal of each parameter based on the criteria contained in this form. Each numeral corresponds to the following qualitative scales, thus: 5-Excellent; 4-Very Effective; 3-Effective; 2-Fair; 1-Poor.

The Resource Speaker (to be assessed individually)
- Mastery of the subject matter 5 4 3 2 1
- Language proficiency 5 4 3 2 1
- Sense of humor 5 4 3 2 1
- Ability to answer questions 5 4 3 2 1
- Elaborate to elaborate certain theories 5 4 3 2 1
- Relevance of examples 5 4 3 2 1
- Poise under pressure 5 4 3 2 1
Factor Average _________
Modular Content
- Timeliness of topics 5 4 3 2 1
- Comprehensiveness of content 5 4 3 2 1
- Relevance of existing conditions 5 4 3 2 1
- Applicability of examples and concepts 5 4 3 2 1
- Practical application of theories highlighted 5 4 3 2 1
Factor Average _________
Training Format
- Sequencing of modules 5 4 3 2 1
- Observance of allocated time schedule 5 4 3 2 1
- Consistency of theory presentation 5 4 3 2 1
- Extent of audience participation 5 4 3 2 1
Factor Average __________
General Average _________

Post Evaluation

This phase will be done one year after the training program has been implemented. The instrument used in this study will be utilized in evaluating the effort of the training modules undertaken by the participants in terms of marked improvement in the overall organizational communication patterns of the school.

Budget

The proponents recommend that the school should allot a budget to implement the program being proposed. The amount that can be used to defray the expenses for the proposed interventions and for the training can be taken from the school development fund.

References

Abelos, A.V., Alarcon, T.S., Imson, M.E.P., & Pronda, M.P. (2005). Developing skills in business communication. Valencia Educational Supply. Baguio City., Philippines.

Aldag, R.J., & Stearns, T. (2006). Management. Cincinnati, Ohio: Southwestern Publishing.

Bovée, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Study guide to accompany Marketing. McGraw-Hill.

Certo, S.C., & Certo, S.T. (2006). Modern management. Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Clarke, B., & Crossland, R. (2002). The leader's voice: How your communication can inspire action and get results! Select Books Incorporated.

Condes, Z. (1989). Effectiveness of management communication patterns among the administrators, teachers and students of selected daughters of charity schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, USJ-R, Cebu City.

Dumler, M.P., & Skinner, S.J. (2008). A primer for management. Thomson/South-Western.

Eunson, B. (2005). Communicating in the 21st century. John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.

Ewald, H.R., & Burnett, R.E. (1997). Business communication (International Edition). New Jersey, USA: Prentice hall International, Inc.

Foehrenbach, J., & Rosenberg, K. (1982). How are we doing. Journal of Communication Management, 12(1), 3-11.

Frank, A.D. (1985). Trends in communication: Who talks to whom? Personnel, 62(12), 41-47.

Furst, S.A. (2002). An expectancy-based model of managerial influence tactics and employee commitment to organizational change.

Goldhaber, G. (2005). Organizational communication. Dubuque, Iowa: WM C. Brown.

Kreps, G. (2006). Organizational communication. New York: Longmann.

Larkin, T.J., & Larkin, S. (1994). Communication change communicating change: How to win employee support for new business directions. New York.

Nostrum, J.W., & Davis, K. (1993). Organizational behavior. Human Behavior at Work 9th Ed. Quezon City; Reprinted by Kalayaan Press.

Pelz, D.C. (1952). Influence: A key to effective leadership in the first-line supervisor. Personnel.