Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S
Nelvitia Purba, Universitas Muslim Nusantara Al Washliyah
Tengku Erwinsyahbana, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara
Mukidi, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara
Ali Mukti Tanjung, Universitas Pembinaan Masyarakat Indonesia
Rudy Pramono, Pelita Harapan University
Children, Sexual Abuse, Pedophilia
Sexual abuse or Pedophilia against children is a term that encompasses various harmful behaviors that children receive. The child never gives permission to anyone to commit sexual violence against him. Even if that happens, maybe they are lied to, deceived or forced by situations that are beyond their control, such as their trust in those around them, whom they believe to be part of the people closest to them. Children must be freed from all forms of sexual behavior deviations. Sadistic reality about sex treatment deviating from adults towards children, is very worrying. The case that happened was not tolerable and very unreasonable. There has been a case of rape of an elementary school student in July 2018 by his elder brother, biological father and biological uncle in the village of Sei Lepan,Langkat. The complete portrait of every reality and existence of children on this earth, it turns out that it is not as beautiful as the rhetoric or social cultural and political jargon that is labeled and offered to children, all parties agree on the role of the child is the hope of the future, or my child is the most valuable asset to me and my child is the spirit of my life and all the frill so the heavenly life that are attached to the child. This paper tries to explore, what forms of violence that often afflict children in Medan, what factors cause it? And what efforts must be taken so that sexual violence in children can be minimized and ultimately stopped. This study uses descriptive methods, by describing the phenomenon of sexual violence in children in the city of Medan, with the actual data that the authors collected from child protection institutions in Medan, including PKPA, PUSAKA and KKSP.
Cases of sexual violence in children are increasing and endangering. Sexual violence can occur to children at any time and at any time. Despicable act sex experienced by a teenager with the initials San 13 year’s old resident of Sei Lepan, Langkat Regency. This poor girl who was still sitting on the third grade of elementary school was robbed in turns by her own family. This dishonorable act was carried out by his own brother, uncle and biological father. According to San's confession, not only was he abused. Every time there is an opportunity, Abang uncle and his biological father will expect his small body.
Because not being able to hold on to being used as a sex slave by someone who should protect it, and then tells what happened to the mother. As if not believing in hearing this poor girl' confession, her mother then reported what happened to her daughter to their hamlet chief, so as not to cause undesirable things.
Subsequently the hamlet head reported this to P2TP2A Langkat District in Stabat North Sumatra, requesting legal assistance. Together with P2TP2A officers, the rank of victim was accompanied by a complaint report to Langkat District Police Langkat (2018). In recent years, cases of child sexual violence in Indonesia have experienced a very signify cant increase. KPAI mentions pornography, in Social In forma Vol.01, No.1, January-April, In 2015 sexual violence and commercial sexual exploitation of children, in 2011 there were 329 cases, or 14.46 percent of the total number of cases. While in 2012 the number of cases also increased by 22.6 percent to 746 cases. Then in 2013 until October, sexual violence against children monitored reached 525 casesor 15.85 percent. This data was obtained through public complaints, new sin the mass media, and investigations of cases of child sexual violence. The Secretary General of the KPAI said that the majority of victim so sexual violence were boys with a ratio of 60 percent of men and 40 percent of women. The profile of perpetratorsinal most all cases is the closest person to the child, it could be a teacher, uncle, biological father, stepfather, and neighbors who in fact are people known to the victim. But the United Nations (UN) found through research in 21 countries that the level of violence experienced by girls is one to three times higher than boys, and that most of the violence is experienced in the family environment. KPAI said sexual crimes against children were a national disaster for the Indonesian people Leandha (2015). The existence of violence against children illustrates the importance of protecting children Sitompul, et al., (2018).
At this time, sexual crimes in children have been categorize das extraordinary crimes. Contrary to public perception, Child Sex Offending (CSO) and pedophilic are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by pedophilic preference, and a pedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO Gerwinn (2018). However pedophilic preference or contributing factor to CSO (present in about 50% of convicted offenders) Seto (2008); Whitaker (2008). Sexual crime will damage the next generation because of the tendency of victims to become perpetrators when they are adults. Research conducted at Airlangga University stated that the majority of violence occur red due to factors such as threat sand coercion (66.3%), persuasion (22.5%), and using drugs (5.1%) Kurniawati (2013). It should be realized that cases of sexual violence against children are identical to the increase in pornographic cases, especially through the internet and social media. Freedom and ease of accessing the internet support increasing cases of sexual violence against children. Kita and Buah Hati Foundation conducted a survey in 2012 and found that 76% of grade 4 to 6 primary schools in Jabodetabek had seen pornographic content. Most children download pornographic content from their own homes because they accidentally, while others download porn content from internet cafes, cellphones or from their Facebook friends or play mates.
We can see in some cases that child victim end to cover up the events they experience with various reasons, including embarrassment or fear of the perpetrator, who always threatens if the case is opened to someone else. There is a tendency to emerge negative emotions due to sexual violence, for example the condition so helplessness and torture when expressing sexual harassment event seven in some cases physical effects such as shaking, musclespasms and headaches are found in victim so sexual violence. The increasing number of cases of sexual violence against children has become a separate phenomenon and has attracted the attention of many circles. Cases of sexual violence are increasingly complex, ranging from the causes of the perpetrators to the consequences of the victims. Based on this, it is important to examine sexual violence against children, especially those carried out by adults as a sexual disorder or later known as pedophilia. This study is a literature study that tries to inform about the phenomenon of pedophilia and sexual violence that can be a threat to children. Through existing literature and research, this study also tries to determine what has been and can be done regarding cases of sexual violence against children. This study a stop I`m provide an over view and also thoughts about the danger of pedophilia on child safety and provide clear boundaries regarding sexual violence against children, as well as efforts to overcome them.
The word pedophilia is define as a psycho disorder that has an adult to adolescent who has started adult (personally aged 18 or older) usually characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubertal children (generally aged 16 year so younger, although puberty can vary). Children must be at least twelve years younger incase so pedophilia adolescents (12 year so older) can only be classified as pedophilia. The word pedophilia comes from the Greek: paidophilia (παιδοφιλια) -pais (παις, "children") and philia (φιλια, "friendly love" or "friendship", although this literal meaning has been changed to modern sexual attraction, this, base don’t he title "love of children" or "childlover, "by pedophiles who use symbols and code to identify their preferences International Disease Classification (ICD) defines pedophilia as "adult personality disorder and behavior" where there is a sexual choice for children at puberty or in the early pre pubertal period The term has various definitions such as those found in psychiatry, psychology, local language, and law enforcement.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), pedophilia is paraphilia in which a person has a strong and repetitive relationship to sexual urges and fantasies about prepubescent children and where their feelings have one role or cause suffering or interpersonal difficulties, in this case minors Capra, Forresi & Caffo.
At present the design of DSM proposes to add pedophilia with diagnostic criteria, and consequently to change the name for pedophilic disorders. Although this disorder (pedophilia) is mostly documented in men, there are also women who show the disorder, and there searchers assume that estimates are lower than the actual number in female pedophiles. There is no cure for pedophilia that has been developed. However, certain therapies that can reduce the incidence of someone to sexually abuse a child. In the United States, according to Kansas Hendricks, sex offenders diagnosed with certain mental disorders, especially pedophilia, can be subject to unlimited civil commitments, under various state laws (generally called SVP law) and Adam Walsh's Child Safety and Protection Act in 2006.
In the use of popular terms, pedophilia means sexual interest in children nor act so sexual abuse of children, often called" pedophilia behavior. "For example, The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary states, "Pedophilia is an act or fantasy on the part of an adult engaged in sexual activity with a child or child. "Common applications are also used to extend sexual interest and sexual abuse to under age children or adolescents. There searchers recommend that in appropriate use is a voided, because people who commit child sexual abuse generally show the disorder, but some perpetrators do not meet the clinical diagnosis standards for pedophilia, and clinical diagnosis standards are associated with pre pubertal age. In addition, not all pedophilia actually abuse it.
Article 1 paragraph (2) of RIL aw No.23 of 2002 concerning Child Protection. A child is someone who is not yet 18 (eighteen) years old, including children who are still in the womb. According to B. Simanjuntak "Children are those who have not been able to think of negative consequences that will occur it her to themselves or to society and they do not feel Simanjuntak (1981).
Mitigation is any action taken to minimize the impact of a disaster before the disaster occurs. This can be in the form of physical measures such as flood retention or method so building a stronger building, training, legislation and increasing public awareness Delaney (2006).
The method used is descriptive with a normative approach, which aims to explain phenomena of sexual violence in children that actually occurred in the city of Medan, with evidence of the number of cases collected from the child and women's study institutions in Medan City. While data collection techniques used, are interview sand literature studies, as well as archival studies.
Forms of Violence that Often Afflict Children in Medan City
In reality, children continue to be exploited economic all such has child labor, street children or sexual exploitation by making children as prostitutes and street children. We have not been able to be consistent in upholding children's rights, even though the legal instruments are fully available. It is ironic if the laws and regulations concerning child protection only become an almost meaningless lip decoration in this country of Indonesia. It is really alarming to see the phenomenon of children growing up on the streets, without a clear purpose in life and a grim future. Children cannot claim their existence as human sin general, discrimination and ill-treatment continue to be fall them. Enforcement of children's rights as human being sand children as children, is still a concern, illustrated in various media. Even though the law regulating the protection of children is available, such as Law Number 23 of 2002 concerning Child Protection, Law Number 4 of 1979 concerning Child Welfare, Law Number 3 of 1997, and the latest is Law NO 35 of 2014 concerning Juvenile Court sand other laws and regulations, but there are still act so violence against children because the legislation still has weaknesses that need to be refine and what alternatives are needed, which must be made so that violence for violence is diminishing, not even the numbers are increasing as we see now.
In Medan and North Sumatra, child abuse is a serious threat to the grow than development of children in North Sumatra. Child abuse has reached an emergency stage and requires preventive and repressive action and the participation of all parties to fight it. The type of violence experienced by children includes physical, psychological, sexual, trafficking, neglect and exploitation, and pedophilia. Ministry of child and female data states that sexual crime ranks first with 343 children under the age of 18, the executive director of the Urban Urban Working Group Foundation (KKSP) Sri Eni Purnawati stated that data on child and female violence in North Sumatra was released. The Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection until November 2017 has 802 cases with as many as 906 victims Harian Analisa (2017).
The data quoted by the Center for the Study and Protection of Children (PKPA) throughout 2017 have 641 children victim so violence in North Sumatra. This statement was issued by Misran Lubis detailing child crimes including trafficking 12 cases, selling babies 6 cases, sexual 190 cases, physical violence 80 cases, neglect of 23 cases, theft and robbery 34 cases, murders of 25 cases, fraud 8 cases, abosri 1 case and traffic accidents 82 cases Alesyanti (2015).
Early childhood is a group of people aged 0 years-6 years (in Indonesia base don’t Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System), while based on children's education experts, namely group so people aged 8-9 years, who are that range they are called playing age. The growth hand development to fearly child hood needs to be directed at laying the right foundations for growth and development of the whole human being, namely growth and physical development, thinking, creativity, social emotional, language and balanced communication as the basis for the formation of a whole person Mansur (2005).
Factors that Cause an Increase in Pedophilia in Children in the City of Medan
Pedophilia is a psychosexual disorder, in which adults or teenagers have a sexual preference for Premature or underage children. This disorderisal so considered paraphilia, which is a group of disorders defined as abnormal sexual activity, which is experienced by adults. When fantasy or sexual acts involve a child or more, as a preferred way to achieve sexual desire and satisfaction for someone, then that person is considered a pedophile. Psychologists and psychiatrists regard pedophilia as a mental disorder, not sexual preference. In many countries, pedophilia is categorized as a criminal case, but not yet in Indonesia. Pedophile preferences can vary from person to person who is the culprit.
Some individual are attracted to boys and girls, some are attracted to only one sex, others are attracted to children and adults at the same time, all of which are abnormal sex off enders. Sexual behavior related to pedophilia also varies, there are those who commit crime sand there real so pedophiles that refrain from avoiding crime regardless of the mental disorder they have, but they only do persuade on against their victims. Some pedophiles limit their behavior only by exposing themselves in front of children. But, there are also those who do something further, such as oral sex or full genital sex. There are no typical pedophiles. Pedophiles can be young, old, male or female. Usually, pedophiles do not choose children who are foreign as victims, but children they know or who are protected. They tend to choose children they already know, whether they are family, neighbors, team members or the community, followed by the pedophile and others. The similarity of the characteristic so pedophiles has several common characteristics, which include:
1. Have a fantasy of desire or sexual be having or towards children.
2. More accompanied by children, feel more comfortable being around children.
3. Usually pedophiles are a popular person and are very popular among children and adults in their neighborhood.
4. Usually, but not always, pedophiles are male, masculine and in their 30s Syofyan (2018).
Cause so a person being pedophile There are different theories about why a person can become a pedophile. Some of the mare: 1. The brain is orders some experts say that one possible cause of pedophilia is a neurological developmental disorder. Currently noted, there are differences in the structure of the brain in the pedophile, precisely in the front to cortical part, the amount gray matter, unilateral, bilateral frontal lobes and temporal and cerebellar lobes.
According to recent research, this difference is similar to people with impulse control disorders, such as OCD, addiction and antisocial personality disorders. Brain disorders that may occur when the baby or in the womb when the brain is formed. However, post-traumatic stress disorder can also cause brain disorders. Likewise with traumatic experiences in early life, according to research Laswell (1992). Neurological differences. Other neurological differences found in pedophiles are likely to have a lower level of intelligence than most others. Generally, the more the low level of intelligence of a pedophile, the younger the victim he likes, and a large number of studies, one of which was a 1986 study by Hucker et al., showing that pedophiles have brain abnormalities found in the temporal to be activates serotonin receptors) in pedophiles tested in the study. In addition, the result so the study saw an increase in pedophilia level sin people who had suffered serious head injuries when they were young, especially before the age of six Alesyanti (2007).
Efforts must be taken to Minimize Sexual Violence in Children and Eventually be Stopped in Medan
Responding to the moral condition of today's young generation, is inseparable from moral debriefing during early childhood, at home and school. This should be our shared commitment between the community, parents and teachers to actualize and realize the values that have actually existed and lived in the daily live so four people. The state and religion actually have been firm, regulating the prohibition deviant behavior such as sex, but still repeated and repeated, and the object to the sufferer is the child. Base don’t he results of previous research studies, with the title "revitalizing the social moral value so find igneous children in the family", researchers found some values that are necessary and very effective to be trans formed in children's education. The values that must be introduced and in stilled in children are religious values, intellectual values, pleasantries, shame and courtesy, tolerance, faithfulness, fairness, careful life, courage, wisdom, wisdom, responsiveness and patience, diligence and humility Alesyanti (2003).
The values that the authorifted from the value of Minangkabau customs, and also a reflection of the value so Pancasila, which mean sit can be developed and taught through Value Clarification Technique learning techniques in basic education. In value-based learning, such as PPK elementary school, religion, character and others, a teacher can adopt a value clarification method (VCT), a learning model. Value Clarification Technique is a technique to clarify values or try to foster values on the basis of objective rational principles, by involving noble reason in assessing the values that are believe and maintained as guidance of behavior in society later Wahab (1998). But in this method there are still many short coming sin the substance, so that it is no tap propriate to answer and resolve various value issues that develop in the community.
The VCT method is a new method in teaching Pancasila and Citizenship Education. The birth of this method is efforts to foster values that are believe in the community, in connection with the emergence of a vague value or conflict to values in the midst of people's lives. The VCT method or the technique of clarifying this value tries to foster value on the basis of objective rational principles, meaning that involves noble human reasoning, in assessing the values that are believed and maintained as objective guidance of behavior in society later. Through VCT techniques students are taught to:
1) Give value to something;
2) Make a rational and account table assessment;
3) Have the ability and tendency to make decisions that deal with the is value clearly, rationally and objectively and
4) Understanding and practicing the values that apply in people's lives Daryono (2006).
This method has several advantages compared to other method sin teaching values in Pancasila education and citizenship, namely:
a) Students learn more actively and
b) Students get clarity about morally defensible values.
While the weakness is the problem of value is an abstract problem that is difficult to express in a concrete manner; the occurrence of difference so opinion non the issue of value is difficult to a void, more over coupled with the weakness so the community's sensitive it to values that are considered good, so that sometimes invites confusion among students; Value problem is a matter of what is desired, it should be normative, there for e there is often a gap with what happens in real practice Djahiri (1996).
The increasingly widespread sexual violence against children on the one hand reminds educators to always be vigilant. However, just being vigilant is note no ugh because real steps must also be taken as an effort to make the child recognize early about the dangers that might threaten him. This is a problem because early child hood education materials have not usually touched sex education. There is an assumption that children get too early in sex education, worrying they will get to know sex early too, and considerate normal. Sex education for early child hood does not teach children to have free sex when they are adults, but more to the child's cognitive debriefing about the introduction of sex and the consequences. Sex education is intended for children to understand the condition of their body, the condition of the body of the opposite sex, and to protect and prevent children from adult sexual violence. There is no instant way to teach sex to children, except to do it step by step early on according to age and gender. Sex learning cant each children from simple things and make it a daily habit. Embed understanding on children, that this is a living capital that they must have, just as we in still an understanding of religion. We know that it is impossible to the a religion in just one day and then hope that children will be able to carry out their worship, as well as for sex education. The introduction of sex in children can be started from an introduction to the anatomy of the body and heredity. Then, it increases in education about how to breed living things, and soon to the introduction of the opposite sex, prohibitions on sex and the effects.
This sex education – education material can indirectly teach children not to arbitrarily allow others to clean their genital so even see that they cannot. The technique of conveying sexual education must not be too vulgar because it will have a negative impact and fear that affect the child's psychic. Research on sex shows that perpetrators of sexual violence are the people closest to children. Therefore, it is important to develop sex education material at an early age in a gender perspective. The development of the material provided is adjusted to the level of emotional development of children whose application using Bloom's taxonomy, which includes the cognitive domain (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation), affective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization), realm psychomotor (observing, imitating, practicing, adapting). One crucial step that can be done is to prepare them maturity of children's sexual knowledge so that they have the filtering ability to come to the invitation of deviant sexual treatment from adults. This study starts from a literature study that puts pedophilia as a serious and urgent problem that must be addressed by all aspects. government, namely the community, the world of education, and the government itself, both central and regional governments. The next step is to formulate a draft texs to sex education teaching materials along with their performance indicators. Which serves as a reference in making teaching material son attitude and value subjects, namely PPKN. Through the application of sex education material in to this teaching material, it is expected that the child is able to do the process of thinking and determining the best attitude that will be his choice of value, when dealing with the values of deviant sex that comes lurking to him.
Taken from Muslim Nusantara, Al-Washliyah University, Indonesia.
We declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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