Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 2
Basril Basyar, Andalas University Padang
Nursyirwan Effendi, Andalas University Padang
James Hellyward, Andalas University Padang
Asmawi, Andalas University Padang
Hilaire Tegnan, Andalas University Padang
The absence of government policy related to livestock has resulted in ineffective counselling scheme to help boost the achievement of beef self-sufficiency in West Sumatra. One of the reasons is communication disharmony between the executive and the legislative in policy formulation process. This study aims to identify the legal bases and recommendations of livestock counselling policy formulation process in West Sumatra. The research, using qualitative method, was carried out for 6 months at the Department of Animal Husbandry of West Sumatra, the Secretariat of Coordination Agency (BAKORLUH) and the Regional House of Representatives (DPRD). Research informants, as many as 6, were determined by purposive technique. Secondary data was obtained by documentation while primary data was obtained through interviews. Data analysis method used is descriptive qualitative with instrument analysis using technique 5W+1H (what, who, why, when, where and how). The study concludes that the legal bases that can be used for livestock counselling policy formulation consist of laws, government regulations, presidential decrees and two regulations of the Minister of Agriculture. This study suggests that West Sumatra Livestock Counselling Commission should be involved in livestock counselling policy formulation as a mediator, communicator and expert.
Livestock, Livestock Counselling, Policy Formulation Process and Beef Self-Sufficiency.
The most popular livestock development program during President Susilo Bambang Yodoyono's administration was self-sufficiency in beef. The final period of the 2014 program targeted the achievement of self-sufficiency in beef Indonesia with the support of the availability of cattle’s in regions of the program. One of the government's strategies for achieving this goal was the use of reproduction technology and cattle raising management (Laws of the Republic of Indonesia, 2007). The support of the above policy required a human resource qualified in cattle farming. This is in ligne with the finding of Daryanto (2009) who argues that the major problem of livestock development today is the low qualification of the human resource in cattle farming. The development of human resource in cattle farming can be achieved through some non-formal education activities such as counselling (Mardikato, 2009). Animal husbandry innovative information can be circulated, accepted and applied by a great majority of the population through counselling (Sumardjo, 2010). The management and organization of agricultural counselling, including livestock, is in accordance with the local government regulation No. 16/2006. However, in order to make livestock counselling more effective, local governments should translate this regulation into macro and micro policies at the administrative level. The need for policy products is intended to regulate the implementation of agricultural counselling on food crop commodities and also commodities in other sub-sectors such as animal husbandry. This is related to the need to inform farmers so as to improve their competence and skills, which can help boost livestock development agenda both at the central and regional levels. West Sumatran Department of Aminal Husbandry only transfers knowledge to farmers through livestock health personnel. As a result, livestock counselling scheme has not been able to reach its purpose, i.e., improving the agricultural knowledge of farmers to help achieve beef self-sufficiency in West Sumatra. One of the obstacles faced by the local government in formulating livestock counselling policy is the hegemony of political interests when the executive is called upon to run a combination of political, technocratic, participatory and top-down approach to enact policies. This condition makes the policy formulation process costly and time consuming. Political approach has becomes a challenge for the local government as it creates disharmony of communication between policy makers (executive and legislative) who have different interests. As a result, the government is more oriented towards budget absorption and strong political power. The community, on the other hand, is more focused on the short term effects of policies. Communication disharmony between local government institutions is one of the obstacles of livestock policy formulation in West Sumatra. Based on the above background, this study seeks to address the issue of livestock policy formulation by identifying the appropriate supporting legal basis.
This study uses qualitative method to explain livestock policy formulation process in West Sumatra. The research was conducted at several government institutions such as West Sumateran Department of Animal Husbandry, Secretariat of Counselling Coordination Agency (BAKORLUH) and the Regional House of Representatives (DPRD). This research was conducted in six months starting from July to December 2016. The research informant’s involved were as many as 6 and they were selected by using purposive techniques. The data used are primary and secondary, both collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and documentations. Data analysis method used is descriptive qualitative with instrument analysis using technique 5W+1H (what, who, why, when, where and how).
Legal Basis of Livestock Counselling Policy Formulation
To formulate strong and effective livestock policies at the macro level, the government needs a clear legal basis. Government policies, in this regard, are more of measures used as references in carrying out government programs, including livestock counselling. Legal bases that can be used by the government of West Sumatra through the Department of Animal Husbandry are as follows:
• Law No. 16/2006 on the Counselling System for Agriculture, Fishery and Forester. The idea of this law is the administrative management of agricultural counselling, including livestock. The implementation of this law is handed over to the local government. Consequently, the enactment of this law has allowed West Sumatera government to strengthen livestock counselling measures in the region.
• Government Regulation No. 43/2009 on Financing, Developing and Supervising Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Counselling. Articles 3 and 4 of this regulation state that the Governor may allocate budget for counselling costs based on his or her duty and authority. The financing is intended for operational counselling agencies, civil servants, costs of procurement and maintenance of facilities and infrastructure as well as professionals and other private and self-employed counselling agents. Through this legal basis, the government of West Sumatra can allocate some of its budget to livestock counselling.
• Presidential Decree No. 154/2014 on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Counselling Institutions. This law says that central and regional governments must have their own counselling institutions in the form of coordinating agency for counselling to boost agricultural development.
• Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 59/2007 on the Guidelines for the Acceleration of Beef Self-Sufficiency Achievement. Based on this regulation, West Sumatra was chosen as one of the areas of the implementation of the Beef Self-Sufficiency program. The government’s effort to reach this target includes optimizing the use of artificial insemination technology, Natural mating and improved cultivation management of livestock communities. These three efforts cannot work without the involvement of farmers as the main actors of this program and this is the reason why livestock counselling is needed.
• Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 19/2010 on the General Guidelines for Beef Self-Sufficiency Program. This regulation sets forth that one of the strategies to achieving beef self-sufficiency is to increase the capacity and competence of farmers and their institutions. One way to achieve this is through counselling of farmers. Consequence, the government of West Sumatra issued a macro-level policy to facilitate the implementation of livestock counselling by providing funds, infrastructure and other necessary livestock counselling resources.
Mardihariani & Jamal (2017) argue that Law No. 16/2006, which is referred to as one of legal bases of livestock counselling policy formulation, is designed to strengthen livestock counselling. Similar observation was made by Narso, Asngari & Muljono (2012) who argue that the current agricultural development scheme prioritizes human development; so therefore, the government needs to direct its agricultural policy toward strengthening agricultural counselling, especially livestock counselling. Echoing this is Syahyuti (2014) who claims that there is a crucial need for a clear policy to improve the role of farmers counselling. These three opinions reinforce the findings of the present study which argues that livestock counselling requires a policy landscape that would be the foundation of agricultural laws and regulations to be issued by the government in West Sumatra.
The macro policy that can be issued by the government of West Sumatra for livestock counselling can be in the form of local regulation (Perda) as set forth in Law No. 12/2011 on Legislation and the Ministry of Home Affairs Decree No. 80/2015 on Regional Legislation. These legislations, basically, aim at alleviating communication problems in each stage of the legislation, because the most important obstacle faced by the Government of West Sumatran, especially the Department of Animal Husbandry, is communication problem among actors of agricultural sector and between politicians and the Regional House of Representatives of Sumatra West.
According to an informant, a member of the Regional House of Representatives, there is a need for an entity can bridge communication between stakeholders involved at each stage of the regional legislation. The informant goes on to say that this entity must have the skill of a facilitator and mediator to allow political messages to be delivered well to all parties involved in legislation on agriculture, especially livestock sector. This would facilitate the preparation of counselling draft policy in West Sumatra as it would include the Counselling Commission as a communication facilitator and mediator between the executive, legislative and community (farmers). The executive branch, i.e., West Sumatran Department of Animal Husbandry needs the assistance of other parties in livestock counselling policy formulation. In order to achieve this, the Commission must first undertake a study exploring all the issues faced by the government and farmers in the agricultural sector, particularly those related to the achievement of beef self-sufficiency. So far the commission has established a one-way communication channel as it only focuses on the needs of farmers while ignoring those of the executive and legislative branches. The commission could then discuss the problems with the Governor of West Sumatra in order to find possible solutions. This is what the Department of Animal Husbandry expects the commission to do; as it believes it is an effective way to convince regional leaders of the importance of livestock counselling policy. The communication initiated by the commission is more of an academic communication that minimizes the political interests of certain parties involved in the formulation of this policy. In fact, the commission sets up a legal team mainly consisting of academics that are tasked to come up with a draft policy and make recommendations to the Department of Animal Husbandry. Once this stage completes, the draft policy is handed over to the Regional House of Representatives in the form of draft legislation on livestock counselling. Hence the importance of collaboration between all parties involved in the process i.e., the Department of Animal Husbandry, academics, the Commission, politicians and the Regional House of Representatives. The role of the commission is very crucial at this stage as it becomes the facilitator or mediator between the Department of Animal Husbandry and the Regional House of Representatives. This is the stage where many interests come into play. However, of all interests, political interest is what influences livestock policy formulation the most in West Sumatra, as argued earlier. West Sumatran Livestock Counselling Commission assists Regional Government, especially the Department of Animal Husbandry, in discussing the draft policy with the Regional Parliament for a proper agricultural legislation, one that guarantees effective counselling to farmers so as to boost beef self-sufficiency in the region and even beyond. The role of the Commission stops here as the legislation process is the domain and authority of the Regional House of Representatives and the Local Government.
The overall stages in the recommendation of the policy formulation process are aimed not only at overcoming communication barriers between all actor involved in agricultural policy formulation but also at minimizing the political communication ego that exists between the executive and the legislative branches in West Sumatra.
To formulate a livestock counselling policy at the macro-level, the Government of West Sumatera can use several legal bases, such as: 1) Law No. 16/2006 on Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Counselling Systems, 2) Government Regulation No. 43/2009 Concerning Financing, Development and Supervision of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Counselling; 3) Presidential Decree No. 154/2014 on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Counselling Institutions; 4) Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 59/2007 on the Guidelines for the Acceleration of Beef Self-Sufficiency Achievement; and 5) Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 19/2010 on the General Guidelines for Beef Self-Sufficiency Program. Livestock counselling policy formulation is facilitated by West Sumatran Counselling Commission by assisting not only farmers but also and more importantly by helping the Government of West Sumatra, especially the Department of Animal Husbandry to convince regional leaders such the Governor and the Regent of the importance of livestock counselling. The commission also helps set up a team of academics to draft appropriate livestock policy, which is then handed over to the Regional House of Representatives by the local government for the enactment of effective livestock counselling laws. The Commission helps bridge the mediation and communication process between the Department of Animal Husbandry and the Regional House of Representatives in order to achieve beef self-sufficiency in West Sumatra and beyond.