Academy of Strategic Management Journal (Print ISSN: 1544-1458; Online ISSN: 1939-6104)

Research Article: 2022 Vol: 21 Issue: 5

Managerial Agility and Teleworking in Times of Crisis-Covid 19: The Case of the Multinational WEBHELP

Myriem Zine El Abidine, University Sidi Mohamed Ben

Slaoui Samira, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah

Citation Information: El Abidine, A.Z., & Samira, S. (2022). Managerial agility and teleworking in times of crisis-covid 19: The case of the multinational WEBHELP. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(S5), 1-12.


The real challenge of any crisis is to turn an obstacle into an opportunity; this managerial agility is not given to everyone and depends on several criteria, especially if it is the systemic shock of the Covid-19 pandemic, with unexpected and profound consequences on the health of markets and companies as well as customer demand. The agility that requires acting in an emergency and managing unforeseen. This research looks at a case study of an exploratory investigation of a Morocco-based multinational firm specializing in customer relations (WEBHELP) also which has a head start because it has been able to adopt the four dimensions of agility as well as telework. The culture that goes with to analyze through the various systems and tools put in place to fight against this unprecedented storm especially in its innovative and exceptional combination between the social, digital and managerial dimensions.


Managerial Agility, Remote Management or Teleworking, Covid 19, Digital Transformation, Management of the Unexpected.


In an exceptional context, exceptional measure; the Covid-19 pandemic has upset the continuity and the survival of organizations in this period which is part of a risky, contingent, fragile and unpredictable environment, where the implementation of new forms of work organization (NFOT) is now part of strategic decisions aimed at protecting the productivity and competitiveness of companies by promoting the autonomy and commitment of companies. Indeed, what is currently happening is unprecedented, not only Morocco which has been facing this virus since March 2020, but all countries at the global level, in a trajectory of crises of different natures and magnitudes.

An event that many experts call the black swan, both violent and unexpected on economic activity that could force many companies, to rethink and transform their traditional management mode, to lean towards a more agile management, alternatives as tools that offer organizations the necessary opportunities to support these organizational changes. A situation of aggressive and concomitant shutdown of the productive apparatus in several sectors on a global scale. Some companies have seen their turnover fall by 90% in a few days, or even by 100% in the case of a brutal closure ordered by the public authorities to preserve the health of the population.

Our article research purports first to present the concept of agility in force in this time of crisis through a qualitative study of the multinational WEBHELP conducted over a period of 3 months, from August 1 to October 30, 2021, and the measures initiated by the use of remote management to achieve an entirely different level of action that rhymes with the forced adoption of the New Ways of Working (NWOF's).

Then the bases of a reconsideration of the traditional rules of management, the recourse to crisis innovation that he demonstrated during this period cited today as an example to call man and technology, in unison. At last, the different dimensions of agility adopted to be part of a new organizational approach in new and urgent situations. In this framework, the problem is as follows: how can collective and individual procedures of the firm in the Covid 19 epidemiological context correspond to the concept of managerial, organizational, and human agility and make Productivity gains from teleworking? (Turbé-Suetens, 2011; Richet, 2013).

Literature Review

Conceived in the 90s from the latin “agere” (active), this concept of agility is therefore analyzed as a strategic and organizational response to environmental fluctuations, a willingness to act, to be reactive, flexible (even, to take risks) in a time of crisis. The opportunity is that every disaster calls for a change in culture and the world of management will not be spared. Indeed, their ability to change course quickly to adapt to its context does not occur by chance by simply saying to work in an agile way and consists in setting up another form of project management, more efficient and more satisfactory for the customer by developers for developers. Agility, which has been relatively confidential for about ten years, is increasingly outside the IT framework to address itself in a general way at all levels of the company (Autissier & Wacheux, 2006; Audard et al., 1988).

The academic literature on crises, disasters and turbulence focuses on the stages of prevention/preparedness, management and post-crisis learning. It is for this reason that, this building of agility knows a real echo in management science especially on its practices and attributes with very strong economic and managerial impact, sociologists and philosophers show more and more interest in this operational movement induced by an organizational change, human and human behaviour and the lasting repercussions of the crisis on the company (Akselsen, 2001; Alonso, 2012).

In the latter, the concern is strong, between the desire to ensure the sustainability of the activity, already very impacted by the pandemic, and the responsibility to protect their employees. Faced with the spread of the coronavirus, crisis cells are multiplying in the company and are working on business continuity plans and messages to send to their employees, customers, suppliers and investors (Medina, 2016). Bernard Stiegler did not hesitate to proclaim that “agility is a real social innovation and managerial, at the service of organizations that want to combine concretely, performance and well-being at work” (Figure 1).

Figure 1 The Virtues of Agile Management

It is also the ability to maintain continuity despite extreme conditions (confinement, regrowth, shortage, etc.). Such an ordeal – combined with the possibility that other lockdowns could follow – will profoundly change the frame of reference of managers and the organizational culture and reconfigure a production chain and its destination which remains a real challenge, the Covid-19 epidemic has forced organisations to have done so little. So, agile management is based on the four values of the Agility Manifesto, established in 2001. In order to carry out projects, the agility’s preferred:

1. Interactions between individuals rather than tools and processes.

2. The supply of the expected product usable as soon as possible.

3. Collaboration with customers rather than contract negotiation

4. Acceptance of changing needs and responsiveness rather than rigid planning.

This leads us to formulate the following definition of agile management: Agile management is an organizational, strategic, approach that combines sociological and technological values with a managerial approach. It is a behavioral and emotional strategy that allows companies to become more efficient and better equip themselves in the face of change in a perspective of better awareness of costs (individual and organizational) while taking into account the evolution of customer needs (Rothman, 2010).

The relationship between workforce agility and information technology. They showed that it is not the technologies that enable agility, but rather the way in which these technologies are used, thus giving particular importance to the workforce. To do this, the manager and his team have technological tools to ensure the effective implementation of agile management. Examples for agile methods include:

We speak among others ex-Scrum method for the management of IT projects or learn method for quality management. The goal is to ensure the continuous improvement of processes.

There is also the Hacking management. the English word “Hack” which means “cut”, “chop”, “break” and the French word “Marathon”. The aim here is to bring together a group of the most productive employees in order to detect flaws in the company's processes.

They are then led to share their ideas and practices. Imagination is the key to any improvement to produce agile decisions. This is the very principle of “Thinking Outside the box”. To transform the company from the inside from an external view adaptable to the change of the environment. The building of managerial agility has experienced a real enthusiasm within the scientific and academic community; especially on its practices, attributes, and theoretical underpinnings especially with this last crisis where the final conceptualization remains still unaccompanied (Liu, 1997; Vickoff, 2003).

The attached table gives a summary of the various theoretical contributions in this field through a broad reflection that has developed on the very conceptualization of agility (Table 1).

Table 1 Different Reflections on the Concept of Agility in the Literature
Author Year Concept
Drucker 1996 The notion of agility was developed in the field of air combat as the ability to change maneuvers over time.
Preiss et al. 1995 The technological revolution immense and impact the way of thinking
Proposals for tools are present in the scientific literature, but absence of empirical tests
Gunasekaran 1999 At the level of HR functions their skills, potentials, emotions, states of mind, support and evolution
A means of survival in the face of an unpredictable environment
This makes its operationalization difficult and without a real scale of measurement,
Everaère 1997 Collective learning
Sherehiy et al. 2007 Operational Practices and Attributes)
A lack of consensus in its operational attributes and practices,
Dejoux 2017 Definition of an agile manager.

Methodology and Method of Investigation

The analysis proposed in this article research takes place in a very specific context that it is important to define. According to statistics from the High Commission for Planning in April 2020, nearly 84.2% of companies operating in the service sector have stopped or reduced their activities during the period of confinement, following the (SARS-CoV-2). However, the evaluation was conducted in a context of changing working methods and new postures in the face of the informational virus. The axes of the research are based on the deductive approach (from the analysis of the observed facts we speak of the general laws) and are divided into three components which will address: The first part studies the conceptual and theoretical development, the analysis of current trends and debates concerning managerial agility, especially in the context of crisis. The second part examines the measures and the agile determinants adopted by the company in general, the complexity of the implementation of the means mobilised in particular for monitoring and steering. The third part concerns the analysis of the teleworking process in particular, the preliminary evaluation of the achievements of this process in relation to the expected objectives; the explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of this process (Voiron, 2016).

In addition, the pursuit of these objectives required the use of various methods:

1. A literature review and analysis of the basic documents on the subject driving this device, first to grasp the attributes of the theoretical construct of organisational agility, then to test its validity in the field and finally to propose a conceptual model of the research (Figure 2), the data collected is rich, exhaustive and representative.

Figure 2 The Conceptual Model of Managerial Agility and its Different Dimensions

2. A deductive qualitative study, carried out with managers of human resources of this company (Webhelp) through interviews in order to shed light on the various actions and procedures initiated since March 2020, on its evolution of structures, on its management of Human Resources projects and management, the digital and digital function, in particular teleworking, which will make it possible to best relay the need for responsiveness and value creation

3. A survey through a questionnaire sent to employees within the company, the criteria for choosing the target, with a few exceptions, remained the same throughout the stages of the survey. These are the people who have been put into teleworking during a period of covid-19 and the investigation concerns the elements of the start-up, during the experimentation of the operation, the questionnaire is divided into thematic and each of the proposed topics has was broken down into a set of mostly open-ended questions to which teleworkers (a qualitative study of 60 employees) agreed to answer. A questionnaire which respects the rules of security and confidentiality (anonymization of the results).

In this case study, we planned to measure the issue resulting from different reflections and convictions forged - in the field by interviewing professionals in a sample - that we wanted as targeted as possible within the company and which corresponded to our definition of agility.

Scope of the Study

WEBHELP is an international company specialized in business process outsourcing (BPO) with 60,000 employees in more than 140 sites covering more than 40 countries including 16 sites to be managed in Morocco in three regions (Rabat Salé Kenitra, Fez Meknes, Agadir Edaoutanane) and in 2020 the project of the integration of the Marakkech region, with five sites in the Fez Meknes region (4 in Fez and 1 in Meknes). Recognized as a leading employer and in a specific field in which humans play a key role through customer relations, it is a responsible company and signatory of the Diversity Charter, adhered to the Global Compact a few years ago, and holds the label of social responsibility and has for all its sites the ISO 9001 certification. It is fully committed to a strong and constant CSR approach for more than 15 years. It ensures that exemplary governance is applied and that it communicates as well as possible on all the actions implemented in the Group, which is constantly questioning itself with a view to innovating. But what about this unprecedented period of Covid 19?. Thus, in this situation, the company is faced with the colossal challenge of reinventing its organization to guarantee the continuity of its operations, despite the confinement imposed by the threat of the crisis. The following table describes the characteristics of this sample (Table 2).

Table 2 Qualitative Study Sample Characteristics
Gender Age Seniority
Man woman Less than 25 26-to 40 years 41-60 years Over 60 years 1-10 years 10-20 years 20-30 years 30 years and older
45.6% 54.4% 8.8% 61.4% 28.1% 1.8% 73.7% 22.8% 1.8% 1.8%

Results and Analysis of the Data Collected

Agile Measures and Determinants Adopted by WEBHELP

We will describe these practices in relation to a conceptual model comprising four dimensions: Through a number of interviews with HR managers, it was found that the company has taken the following exceptional measures:

1. WEBHELP has opted for the most appropriate form of work organization and the most recommended by national and international organizations (WHO, ILO, MEGC, etc.), namely teleworking.

2. It has set up a teleworking charter, train and sensitizes managers on remote management methods and especially moves away from the logic of scoring to the logic of project and result management.

3. The company has also put a fundamental reflection to define according to the nature, the technicality and the maturity of the projects, the positions that can be the subject of teleworking and define the equipment and tools especially collaborative IT to facilitate remote work (office equipment – messaging – applications for videoconferencing –, etc.) more than 2000 employees in the first 15 days, have been put in telework to limit the spread of the virus in the workplace, the latter remains one of the advantages that the digital revolution – ICT - brings at this time of crisis.

4. At the level of human resources management, and as part of the policy of preserving jobs, a plan for prevention and support for employees has been adopted.

5. Due to flexible schedules, employees adapt their schedule according to the needs of the company and their private lives. The number of hours of daily and weekly work can therefore be increased. As an employer, they set the framework within which the employee can carry out his work.

6. The implementation of specialized information systems in times of Covid is a complete technical transformation, because they are facilitators of agility. Starting with the individual installation of tools that were not initially planned for work-from-home programs for each employee by the technician designated by the company as well as remote monitoring tools -Business Intelligence- (See the analysis of the first part; Table 3).

 Table 3 Benefits and Points of Vigilance of the Telework Process
Questionnaire Question No. 16/No. 22
Questionnaire questions No 18 /no 23
The employer – excellent way to increase the flexibility of human resources teleworking has also made it possible to:
– increased motivation and competitiveness
– The reduction of absenteeism and delays.
– reduction of overheads and expenses, expenses related to travel to the workplace
– better management of removals and transfers of activity.
– Better integration of employees with special needs such as the disabled in the company and employees with significant family constraints.
– an optimization of working time and the development of individual and collective responsibility.
– better productivity, reduced overheads and expenses, better expression of talent and increased employee motivation
– A reduction in travel that deteriorates the environment.
– Financial gains [management of premises].
– teleworking may prevent the employer from properly monitoring his employees and the rendering of their work and his quality-of-service delivery since all communications between the company and the employee in telework mode are generally made via the Internet.
– dependence on information and communication technologies [ICT].
– risks of misinterpretation of instructions, misunderstanding, and
– Risk of the problem of network saturation, hence the need to establish rules and schedules for connections in areas with low Internet penetration.– necessity to set up a security protocol to deal with crime and industrial espionage
– The teleworker benefits from a wealth of advantages: more flexible working hours that leave more time for the employee in his day and in his week, increase in time spent with family or for leisure which improves family relations
– an excellent way to avoid traffic jams for an employee without forgetting the stress related to the schedules to be respected, caused by travel. Relations with certain colleagues, meetings....
– improves a better balance between professional life and responsibilities
In addition to a gain in autonomy and responsibility, remote work allows the teleworker to organize his own schedule, thus offering him an increase in efficiency provided that the latter is someone organized.
Teleworking also protects the employee from noise pollution, as the company opts for open space, which implies less noise in the employee’s environment.
– the despatialisation it induces, the distance not only physical, but also, and above all psychosociological, linked to the worker's distance from his working environment in the broad sense.
The employee will lack an essential element of his work, namely team spirit and communication with his colleagues.
– it causes the teleworker to lack confidence and in in his work knowing that the biggest disadvantage of being teleworking is the lack of interaction.
The risk related to the hyper-connection to work due to the generalization of teleworking, we could see an explosion of requests by email, permanent that can put in difficulty the teleworker. ...

Indeed, these decision-making information systems and new technologies have facilitated short-term responsiveness in decision-making between the different sites of the company, contribute to the reading of the market. More generally, they have made it possible to circulate information instantly, allowing for better responsiveness, especially with regard to the various procedures and work processes adopted at national level.

The agility of the WEBHELP Company and its ability to adapt were the best weapons to fight against the epidemic, to minimize a short-term health impact, but also strong economic consequences in a second time.

The analysis carried out shows the design of the conceptual model (Figure 2).

Analysis of the Telework Process

The option of teleworking at Webhelp is a technique that is on the rise because in addition to the advantages that are usually linked to it, it allows employees to be able to continue many of their tasks from home by limiting physical contact between workers in the same company to fight against the disease (Quoistiaux, 2020). This allowed the company to frog with more flexibility and flexibility.

Due to the reasons of high sensitivity of the data processed and the need for enhanced IT security as well as legal, technical, and confidential data processing issues, teleworking could not meet 100% of the activity. But the first results of the LMS study show that most employees who work from homework better, longer, and more efficiently, which rhymes with flexibility, time saving, nevertheless with some exceptions and challenges to overcome in terms of isolation or loss of social ties and difficulties in reconciling private and professional life.

The analysis of the teleworking process within the company was made based on four elements: firstly, the organizational, technical and installation dimension of the work equipment, secondly the procedures for setting up telework, thirdly the various indicators of telework productivity and finally the advantages and limitations of teleworking.

A-Concerning the organizational, technical and installation dimension of the work equipment. The equipment is provided for teleworkers: a laptop (with access to all the applications that employees need) and a headset + access to shared resources (intranet + hive + business software. To be eligible for teleworking, company rigorously checks and tests the home environment and the need to have a dedicated and quiet professional space. Thus, for the implementation of teleworking, the company has implemented the following elements:

1. An adjustment of sourcing agents.

2. Joint on-site training and Good Practice Guides

3. Specific steering and adjustment

4. A secure connection packages

5. Support deployed

Finding No 1

According to the survey, 79% have a well-equipped space at home dedicated to work, and 83.8% have digital tools adapted to telework to telework, they are almost all satisfied with the equipment made available but suffer from some very rare connection cuts.

Regarding the Negative Effects of Teleworking

Overall, the teleworking process is usually described as the flexibility to work anywhere and anytime (Kurland & Bailey, 1999). It can therefore be summed up by working everywhere except in the office of the company, which imposes a certain break with the unity of time, place and action, and creates a distance, both physical and psychsociological, which is called the despatialization that it induces by distance not only physical, but also, and above all psychsociological, linked to the worker's distance from his working environment in the broad sense.

Teleworkers can rely less on the help of their colleagues and superiors. However, the conviviality of relations with their colleagues is not so much affected by physical distance, nor is their involvement in the collective actions organized by the company. According to the survey, 43.8% of teleworkers say that they miss their colleagues «Work on the premises encourages us more for good production, in teleworking we still miss the professional atmosphere» testimony of a teleworker.

While 27.1% of employees even feel they spend more time working remotely than when they were in the office; I feel like I never stop» T, 76% of respondents regret not being able to work in their office, in the premises of their company, and even feel isolated from their colleague.

A total of 58% of the people surveyed by the study say they want to continue working from home beyond the Covid-19 crisis.

The Employer's Obligations

If the decision to apply telework is approved in the company, the employer must also inform these employees of all restrictions on the use of computer equipment or tools or electronic communication services and of the sanctions for non-compliance with these restrictions.

In addition to this, the employee is required to organize a start-up interview that focuses in particular on the employee's conditions of activity and his workload.

Considered as an employee of the company, the teleworker enjoys the same individual and collective rights as all employees, namely health and safety at work, respect for private life, access to training, as well as to the company's social activities, trade union information and social benefits.

Observation No 2

The quality of processing of operations is not degraded by the environment of the telework advisor, because 65.3% of teleworkers ensure the separation of professional and private life during telework and claim to be more fulfilled in their work as well as 84.9% say they are satisfied with their performance compared to the first work situation without forgetting that 79% has a well-equipped.

B – For the productivity of remote employees; the evaluation is made for each position by establishing clear missions and objectives:

1. Rate of achievement of short-term objectives

2. Rate of achievement of long-term objectives

3. Time to achieve each type of goal [in days/hours worked]

4. Sharing results with remote workers.

5. Hot and cold listening for teleworkers/remote testing.

According to the survey, 59.1% of respondents use an exchange during the day through email and intranet.

Finding 1

The decrease in attrition by an average of 10% and absenteeism by an average of 20% on teleworking projects compared to those on site, telework generally leads to an increase in employee productivity, according to the interview conducted with the Director of Human Resources.

Observation 2

The operation of teleworking saves certain costs for both the company and the employees; the rental of workspace costs [of the premises] and thex transport costs, but there are always additional costs related to IT security devices and over-framework and reimbursements of internet subscription consumption.

C – Courant the Procedures for Setting up Telework

Observation no 1

Teams with rare skills or mature projects whose production is stabilized and assured, a teleworking activity brings 100% profit, for start-up activities or activities integrating strong security constraints requiring more support and adjustment; the company prefers to maintain the company's on-site activity. For activities with night hours and to support advisors starting in difficulty, the company is considering a hybrid approach the different approaches to teleworking are scalable over time and are chosen according to the specific context.

Finding No.2

Women telework almost as much as men, according to the survey 54% of women and 46% of men, the family situation plays on the use of this mode of work organization 63.5% are married and 66.7% of salaried teleworkers have children.

Regarding the Advantages and Limitations of Telework

Through the questionnaire and the survey conducted, it was possible to determine the advantages of teleworking, which are numerous; they can be divided for both the employer and the employee provided that both parties manage to agree on an effective system, in all discipline.
According to the survey: 46.9% of employees’ surveyed say they save less time in transportation. In teleworking, a person earns an average of 1 hour per day. 34.7% think they will save money. 22.4% feel more concentrated. “I find it convenient with the current presence of the pandemic. - teleworking at home ensures good communication with the customer because on the work platform there is a lot of noise» testimony of an employee 18.5% have more free time 16% enjoys their family lives and the relationships around them. However, 100% of workers report not being used to teleworking [so this is a new practice for them], and the maximum duration exercised in this new process remains 6 months.

The form of organization of remote work generating advantages, but also constraints, positive and negative effects, direct and indirect, on the worker in the professional field, but also in terms of the articulation of his different areas of life and his quality of life. The table below describes the advantages, but also the points of vigilance experienced in this period by the company and by the worker (Table 4).

Table 4 Summary of the Four Dimensions of Agility
Dimension Themes of the questions
Strategic dimension: Creation of value for customers. – The adoption of a tailor-made and on-demand strategy to anticipate trends and requests from ever more demanding customers. Convergence towards the customer: Webhelp has moved from a “product” approach or strategy to a “customer” strategy in a context marked by the hyper specialization of products
–Strategic agility for the choice of mode of activity:
Start-up activities or activities integrating strong security constraints requiring more support and adjustment; the company prefers to maintain the company's on-site activity.
– For activities with night schedules and to support advisors starting in difficulty the company is considering a hybrid approach
– The different approaches to teleworking were evolutionary over time and were chosen according to the specific context.
–Not to mention the adoption of restricted measures for the protection of customer data
Association of customers with the life of the company
Organizational dimension: change management and the adoption of a crisis management strategy –The establishment of a crisis management team to coordinate all the actions and decisions of the group.
– The Organization in business units, experts in sectors of activity (travel, banking-insurance, mobility ...)
–The speed, unity and exemplarity in the application of the regulations in force, in particular the measures recommended by the WHO and the local authorities (according to the HRD) and the various existing sites in Morocco and at the regional level.
–The Competitive intelligence of the company that highlights the upheaval experienced by certain sectors such as the banking and insurance sectors that record peaks in demand related to difficult financial situations to anticipate and emancipate customer demand.
–The Technological watch through the use of the most advanced technologies to offer the optimal service in terms of processes and tools.
Operational dimension: information systems, technical procedures, internal and external network applications. – Speed in the implementation of new working and operating methods (15 days to 4 weeks of effort, to set up more than 5600 people working from home)
– The implementation of specialized information systems in times of Covid
– Creation of new partnerships especially for online sales of consumer products are experiencing a considerable increase, creating significant gaps in the supply chain.
–Assurance of the continuity of customers' activities, particularly in extremely sensitive and strategic sectors (health, telecoms, energy, tourism, etc.)
Behavioral dimension: The development of human resources. –The human resources department cell has been set up to manage remotely, operational from Monday to Friday (from 9am to 7pm) in order to preserve the close links between (HR/admin and employees).
–Development of prevention and support plan for employees.
–The priority leave of the most fragile and vulnerable people and single parents, — The physical presence of 30 to 40% of the workforce on the company's sites, including people on leave, support functions that work remotely, to date. (Operational processes and software)
– Social benefits: former free shuttle service to all its employees during confinement under the motto ‘Making business more human’ and other benefits contributing to their well-being – crèches, gyms, internship bonus, a complete program of multiple Wellbeing@work actions kept, in digital format, throughout the duration of the confinement.
Social or societal dimension The capacities of reaction and participation in the changes ex offer its services to the Moroccan authorities in their action of information and fight against the pandemic through the provision of its expertise at the service of the Ministry of Health by taking charge of part of the Allo Yakada cell to provide information and recommendations to citizens on Covid-19.

Conclusion and Future Work

To summarize, this research revealed the existence of certain practices of managerial agility in a crisis that has upset the established order and generated new opportunities that were not envisaged in the past, in the management of the health, managerial and social emergency, or the HR function as a strategic function of the multinational Webhelp was more than ever asked to manage this phase and provided the elements of responses to Top Management, it spread agility as a tool for change that is at the heart of the crisis management system ‘crisis cell’, set up by the company, in coherence with the decisions taken by the company namely: reduction or continuity of activity.

Thus, the company chosen – Webhelp – the subject of our research understood that this new organization of work should be privileged, and it was aware of the particularities of teleworking in times of epidemic as well as the risks it generates, as well as the solutions that make it possible to better manage the situation and avoid many pitfalls to the point that it plans to integrate it in a sustainable way into their operating model,

The results of this research lead us to rethink is that the time for other companies to put forward new management models, based on the short term and the unexpected, that is to say on their ability to integrate unforeseen phenomena of instantaneous and more or less long questioning of their business model. And this is much more than a continuation plan. Predictive management is known. We are now talking about management in the unexpected.

Finally, if this health crisis raises many questions today, how to organize the life of your company remotely, how to manage your employees well? How to formulate leadership in times of crisis? What strategy will need to be implemented to achieve a successful return to normalcy when the pandemic is over? Will companies necessarily have to offer more teleworking for their employees? They also have news when the pandemic is over.


Akselsen, S. (2001). Telework and quality of life: Basic concepts and main results. Heidelberg, EURESCOM.

Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Alonso, E. (2012). When agility is back in the discourse of French companies. Keyrus Management .

Audard, C., Dupuy, J.P., & Sève, R. (1988). Individual and Social Justice: Around John Rawls. FeniXX.

Google Scholar

Autissier D, & Wacheux F, (2006). Managing through meaning, Eyrolles — Weick KE., 1995, Sensemaking in Organizations, Sage.

Google Scholar

Dejoux, C. (2017). From agile manager to designer leader - 3rd ed (Vol. 1). Dunod.

Drucker, P. (1996). Beacons for a different world, World Village Afnor.

Everaère, C. (1997). Management of flexibility. Economica.

Gunasekaran, A. (1999). Agile manufacturing: a framework for research and development. International Journal of Production Economics, 62(1-2), 87-105.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Kurland, N.B., & Bailey, D.E. (1999). When workers are here, there, and everywhere: A discussion of the advantages and challenges of telework. Organizational Dynamics, 28(2), 53-58.

Google Scholar

Liu, M. (1997). Fondements et pratiques de la recherche-action.

Google Scholar

Lorino, P. (2006). Performance methods and practices, organization editions.

Google Scholar

Medina, M.F (2016). Guide to the well-being of the teleworker, and all connected workers.

Preiss, K., Goldman, S., & Nagel, R. (1995). Agile competitors and virtual organizations. Strategies for Enriching the Customer, 1.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Quoistiaux, G. (2020). Telework, the miracle solution.

Google Scholar

Richet, J.L. (2013). Agile Innovation: Cases and applied research.

Google Scholar

Rothman, J. (2010). Agile Managers: The essence of leadership. Cutter IT Journal, 23(3), 21.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Sherehiy, B., Karwowski, W., & Layer, J.K. (2007). A review of enterprise agility: Concepts, frameworks, and attributes. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37(5), 445-460.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Turbé-Suetens, N. (2011). Teleworking is seeking its place in the public sector. The Expansion Management Review, (3), 34-41.

Google Scholar

Vickoff, J.P. (2003). Information systems and agile processes. Hermès public science.

Google Scholar

Voiron, P. (2016). Implementing telework in public organizations, Dossier d’experts RASSAT: Territorial editions.

Get the App